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1.
Comput Med Imaging Graph ; 93: 101974, 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481236

RESUMO

While deep learning models have demonstrated outstanding performance in medical image segmentation tasks, histological annotations for training deep learning models are usually challenging to obtain, due to the effort and experience required to carefully delineate tissue structures. In this study, we propose an unsupervised method, termed as tissue cluster level graph cut (TisCut), for segmenting histological images into meaningful compartments (e.g., tumor or non-tumor regions), which aims at assisting histological annotations for downstream supervised models. The TisCut consists of three modules. First, histological tissue objects are clustered based on their spatial proximity and morphological features. The Voronoi diagram is then constructed based on tissue object clustering. In the last module, morphological features computed from the Voronoi diagram are integrated into a region adjacency graph. Image partition is then performed to divide the image into meaningful compartments by using the graph cut algorithm. The TisCut has been evaluated on three histological image sets for necrosis and melanoma detections. Experiments show that the TisCut could provide a comparative performance with U-Net models, which achieves about 70% and 85% Jaccard index coefficients in partitioning brain and skin histological images, respectively. In addition, it shows the potential to be used for generating histological annotations when training masks are difficult to collect for supervised segmentation models.

2.
Eur Urol Focus ; 7(4): 706-709, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353733

RESUMO

A better understanding of the tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) could lead to accurate diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment stratification. Although molecular analyses at the tissue and/or single cell level could reveal the cellular status of the tumor microenvironment, these approaches lack information related to spatial-level cellular distribution, co-organization, and cell-cell interaction in the TIME. With the emergence of computational pathology coupled with machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI), ML- and AI-driven spatial TIME analyses of pathology images could revolutionize our understanding of the highly heterogeneous and complex molecular architecture of the TIME. In this review we highlight recent studies on spatial TIME analysis of pathology slides using state-of-the-art ML and AI algorithms. PATIENT SUMMARY: This mini-review reports recent advances in machine learning and artificial intelligence for spatial analysis of the tumor immune microenvironment in pathology slides. This information can help in understanding the spatial heterogeneity and organization of cells in patient tumors.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 795: 148809, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34328915

RESUMO

Chassis dynamometer experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of vehicle speed and usage of ethanol-blended gasoline (E10) on formation and evolution of gasoline vehicular secondary organic aerosol (SOA) using a Gothenburg Potential Aerosol Mass (Go: PAM) reactor. The SOA forms rapidly, and its concentration exceeds that of primary organic aerosol (POA) at an equivalent photochemical age (EPA) of ~1 day. The particle effective densities grow from 0.62 ± 0.02 g cm-3 to 1.43 ± 0.07 g cm-3 with increased hydroxyl radical (OH) exposure. The maximum SOA production under idling conditions (4259-7394 mg kg-fuel-1) is ~20 times greater than under cruising conditions. There was no statistical difference between SOA formation from pure gasoline and its formation from E10. The slopes in Van Krevelen diagram indicate that the formation pathways of bulk SOA includes the addition of both alcohol/peroxide functional groups and carboxylic acid formation from fragmentation. A closure estimation of SOA based on bottom-up and top-down methods shows that only 16%-38% of the measured SOA can be explained by the oxidation of measured volatile organic compounds (VOCs), suggesting the existence of missing precursors, e.g. unmeasured VOCs and probably semivolatile or intermediate volatile organic compounds (S/IVOCs). Our results suggest that applying parameters obtained from unified driving cycles to model SOA concentrations may lead to large discrepancies between modeled and ambient vehicular SOA. No reduction in vehicular `SOA production is realized by replacing normal gasoline with E10.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Gasolina , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China , Gasolina/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise
4.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304528

