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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(4): 706-718, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564435

RESUMO

Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is widely used to diagnose diabetes and assess glycemic control in individuals with diabetes. However, nonglycemic determinants, including genetic variation, may influence how accurately HbA1c reflects underlying glycemia. Analyzing the NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) sequence data in 10,338 individuals from five studies and four ancestries (6,158 Europeans, 3,123 African-Americans, 650 Hispanics, and 407 East Asians), we confirmed five regions associated with HbA1c (GCK in Europeans and African-Americans, HK1 in Europeans and Hispanics, FN3K and/or FN3KRP in Europeans, and G6PD in African-Americans and Hispanics) and we identified an African-ancestry-specific low-frequency variant (rs1039215 in HBG2 and HBE1, minor allele frequency (MAF) = 0.03). The most associated G6PD variant (rs1050828-T, p.Val98Met, MAF = 12% in African-Americans, MAF = 2% in Hispanics) lowered HbA1c (-0.88% in hemizygous males, -0.34% in heterozygous females) and explained 23% of HbA1c variance in African-Americans and 4% in Hispanics. Additionally, we identified a rare distinct G6PD coding variant (rs76723693, p.Leu353Pro, MAF = 0.5%; -0.98% in hemizygous males, -0.46% in heterozygous females) and detected significant association with HbA1c when aggregating rare missense variants in G6PD. We observed similar magnitude and direction of effects for rs1039215 (HBG2) and rs76723693 (G6PD) in the two largest TOPMed African American cohorts, and we replicated the rs76723693 association in the UK Biobank African-ancestry participants. These variants in G6PD and HBG2 were monomorphic in the European and Asian samples. African or Hispanic ancestry individuals carrying G6PD variants may be underdiagnosed for diabetes when screened with HbA1c. Thus, assessment of these variants should be considered for incorporation into precision medicine approaches for diabetes diagnosis.

2.
Neurocrit Care ; 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Though there are many biomarker studies of plasma and serum in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), few have examined blood cells that might contribute to vasospasm. In this study, we evaluated inflammatory and prothrombotic pathways by examining mRNA expression in whole blood of SAH patients with and without vasospasm. METHODS: Adult SAH patients with vasospasm (n = 29) and without vasospasm (n = 21) were matched for sex, race/ethnicity, and aneurysm treatment method. Diagnosis of vasospasm was made by angiography. mRNA expression was measured by Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 ST Arrays. SAH patients with vasospasm were compared to those without vasospasm by ANCOVA to identify differential gene, exon, and alternatively spliced transcript expression. Analyses were adjusted for age, batch, and time of blood draw after SAH. RESULTS: At the gene level, there were 259 differentially expressed genes between SAH patients with vasospasm compared to patients without (false discovery rate < 0.05, |fold change| ≥ 1.2). At the exon level, 1210 exons representing 1093 genes were differentially regulated between the two groups (P < 0.005, ≥ 1.2 |fold change|). Principal components analysis segregated SAH patients with and without vasospasm. Signaling pathways for the 1093 vasospasm-related genes included adrenergic, P2Y, ET-1, NO, sildenafil, renin-angiotensin, thrombin, CCR3, CXCR4, MIF, fMLP, PKA, PKC, CRH, PPARα/RXRα, and calcium. Genes predicted to be alternatively spliced included IL23A, RSU1, PAQR6, and TRIP6. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to demonstrate that mRNA expression in whole blood distinguishes SAH patients with vasospasm from those without vasospasm and supports a role of coagulation and immune systems in vasospasm.

3.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 15(9): 1321-1328, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538603

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that sleep duration in the Amish would be longer than in non-Amish. METHODS: Sleep duration was obtained by questionnaire administered to Amish individuals (n = 3,418) and from the 2015-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; n = 1,912). Self-reported sleep duration was calculated as the difference in usual times that the participants went to bed at night and woke up in the morning. RESULTS: In Amish (43.7 ± 16.7 years) and NHANES (50.0 ± 20.6 years), women had a longer sleep duration than men (P < .0001 in both groups) and sleep was significantly longer in those aged 18-29 years and ≥ 70 years, compared to those aged 30-69 years. Seasonal-adjusted sleep duration was shorter in Amish than that in NHANES (7.8 minutes shorter, age- and sex-adjusted P < .0001). However, Amish were less likely to report sleeping fewer than 7 hours per night (15.4% in Amish versus 20.5% in NHANES, P < .0001). Amish went to bed 80.4 minutes earlier than NHANES and arose 87.6 minutes earlier (age-, sex-, and season-adjusted P < .0001 for both). In the Amish, sleep duration was longer in clerks than in farmers (P < .0001) and was significantly correlated among household members (.15 < r < .62, P < .001), although there was no evidence that this trait was heritable (h² approximately 0) after adjustment for household. CONCLUSIONS: The lower frequency of short sleepers in the Amish may contribute to the relatively lower risks of cardiometabolic diseases observed in this population. CITATION: Zhang M, Ryan KA, Wickwire E, Postolache TT, Xu H, Daue M, Snitker S, Pollin TI, Shuldiner AR, Mitchell BD. Self-reported sleep duration and pattern in old order amish and non-amish adults. J Clin Sleep Med. 2019;15(9):1321-1328.

4.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482803

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that sleep duration in the Amish would be longer than in non-Amish. METHODS: Sleep duration was obtained by questionnaire administered to Amish individuals (n = 3,418) and from the 2015-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; n = 1,912). Self-reported sleep duration was calculated as the difference in usual times that the participants went to bed at night and woke up in the morning. RESULTS: In Amish (43.7 ± 16.7 years) and NHANES (50.0 ± 20.6 years), women had a longer sleep duration than men (P < .0001 in both groups) and sleep was significantly longer in those aged 18-29 years and ≥ 70 years, compared to those aged 30-69 years. Seasonal-adjusted sleep duration was shorter in Amish than that in NHANES (7.8 minutes shorter, age- and sex-adjusted P < .0001). However, Amish were less likely to report sleeping fewer than 7 hours per night (15.4% in Amish versus 20.5% in NHANES, P < .0001). Amish went to bed 80.4 minutes earlier than NHANES and arose 87.6 minutes earlier (age-, sex-, and season-adjusted P < .0001 for both). In the Amish, sleep duration was longer in clerks than in farmers (P < .0001) and was significantly correlated among household members (.15 < r < .62, P < .001), although there was no evidence that this trait was heritable (h² approximately 0) after adjustment for household. CONCLUSIONS: The lower frequency of short sleepers in the Amish may contribute to the relatively lower risks of cardiometabolic diseases observed in this population.

5.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 12(7): e002338, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple loci associated with stroke. However, the specific stroke subtypes affected, and whether loci influence both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, remains unknown. For loci associated with stroke, we aimed to infer the combination of stroke subtypes likely to be affected, and in doing so assess the extent to which such loci have homogeneous effects across stroke subtypes. METHODS: We performed Bayesian multinomial regression in 16 664 stroke cases and 32 792 controls of European ancestry to determine the most likely combination of stroke subtypes affected for loci with published genome-wide stroke associations, using model selection. Cases were subtyped under 2 commonly used stroke classification systems, TOAST (Trial of Org 10172 Acute Stroke Treatment) and causative classification of stroke. All individuals had genotypes imputed to the Haplotype Reference Consortium 1.1 Panel. RESULTS: Sixteen loci were considered for analysis. Seven loci influenced both hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke, 3 of which influenced ischemic and hemorrhagic subtypes under both TOAST and causative classification of stroke. Under causative classification of stroke, 4 loci influenced both small vessel stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage. An EDNRA locus demonstrated opposing effects on ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. No loci were predicted to influence all stroke subtypes in the same direction, and only one locus (12q24) was predicted to influence all ischemic stroke subtypes. CONCLUSIONS: Heterogeneity in the influence of stroke-associated loci on stroke subtypes is pervasive, reflecting differing causal pathways. However, overlap exists between hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke, which may reflect shared pathobiology predisposing to small vessel arteriopathy. Stroke is a complex, heterogeneous disorder requiring tailored analytic strategies to decipher genetic mechanisms.