RESUMO

Objective:To investigate the effect of preventive measures in reducing postoperative bleeding, which is made for children day surgery on tonsils and adenoids in our hospital, and to clarify its safety and feasibility. Methods:A retrospective analysis of 649 patients with children day surgery due to obstructive sleep apnea(OSA) caused by adenoid hypertrophy of tonsil was conducted. All of the patients were admitted to Shanghai Children's Hospital from February 2021 to April 2021. According to whether preventive measures were taken or not, they were divided into the control group and the observation group. The postoperative bleeding rate, bleeding time, and bleeding-related factors of the two groups were compared. Results:There were 4 cases(1.22%) in the observation group and 12 cases(3.74%) in the control group, the postoperative bleeding rate of the observation group was lower than that of the control group(χ²=4.28, P=0.039). The postoperative bleeding in the observation group occurred(8.25±2.75) days after surgery while the control group(7.42±1.98) days, which shows no significant difference in postoperative bleeding time between the two groups(χ²=2.601, P=0.321). There was no case of postoperative infection in the observation group while 7 cases(58.3%) in the control group(χ²=7.658, P=0.036). Conclusion:For children with day surgery of tonsils and adenoids, appropriate optimization measures can be taken for hospital admission evaluation, infection prevention, postoperative observation, publicity and education, which can effectively reduce the incidence of postoperative complications and improve the treatment effect of day surgery.


Assuntos
Tonsila Faríngea , Tonsilectomia , Adenoidectomia , Tonsila Faríngea/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ambulatórios , Criança , China , Humanos , Hipertrofia , Tonsila Palatina/cirurgia , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260359

RESUMO

Essential decision-making tasks such as power management in future vehicles will benefit from the development of artificial intelligence technology for safe and energy-efficient operations. To develop the technique of using neural network and deep learning in energy management of the plug-in hybrid vehicle and evaluate its advantage, this article proposes a new adaptive learning network that incorporates a deep deterministic policy gradient (DDPG) network with an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) network. First, the ANFIS network is built using a new global K-fold fuzzy learning (GKFL) method for real-time implementation of the offline dynamic programming result. Then, the DDPG network is developed to regulate the input of the ANFIS network with the real-world reinforcement signal. The ANFIS and DDPG networks are integrated to maximize the control utility (CU), which is a function of the vehicle's energy efficiency and the battery state-of-charge. Experimental studies are conducted to testify the performance and robustness of the DDPG-ANFIS network. It has shown that the studied vehicle with the DDPG-ANFIS network achieves 8% higher CU than using the MATLAB ANFIS toolbox on the studied vehicle. In five simulated real-world driving conditions, the DDPG-ANFIS network increased the maximum mean CU value by 138% over the ANFIS-only network and 5% over the DDPG-only network.

7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(19): e25942, 2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34106664

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Congenital pyriform sinus fistula (CPSF) is a very rare branchial apparatus malformation. Traditional open surgery for fistulectomy might fail to excise the lesion completely, leading to continual recurrence. Herein, we report our experience of endoscopic coblation technique for treatment of CPSF in children.To observe the clinical efficacy of endoscopic coblation treatment of CPSF in children, especially for those in acute infection stage.Retrospective case series with 54 patients (including 20 cases in acute infection stage and 34 cases in non infection stage) who were diagnosed with CPSF between October 2017 to November 2019, all patients were treated with endoscopic coblation to close the piriform fossa fistula, neck abscess incision and drainage performed simultaneously for acute infection stage cases. Data collected including age of diagnosis, presenting symptoms, diagnostic methods, prior and subsequent treatments, length of hospitalization, and recurrence were analyzed.Of the 20 cases in acute infection stage, there were 3 children with transient vocal cord paresis all of which resolved with 1 month. Four children of the 34 cases in non infection stage appeared reddish swelling of the neck on the 4th, 5th, 6th, and 7th days after coblation and then underwent abscess incision and drainage. All cases experienced no recurrence, vocal cord paralysis, pharyngeal fistula and massive hemorrhage after their first endoscopic coblation of the sinus tract in the follow up of 3 to 28 months.Endoscopic coblation is an effective and safe approach for children with CPSF, neck abscess incision and drainage could be performed simultaneously in acute infection stage. We advocate using this minimally invasive technique as first line of treatment for CPSF.