6.
Neuroimage Clin ; 23: 101884, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200151

RESUMO

White matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden is a critically important cerebrovascular phenotype linked to prediction of diagnosis and prognosis of diseases, such as acute ischemic stroke (AIS). However, current approaches to its quantification on clinical MRI often rely on time intensive manual delineation of the disease on T2 fluid attenuated inverse recovery (FLAIR), which hinders high-throughput analyses such as genetic discovery. In this work, we present a fully automated pipeline for quantification of WMH in clinical large-scale studies of AIS. The pipeline incorporates automated brain extraction, intensity normalization and WMH segmentation using spatial priors. We first propose a brain extraction algorithm based on a fully convolutional deep learning architecture, specifically designed for clinical FLAIR images. We demonstrate that our method for brain extraction outperforms two commonly used and publicly available methods on clinical quality images in a set of 144 subject scans across 12 acquisition centers, based on dice coefficient (median 0.95; inter-quartile range 0.94-0.95; p < 0.01) and Pearson correlation of total brain volume (r = 0.90). Subsequently, we apply it to the large-scale clinical multi-site MRI-GENIE study (N = 2783) and identify a decrease in total brain volume of -2.4 cc/year. Additionally, we show that the resulting total brain volumes can successfully be used for quality control of image preprocessing. Finally, we obtain WMH volumes by building on an existing automatic WMH segmentation algorithm that delineates and distinguishes between different cerebrovascular pathologies. The learning method mimics expert knowledge of the spatial distribution of the WMH burden using a convolutional auto-encoder. This enables successful computation of WMH volumes of 2533 clinical AIS patients. We utilize these results to demonstrate the increase of WMH burden with age (0.950 cc/year) and show that single site estimates can be biased by the number of subjects recruited.

7.
Stroke ; 50(7): 1734-1741, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177973

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- We evaluated deep learning algorithms' segmentation of acute ischemic lesions on heterogeneous multi-center clinical diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data sets and explored the potential role of this tool for phenotyping acute ischemic stroke. Methods- Ischemic stroke data sets from the MRI-GENIE (MRI-Genetics Interface Exploration) repository consisting of 12 international genetic research centers were retrospectively analyzed using an automated deep learning segmentation algorithm consisting of an ensemble of 3-dimensional convolutional neural networks. Three ensembles were trained using data from the following: (1) 267 patients from an independent single-center cohort, (2) 267 patients from MRI-GENIE, and (3) mixture of (1) and (2). The algorithms' performances were compared against manual outlines from a separate 383 patient subset from MRI-GENIE. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression with respect to demographics, stroke subtypes, and vascular risk factors were performed to identify phenotypes associated with large acute diffusion-weighted MRI volumes and greater stroke severity in 2770 MRI-GENIE patients. Stroke topography was investigated. Results- The ensemble consisting of a mixture of MRI-GENIE and single-center convolutional neural networks performed best. Subset analysis comparing automated and manual lesion volumes in 383 patients found excellent correlation (ρ=0.92; P<0.0001). Median (interquartile range) diffusion-weighted MRI lesion volumes from 2770 patients were 3.7 cm3 (0.9-16.6 cm3). Patients with small artery occlusion stroke subtype had smaller lesion volumes ( P<0.0001) and different topography compared with other stroke subtypes. Conclusions- Automated accurate clinical diffusion-weighted MRI lesion segmentation using deep learning algorithms trained with multi-center and diverse data is feasible. Both lesion volume and topography can provide insight into stroke subtypes with sufficient sample size from big heterogeneous multi-center clinical imaging phenotype data sets.

8.
J Clin Lipidol ; 13(1): 109-114, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30553757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postprandial lipemia (PPL), defined as a prolonged or elevated rise in triglycerides that accompanies fat feeding, is a significant risk factor for coronary heart disease and associated comorbidities. The impact of PPL on coronary heart disease risk is underscored by the preponderance of each day spent in the postprandial state. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we evaluated cross-sectionally the association between usual (ie, noninterventional) physical activity and the 6-hour triglyceride response to a standardized high-fat meal. METHODS: The high-fat meal intervention was carried out in 671 apparently healthy individuals as part of the Heredity and Phenotype Intervention Heart Study. Triglyceride levels were measured in the fasting state and during 6 hours after administration of a standardized fat challenge. We defined PPL response as the triglyceride area under the fat load curve (AUC) and measured physical activity using accelerometers that were worn continuously over a 7-day period. RESULTS: Physical activity levels decreased with increasing age and were higher in men than women (both P < .001). The triglyceride AUC increased with increasing age in both men and women (both P < .001) and was also higher in men than in women (age-adjusted P = 9.2 × 10-12). Higher physical activity levels were associated with a lower triglyceride AUC (P = .003), adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, and fasting low-density lipoprotein. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the protective benefits of physical activity on cardiovascular health may operate, at least in part, through reduction of the PPL triglyceride response.

9.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0206554, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30383853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Polymorphisms in coagulation genes have been associated with early-onset ischemic stroke. Here we pursue an a priori hypothesis that genetic variation in the endothelial-based receptors of the thrombomodulin-protein C system (THBD and PROCR) may similarly be associated with early-onset ischemic stroke. We explored this hypothesis utilizing a multi-stage design of discovery and replication. METHODS: Discovery was performed in the Genetics-of-Early-Onset Stroke (GEOS) Study, a biracial population-based case-control study of ischemic stroke among men and women aged 15-49 including 829 cases of first ischemic stroke (42.2% African-American) and 850 age-comparable stroke-free controls (38.1% African-American). Twenty-four single-nucleotide-polymorphisms (SNPs) in THBD and 22 SNPs in PROCR were evaluated. Following LD pruning (r2≥0.8), we advanced uncorrelated SNPs forward for association analyses. Associated SNPs were evaluated for replication in an early-onset ischemic stroke population (onset-age<60 years) consisting of 3676 cases and 21118 non-stroke controls from 6 case-control studies. Lastly, we determined if the replicated SNPs also associated with older-onset ischemic stroke in the METASTROKE data-base. RESULTS: Among GEOS Caucasians, PROCR rs9574, which was in strong LD with 8 other SNPs, and one additional independent SNP rs2069951, were significantly associated with ischemic stroke (rs9574, OR = 1.33, p = 0.003; rs2069951, OR = 1.80, p = 0.006) using an additive-model adjusting for age, gender and population-structure. Adjusting for risk factors did not change the associations; however, associations were strengthened among those without risk factors. PROCR rs9574 also associated with early-onset ischemic stroke in the replication sample (OR = 1.08, p = 0.015), but not older-onset stroke. There were no PROCR associations in African-Americans, nor were there any THBD associations in either ethnicity. CONCLUSION: PROCR polymorphisms are associated with early-onset ischemic stroke in Caucasians.

10.
J Pers Med ; 8(1)2018 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29495422

RESUMO

Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC) is the most common form of non-ischemic chronic heart failure. Despite the higher prevalence of IDC in African Americans, the genetics of IDC have been relatively understudied in this ethnic group. We performed a genome-wide association study to identify susceptibility genes for IDC in African Americans recruited from five sites in the U.S. (662 unrelated cases and 1167 controls). The heritability of IDC was calculated to be 33% (95% confidence interval: 19-47%; p = 6.4 × 10-7). We detected association of a variant in a novel intronic locus in the CACNB4 gene meeting genome-wide levels of significance (p = 4.1 × 10-8). The CACNB4 gene encodes a calcium channel subunit expressed in the heart that is important for cardiac muscle contraction. This variant has not previously been associated with IDC in any racial group. Pathway analysis, based on the 1000 genes most strongly associated with IDC, showed an enrichment for genes related to calcium signaling, growth factor signaling, neuronal/neuromuscular signaling, and various types of cellular level signaling, including gap junction and cAMP signaling. Our results suggest a novel locus for IDC in African Americans and provide additional insights into the genetic architecture and etiology.