Assuntos
Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Fístula/cirurgia , Laringoscopia/métodos , Seio Piriforme/anormalidades , Seio Piriforme/cirurgia , Adolescente , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Ablação por Cateter/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Laringoscopia/efeitos adversos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
J Diabetes Res ; 2021: 3170190, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33553435

RESUMO

Methods: In this multicenter retrospective study, patients with COVID-19 in China were included and classified into two groups according to whether they were complicated with diabetes or not. Demographic symptoms and laboratory data were extracted from medical records. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression methods were used to explore the risk factors. Results: 538 COVID-19 patients were finally included in this study, of whom 492 were nondiabetes and 46 were diabetes. The median age was 47 years (IQR 35.0-56.0). And the elderly patients with diabetes were more likely to have dry cough, and the alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, Ca, and mean hemoglobin recovery rate were higher than the other groups. Furthermore, we also found the liver and kidney function of male patients was worse than that of female patients, while female cases should be paid more attention to the occurrence of bleeding and electrolyte disorders. Moreover, advance age, blood glucose, gender, prothrombin time, and total cholesterol could be considered as risk factors for COVID-19 patients with diabetes through the multivariable logistic regression model in our study. Conclusion: The potential risk factors found in our study showed a major piece of the complex puzzle linking diabetes and COVID-19 infection. Meanwhile, focusing on gender and age factors in COVID-19 patients with or without diabetes, specific clinical characteristics, and risk factors should be paid more attention by clinicians to figure out a targeted intervention to improve clinical efficacy worldwide.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Hospitalização , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
9.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244125, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A worldwide outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), since 2019, has brought a disaster to people all over the world. Many researchers carried out clinical epidemiological studies on patients with COVID-19 previously, but risk factors for patients with different levels of severity are still unclear. METHODS: 562 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from 12 hospitals in China were included in this retrospective study. Related clinical information, therapies, and imaging data were extracted from electronic medical records and compared between patients with severe and non-severe status. We explored the risk factors associated with different severity of COVID-19 patients by logistic regression methods. RESULTS: Based on the guideline we cited, 509 patients were classified as non-severe and 53 were severe. The age range of whom was 5-87 years, with a median age of 47 (IQR 35.0-57.0). And the elderly patients (older than 60 years old) in non-severe group were more likely to suffer from fever and asthma, accompanied by higher level of D-dimer, red blood cell distribution width and low-density lipoprotein. Furthermore, we found that the liver and kidney function of male patients was worse than that of female patients in both severe and non-severe groups with different age levels, while the severe females had faster ESR and lower inflammatory markers. Of major laboratory markers in non-severe cases, baseline albumin and the lymphocyte percentage were higher, while the white blood cell and the neutrophil count were lower. In addition, severe patients were more likely to be accompanied by an increase in cystatin C, mean hemoglobin level and a decrease in oxygen saturation. Besides that, advanced age and indicators such as count of white blood cell, glucose were proved to be the most common risk factors preventing COVID-19 patients from aggravating. CONCLUSION: The potential risk factors found in our study have shown great significance to prevent COVID-19 patients from aggravating and turning to critical cases during treatment. Meanwhile, focusing on gender and age factors in groups with different severity of COVID-19, and paying more attention to specific clinical symptoms and characteristics, could improve efficacy of personalized intervention to treat COVID-19 effectively.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254303

RESUMO

Objective:To observe the disease spectrum of the parotid region lesions in children, and clarify the outcome and prognosis of the disease by analyzing of clinical data. Method:The basic information, clinical symptoms, diagnosis results, treatment, prognosis and follow-up of 170 cases with parotid region lesions were analyzed. Result:Among 170 cases of the parotid region lesions, 83 cases(48.82%) were congenital disease, 62 cases(36.47%) were vascular mass, 17 cases(10.00%) were benign or malignant tumor, and 8 cases(4.71%) were infectious disease; 108 cases of the patients were treated with surgery, 34 of them were treated with local bleomycin injection while 28 cases were treated with both surgery and local bleomycin injection. Two cases was cured by reoperation after recurrence and 1 case had facial paralysis but recovered after 3 months of follow-up. Conclusion:The most common diseases of parotid region lesions in children were congenital disease and vascular mass. Surgery combined with bleomycin local treatment is the main therapy in parotid area and has achieved remarkable results. Oral propranolol has certain therapeutic value for parotid region hemangioma.


Assuntos
Hemangioma , Neoplasias Parotídeas , Bleomicina , Criança , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Glândula Parótida , Neoplasias Parotídeas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Parotídeas/terapia , Região Parotídea , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
BMC Urol ; 20(1): 134, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary small cell carcinoma of the bladder (SCCB) is a rare disease of the genitourinary tract and reported limitedly. SCCB is very aggressive and always mixed with other histologic components, but coexistence of SCCB and prostate adenocarcinoma is extremely rare. CASES PRESENTATION: Two aged males (72 and 58 years) were included in this study. Both of them presented with gross hematuria as initial symptom. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated protruding lesions in the urinary bladder. Pathological examination after radical cystectomy and prostatectomy showed the concurrence of SCCB and prostate adenocarcinoma. One patient died of liver and lung metastasis 8 months after surgery, and the other patient was still alive after 19 months of follow-up. CONCLUSION: In this paper, we reported two unusual cases of coexistence of SCCB and prostate adenocarcinoma, and reviewed relative literatures with respect to the epidemiology, clinical features, pathologic features, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of SCCB.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
J Int Med Res ; 48(6): 300060520926407, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493145

RESUMO

This study was performed to investigate the feasibility of using a three-dimensional (3D) finite element model for laryngomalacia severity assessment. We analyzed laryngeal computed tomography images of seven children with laryngomalacia using Mimics software. The gray threshold of different tissues was distinguishable, and a 3D visualization model and finite element model were constructed. The laryngeal structure parameters were defined. The peak von Mises stress (PVMS) value was obtained through laryngeal mechanical analysis. The PVMS values of the laryngeal soft tissue and cartilage scaffolds were independently correlated with disease severity. After stress loading the model, the relationship between laryngomalacia severity and the PVMS value was apparent. However, the PVMS value of laryngeal soft tissue was not correlated with laryngomalacia severity. This study established the efficacy of a finite element model to illustrate the morphological features of the laryngeal cavity in infants with laryngomalacia. However, further study is required before widespread application of 3D finite element modeling of laryngomalacia. PVMS values of the laryngeal cartilage scaffold might be useful for assessment of laryngomalacia severity. These findings support the notion that structural abnormalities of the laryngeal cartilage may manifest as quantifiable changes in stress variants of the supraglottic larynx.


Assuntos
Epiglote/patologia , Imageamento Tridimensional , Laringomalácia/diagnóstico , Modelos Anatômicos , Planejamento de Assistência ao Paciente , Epiglote/diagnóstico por imagem , Epiglote/cirurgia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Laringomalácia/patologia , Laringomalácia/cirurgia , Laringoplastia , Masculino , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estresse Mecânico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
13.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 150: 109-119, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32105828

RESUMO

Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is a major cause of low back pain (LBP), and effective therapies are still lacking. Previous studies reported that mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to apoptosis, and urolithin A (UA) specifically induces mitophagy. Herein, we aimed to investigate the protective effect of UA-induced mitophagy on tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP)-induced apoptosis in nucleus pulposus (NP) cells in vitro and a rat model of IDD in vivo. Mitochondrial function, apoptosis, and mitophagy were measured in UA-treated NP cells by western blotting and immunofluorescence; the therapeutic effects of UA on IDD were assessed in rats with puncture-induced IDD. The results showed that UA could activate mitophagy in primary NP cells, and UA treatment inhibited TBHP-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and the intrinsic apoptosis pathway. Mechanistically, we revealed that UA promoted mitophagy by activating AMPK signaling in TBHP-induced NP cells. In vivo, UA was shown to effectively alleviate the progression of puncture-induced IDD in rats. Taken together, our results suggest that UA could be a novel and effective therapeutic strategy for IDD.


Assuntos
Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral , Mitofagia , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Animais , Apoptose , Cumarínicos , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/tratamento farmacológico , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/genética , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais
14.
Ear Nose Throat J ; : 145561319898941, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32070124

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to explore the curative effect of open surgical excision and endoscopic radiofrequency ablation (RA) in the treatment of piriform fossa fistula (PSF). METHODS: Retrospective study of 80 cases of PSF in the Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Shanghai Children's Hospital, from June 2009 to June 2017. RESULTS: In this series, there were 43 males and 37 females, and the mean age was 5.2 years (17 days to 12 years). Surgical excision was performed for 62 patients. Radiofrequency ablation was performed for 18 patients. Six cases of postoperative temporary hoarseness occurred, and the hoarseness rates were not significantly different between the excision and RA groups (6.4% vs 11.1%, respectively, P = .88). Two cases of temporary neck abscess occurred in the RA group. After the mean follow-up period of 3.1 years (1-8 years), no recurrence was found between the excision and RA groups. CONCLUSIONS: The curative effect of excision and RA for PSF is not significantly different; each of the 2 methods has its advantages and disadvantages. However, RA for PSF has the merit of being minimally invasive, easy to operate, and safe; this procedure seems to be more suitable in the clinic.