11.
Stroke ; 49(3): 543-548, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29438084

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although depression is a risk factor for stroke in large prospective studies, it is unknown whether these conditions have a shared genetic basis. METHODS: We applied a polygenic risk score (PRS) for major depressive disorder derived from European ancestry analyses by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium to a genome-wide association study of ischemic stroke in the Stroke Genetics Network of National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Included in separate analyses were 12 577 stroke cases and 25 643 controls of European ancestry and 1353 cases and 2383 controls of African ancestry. We examined the association between depression PRS and ischemic stroke overall and with pathogenic subtypes using logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: The depression PRS was associated with higher risk of ischemic stroke overall in both European (P=0.025) and African ancestry (P=0.011) samples from the Stroke Genetics Network. Ischemic stroke risk increased by 3.0% (odds ratio, 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.05) for every 1 SD increase in PRS for those of European ancestry and by 8% (odds ratio, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.13) for those of African ancestry. Among stroke subtypes, elevated risk of small artery occlusion was observed in both European and African ancestry samples. Depression PRS was also associated with higher risk of cardioembolic stroke in European ancestry and large artery atherosclerosis in African ancestry persons. CONCLUSIONS: Higher polygenic risk for major depressive disorder is associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke overall and with small artery occlusion. Additional associations with ischemic stroke subtypes differed by ancestry.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Depressão/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Herança Multifatorial , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Depressão/etnologia , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etnologia
12.
J Neurol Sci ; 382: 18-28, 2017 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29111012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We systematically reviewed the genetic variants associated with stroke in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and examined the emerging priorities and opportunities for rapidly advancing stroke research in the era of Trans-Omics science. METHODS: Using the PRISMA guideline, we searched PubMed and NHGRI- EBI GWAS catalog for stroke studies from 2007 till May 2017. RESULTS: We included 31 studies. The major challenge is that the few validated variants could not account for the full genetic risk of stroke and have not been translated for clinical use. None of the studies included continental Africans. Genomic study of stroke among Africans presents a unique opportunity for the discovery, validation, functional annotation, Trans-Omics study and translation of genomic determinants of stroke with implications for global populations. This is because all humans originated from Africa, a continent with a unique genomic architecture and a distinctive epidemiology of stroke; as well as substantially higher heritability and resolution of fine mapping of stroke genes. CONCLUSION: Understanding the genomic determinants of stroke and the corresponding molecular mechanisms will revolutionize the development of a new set of precise biomarkers for stroke prediction, diagnosis and prognostic estimates as well as personalized interventions for reducing the global burden of stroke.


Assuntos
Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética , Genômica , Humanos
13.
Neurol Genet ; 3(5): e180, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28852707

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the design and rationale for the genetic analysis of acute and chronic cerebrovascular neuroimaging phenotypes detected on clinical MRI in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) within the scope of the MRI-GENetics Interface Exploration (MRI-GENIE) study. METHODS: MRI-GENIE capitalizes on the existing infrastructure of the Stroke Genetics Network (SiGN). In total, 12 international SiGN sites contributed MRIs of 3,301 patients with AIS. Detailed clinical phenotyping with the web-based Causative Classification of Stroke (CCS) system and genome-wide genotyping data were available for all participants. Neuroimaging analyses include the manual and automated assessments of established MRI markers. A high-throughput MRI analysis pipeline for the automated assessment of cerebrovascular lesions on clinical scans will be developed in a subset of scans for both acute and chronic lesions, validated against gold standard, and applied to all available scans. The extracted neuroimaging phenotypes will improve characterization of acute and chronic cerebrovascular lesions in ischemic stroke, including CCS subtypes, and their effect on functional outcomes after stroke. Moreover, genetic testing will uncover variants associated with acute and chronic MRI manifestations of cerebrovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS: The MRI-GENIE study aims to develop, validate, and distribute the MRI analysis platform for scans acquired as part of clinical care for patients with AIS, which will lead to (1) novel genetic discoveries in ischemic stroke, (2) strategies for personalized stroke risk assessment, and (3) personalized stroke outcome assessment.

14.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 28(8): 2311-2321, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28360221

RESUMO

Disorders of water balance, an excess or deficit of total body water relative to body electrolyte content, are common and ascertained by plasma hypo- or hypernatremia, respectively. We performed a two-stage genome-wide association study meta-analysis on plasma sodium concentration in 45,889 individuals of European descent (stage 1 discovery) and 17,637 additional individuals of European descent (stage 2 replication), and a transethnic meta-analysis of replicated single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 79,506 individuals (63,526 individuals of European descent, 8765 individuals of Asian Indian descent, and 7215 individuals of African descent). In stage 1, we identified eight loci associated with plasma sodium concentration at P<5.0 × 10-6 Of these, rs9980 at NFAT5 replicated in stage 2 meta-analysis (P=3.1 × 10-5), with combined stages 1 and 2 genome-wide significance of P=5.6 × 10-10 Transethnic meta-analysis further supported the association at rs9980 (P=5.9 × 10-12). Additionally, rs16846053 at SLC4A10 showed nominally, but not genome-wide, significant association in combined stages 1 and 2 meta-analysis (P=6.7 × 10-8). NFAT5 encodes a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor that coordinates the intracellular response to hypertonic stress but was not previously implicated in the regulation of systemic water balance. SLC4A10 encodes a sodium bicarbonate transporter with a brain-restricted expression pattern, and variant rs16846053 affects a putative intronic NFAT5 DNA binding motif. The lead variants for NFAT5 and SLC4A10 are cis expression quantitative trait loci in tissues of the central nervous system and relevant to transcriptional regulation. Thus, genetic variation in NFAT5 and SLC4A10 expression and function in the central nervous system may affect the regulation of systemic water balance.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos , Plasma/química , Simportadores de Sódio-Bicarbonato/genética , Sódio/análise , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Desequilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/sangue , Desequilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/genética , Idoso , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Concentração Osmolar
15.
Diabetes ; 66(7): 2054-2058, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28428224