15.
IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinform ; 17(6): 1871-1882, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536012

RESUMO

Histological Gleason grading of tumor patterns is one of the most powerful prognostic predictors in prostate cancer. However, manual analysis and grading performed by pathologists are typically subjective and time-consuming. In this paper, we present an automatic technique for Gleason grading of prostate cancer from H&E stained whole slide pathology images using a set of novel completed and statistical local binary pattern (CSLBP) descriptors. First, the technique divides the whole slide image (WSI) into a set of small image tiles, where salient tumor tiles with high nuclei densities are selected for analysis. The CSLBP texture features that encode pixel intensity variations from circularly surrounding neighborhoods are extracted from salient image tiles to characterize different Gleason patterns. Finally, the CSLBP texture features computed from all tiles are integrated and utilized by the multi-class support vector machine (SVM) that assigns patient slides with different Gleason scores such as 6, 7, or ≥ 8. Experiments have been performed on 312 different patient cases selected from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) and have achieved superior performances over state-of-the-art texture descriptors and baseline methods including deep learning models for prostate cancer Gleason grading.

16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(47): e17958, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764797

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: clinical results of A STROBE-compliant retrospective study OBJECTIVE:: To achieving adequate pharyngeal closure and improve the pharyngeal function by a modified two-flap palatoplasty. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND: Excessive tension in soft palate is the main factor causing the dysphonia after cleft palate. The tension-free suture of the soft palate is the key to achieving adequate pharyngeal closure. In this paper, a modified two-flap palatoplasty improved the pharyngeal function METHODS:: From August 2016 to December 2017, 20 patients with cleft palate were treated with a modified two-flap palatoplasty of the posterolateral symmetrical mucosal relaxation incision. The mucosal relaxation incision was performed on both posterolateral sides of the soft palate. RESULTS: All cases had good healing of mucosal flap and the palate. All patients underwent endoscopic examination at 6 months after operation. The postoperative results were satisfactory, with no complications. Twelve patients had bilateral exudative otitis media before operation, 4 patients returned to normal postoperatively, and 8 patients underwent bilateral tympanic membrane catheterization; 2 patients had abnormal function of bilateral eustachian tube before operation and returned to normal postoperatively; 3 patients had unilateral exudative otitis media before operation, and all of them returned to normal; the acoustic impedance test was normal in 3 children before operation. Most children begin to learn to speak, parents are satisfied with their pronunciation, and 3 children are in speech rehabilitation due to unclear pronunciation. CONCLUSIONS: We propose a technique to improve the function of the velopharyngeal closure which effectively reduces the incidence of pharyngeal insufficiency and occurrence of operative correction of pharyngeal closure dysfunction. The modifed two-flap palatoplasty with posterior lateral symmetric mucosal relaxation incision is beneficial for better velopharyngeal closure.


Assuntos
Fissura Palatina/cirurgia , Palato Mole/cirurgia , Retalhos Cirúrgicos , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Muco , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Arch Physiol Biochem ; : 1-9, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596150

RESUMO

Autophagy is an important life phenomenon in eukaryotic cells. Its main role is to remove and degrade its damaged organelles and excess biological macromolecules, and use degradation products to provide energy and rebuild the cell structure, playing an important role in maintaining cell homeostasis and cell life activities. Mitophagy is a form of macroautophagy. It has the beneficial effect of eliminating damaged mitochondria, thereby maintaining the integrity of the mitochondrial pool. Autophagy and mitophagy have a dual role in the development of cancer. On one hand, autophagy and mitophagy can maintain the normal physiological function of cells. On the other hand, excessive autophagy and mitophagy can lead to diseases. The present review introduces the mechanisms of autophagy and mitophagy, and the main related proteins, and introduce the correlation with cancers, providing a basis for the treatment of cancers through the understanding of these proteins.