RESUMO

Alleles associated with lower levels of LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) have recently been associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), highlighting the complex relationship between LDL-C and diabetes. This observation begs the question of whether LDL-C-raising alleles are associated with a decreased risk of T2D. This issue was recently addressed in a large familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) screening study, which reported a lower prevalence of self-reported diabetes in FH subjects than in age-matched relatives without FH. To extend this observation, we tested the association of FH with diabetes status and glycemia in a large Amish population enriched for the FH-associated APOB R3527Q variant that included 640 APOB R3527Q carriers and 4,683 noncarriers. Each copy of the R3527Q T allele was associated with a 74.9 mg/dL increase in LDL-C. There was little difference in T2D prevalence between subjects with (5.2%) and without (4.5%) the R3527Q allele (P = 0.23), and there was no association between R3527Q variant and impaired fasting glucose, fasting glucose or insulin, or oral glucose tolerance test-derived measures. Our data provide no evidence supporting an association between the APOB R3527Q variant and T2D or glycemia and highlight the asymmetry of the LDL-C-T2D relationship and/or the gene/variant-dependent specificity of the LDL-C-T2D association.


Assuntos
Amish/genética , Apolipoproteínas B/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/genética , Glicemia/metabolismo , LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Modelos Logísticos
17.
Circ Res ; 120(5): 816-834, 2017 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27908912

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Cardiac progenitor cells are an attractive cell type for tissue regeneration, but their mechanism for myocardial remodeling is still unclear. OBJECTIVE: This investigation determines how chronological age influences the phenotypic characteristics and the secretome of human cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs), and their potential to recover injured myocardium. METHODS AND RESULTS: Adult (aCPCs) and neonatal (nCPCs) cells were derived from patients aged >40 years or <1 month, respectively, and their functional potential was determined in a rodent myocardial infarction model. A more robust in vitro proliferative capacity of nCPCs, compared with aCPCs, correlated with significantly greater myocardial recovery mediated by nCPCs in vivo. Strikingly, a single injection of nCPC-derived total conditioned media was significantly more effective than nCPCs, aCPC-derived TCM, or nCPC-derived exosomes in recovering cardiac function, stimulating neovascularization, and promoting myocardial remodeling. High-resolution accurate mass spectrometry with reverse phase liquid chromatography fractionation and mass spectrometry was used to identify proteins in the secretome of aCPCs and nCPCs, and the literature-based networking software identified specific pathways affected by the secretome of CPCs in the setting of myocardial infarction. Examining the TCM, we quantified changes in the expression pattern of 804 proteins in nCPC-derived TCM and 513 proteins in aCPC-derived TCM. The literature-based proteomic network analysis identified that 46 and 6 canonical signaling pathways were significantly targeted by nCPC-derived TCM and aCPC-derived TCM, respectively. One leading candidate pathway is heat-shock factor-1, potentially affecting 8 identified pathways for nCPC-derived TCM but none for aCPC-derived TCM. To validate this prediction, we demonstrated that the modulation of heat-shock factor-1 by knockdown in nCPCs or overexpression in aCPCs significantly altered the quality of their secretome. CONCLUSIONS: A deep proteomic analysis revealed both detailed and global mechanisms underlying the chronological age-based differences in the ability of CPCs to promote myocardial recovery via the components of their secretome.


Assuntos
Miócitos Cardíacos/fisiologia , Proteoma/biossíntese , Proteoma/genética , Proteômica/métodos , Células-Tronco/fisiologia , Adulto , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Ratos
18.
Ann Neurol ; 81(3): 383-394, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27997041

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been successful at identifying associations with stroke and stroke subtypes, but have not yet identified any associations solely with small vessel stroke (SVS). SVS comprises one quarter of all ischemic stroke and is a major manifestation of cerebral small vessel disease, the primary cause of vascular cognitive impairment. Studies across neurological traits have shown that younger-onset cases have an increased genetic burden. We leveraged this increased genetic burden by performing an age-at-onset informed GWAS meta-analysis, including a large younger-onset SVS population, to identify novel associations with stroke. METHODS: We used a three-stage age-at-onset informed GWAS to identify novel genetic variants associated with stroke. On identifying a novel locus associated with SVS, we assessed its influence on other small vessel disease phenotypes, as well as on messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of nearby genes, and on DNA methylation of nearby CpG sites in whole blood and in the fetal brain. RESULTS: We identified an association with SVS in 4,203 cases and 50,728 controls on chromosome 16q24.2 (odds ratio [OR; 95% confidence interval {CI}] = 1.16 [1.10-1.22]; p = 3.2 × 10-9 ). The lead single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs12445022) was also associated with cerebral white matter hyperintensities (OR [95% CI] = 1.10 [1.05-1.16]; p = 5.3 × 10-5 ; N = 3,670), but not intracerebral hemorrhage (OR [95% CI] = 0.97 [0.84-1.12]; p = 0.71; 1,545 cases, 1,481 controls). rs12445022 is associated with mRNA expression of ZCCHC14 in arterial tissues (p = 9.4 × 10-7 ) and DNA methylation at probe cg16596957 in whole blood (p = 5.3 × 10-6 ). INTERPRETATION: 16q24.2 is associated with SVS. Associations of the locus with expression of ZCCHC14 and DNA methylation suggest the locus acts through changes to regulatory elements. Ann Neurol 2017;81:383-394.


Assuntos
Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética , Dedos de Zinco/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Variação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral Lacunar/genética
19.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 28(3): 923-934, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27729571

RESUMO

The rate of decline of renal function varies significantly among individuals with CKD. To understand better the contribution of genetics to CKD progression, we performed a genome-wide association study among participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study. Our outcome of interest was CKD progression measured as change in eGFR over time among 1331 blacks and 1476 whites with CKD. We stratified all analyses by race and subsequently, diabetes status. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that surpassed a significance threshold of P<1×10-6 for association with eGFR slope were selected as candidates for follow-up and secondarily tested for association with proteinuria and time to ESRD. We identified 12 such SNPs among black patients and six such SNPs among white patients. We were able to conduct follow-up analyses of three candidate SNPs in similar (replication) cohorts and eight candidate SNPs in phenotype-related (validation) cohorts. Among blacks without diabetes, rs653747 in LINC00923 replicated in the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension cohort (discovery P=5.42×10-7; replication P=0.039; combined P=7.42×10-9). This SNP also associated with ESRD (hazard ratio, 2.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.5 to 2.7); P=4.90×10-6). Similarly, rs931891 in LINC00923 associated with eGFR decline (P=1.44×10-4) in white patients without diabetes. In summary, SNPs in LINC00923, an RNA gene expressed in the kidney, significantly associated with CKD progression in individuals with nondiabetic CKD. However, the lack of equivalent cohorts hampered replication for most discovery loci. Further replication of our findings in comparable study populations is warranted.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Progressão da Doença , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
20.
Stroke ; 47(2): 307-16, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26732560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although a genetic contribution to ischemic stroke is well recognized, only a handful of stroke loci have been identified by large-scale genetic association studies to date. Hypothesizing that genetic effects might be stronger for early- versus late-onset stroke, we conducted a 2-stage meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies, focusing on stroke cases with an age of onset <60 years. METHODS: The discovery stage of our genome-wide association studies included 4505 cases and 21 968 controls of European, South-Asian, and African ancestry, drawn from 6 studies. In Stage 2, we selected the lead genetic variants at loci with association P<5×10(-6) and performed in silico association analyses in an independent sample of ≤1003 cases and 7745 controls. RESULTS: One stroke susceptibility locus at 10q25 reached genome-wide significance in the combined analysis of all samples from the discovery and follow-up stages (rs11196288; odds ratio =1.41; P=9.5×10(-9)). The associated locus is in an intergenic region between TCF7L2 and HABP2. In a further analysis in an independent sample, we found that 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms in high linkage disequilibrium with rs11196288 were significantly associated with total plasma factor VII-activating protease levels, a product of HABP2. CONCLUSIONS: HABP2, which encodes an extracellular serine protease involved in coagulation, fibrinolysis, and inflammatory pathways, may be a genetic susceptibility locus for early-onset stroke.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Idade de Início , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Cromossomos Humanos Par 10 , Simulação por Computador , DNA Intergênico/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
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