18.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 65(7): 971-976, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389507

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relations of T lymphocytes, cytokines, immunoglobulin E, and nitric oxide with otitis media with effusion (OME) in children and their clinical significances. METHODS: Fifty children with OME treated in our hospital were enrolled in the study (observation group). Fifty healthy children were selected as control. The percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte and CD4+/CD8+ ratio in peripheral blood, and the levels of cytokine (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, immunoglobulin E (IgE) and nitric oxide (NO) in peripheral blood and middle ear effusion (MEE) in both groups were detected. The correlations of these indexes with OME were analyzed. RESULTS: The percentage of peripheral blood CD4+ and CD8+ levels, CD4+/CD8 ratio, IgE, and NO levels in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P < 0.01). In the observation group, the IL-2 and IL-6 levels, and IgE and NO levels in the MEE were significantly higher than those in peripheral blood (P < 0.01). In addition, in the observation group, the MEE IL-2 and IL-6 levels were positively correlated with peripheral blood CD4+/CD8+ ratio, respectively r = 0.366, P = 0.009; r = 0.334, P = 0.018. CONCLUSIONS: The levels of peripheral blood CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes and MEE IL-2, IL-6, IgE, and NO levels are increased in children with OME. These indexes have provided significant clues for the diagnosis of OME in children.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Citocinas/sangue , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Óxido Nítrico/sangue , Otite Média com Derrame/sangue , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Valores de Referência , Membrana Timpânica/metabolismo
19.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(19): 11345-11352, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31452363

RESUMO

Particulate and vapor phase emissions in the diluted exhaust of a light-duty diesel engine designed for Euro 5 application have been sampled. The engine was operated in three modes, and samples were collected from the exhaust without aftertreatment but also with aftertreatment by an exhaust oxidation catalyst and particle filter. The samples were analyzed by two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectral detection. The results show overall removal efficiencies for the organic compound mass by the combination of oxidation catalyst and particle filter of 50, 56, and 74% for the high-speed/high-load, low-speed/low-load, and high-speed/low-load conditions respectively. The results are clearly indicative of substantial repartitioning of the particulate and vapor components within the abatement devices and show an apparently reduced efficiency for the removal of high-molecular-weight alkanes under high-speed/high-load conditions relative to lower-molecular-weight compounds, although this may be due to alkane formation by thermocracking of other species. A notable feature is the presence of oxygenated compounds in the emissions, which are not present in the fuel. These are increased under high-speed/high-load conditions, and the results suggest the formation in the aftertreatment devices as well as in the combustion process.


Assuntos
Poeira , Emissões de Veículos , Catálise , Gases , Oxirredução
20.
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol ; 12(9): 859-865, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352834

RESUMO

Introduction: Thrombocytopenia is a common hematological abnormality in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD), occurring in 64%~84% of patients with cirrhosis or fibrosis. Due to the increased risk of bleeding, thrombocytopenia potentially affects management of CLD, such as surgery or liver biopsy. Avatrombopag is a new oral thrombopoietin (TPO) receptor agonist, activating TPO receptor and increasing megakaryocytic proliferation/differentiation and platelet production. Areas covered: This review summarizes the collected data concerning pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, safety and tolerability profiles of avatrombopag for the management of thrombocytopenia in patients with CLD. Expert opinion: Avatrombopag is recently approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of thrombocytopenia in patients with CLD who are scheduled to undergo a procedure. Based on the available clinical trials, avatrombopag is superior to placebo in reducing the need for platelet transfusions or rescue procedures for bleeding. Avatrombopag is also recommended as alternative to platelet transfusions.


Assuntos
Hepatopatias/complicações , Tiazóis/uso terapêutico , Tiofenos/uso terapêutico , Trombocitopenia/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Crônica , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Hepatopatias/fisiopatologia , Transfusão de Plaquetas/métodos , Receptores de Trombopoetina/agonistas , Tiazóis/efeitos adversos , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Tiofenos/efeitos adversos , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Trombocitopenia/etiologia
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