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1.
China CDC Wkly ; 3(38): 803-807, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34594994

RESUMO

What is already known about this topic?: Identifying the most influential spreaders in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission networks is crucial for developing effective prevention strategies. What is added by this report?: This study identified key nodes of the HIV molecular transmission network among men who have sex with men (MSM) by utilizing linkages between sequences to reconstruct the transmission network at the molecular level. What are the implications for public health practice?: This study could act as an important supplement of laboratory results to epidemiological studies and suggests that interdisciplinary research could inspire new ideas for finding breakthroughs on HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) prevention and control.

2.
Geobiology ; 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633148

RESUMO

Oxidative weathering of pyrite plays an important role in the biogeochemical cycling of Fe and S in terrestrial environments. While the mechanism and occurrence of biologically accelerated pyrite oxidation under acidic conditions are well established, much less is known about microbially mediated pyrite oxidation at circumneutral pH. Recent work (Percak-Dennett et al., 2017, Geobiology, 15, 690) has demonstrated the ability of aerobic chemolithotrophic microorganisms to accelerate pyrite oxidation at circumneutral pH and proposed two mechanistic models by which this phenomenon might occur. Here, we assess the potential relevance of aerobic microbially catalyzed circumneutral pH pyrite oxidation in relation to subsurface shale weathering at Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory (SSHCZO) in Pennsylvania, USA. Specimen pyrite mixed with native shale was incubated in groundwater for 3 months at the inferred depth of in situ pyrite oxidation. The colonized materials were used as an inoculum for pyrite-oxidizing enrichment cultures. Microbial activity accelerated the release of sulfate across all conditions. 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metagenomic analysis revealed the dominance of a putative chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium from the genus Thiobacillus in the enrichment cultures. Previously proposed models for aerobic microbial pyrite oxidation were assessed in terms of physical constraints, enrichment culture geochemistry, and metagenomic analysis. Although we conclude that subsurface pyrite oxidation at SSCHZO is largely abiotic, this work nonetheless yields new insight into the potential pathways by which aerobic microorganisms may accelerate pyrite oxidation at circumneutral pH. We propose a new "direct sulfur oxidation" pathway, whereby sulfhydryl-bearing outer membrane proteins mediate oxidation of pyrite surfaces through a persulfide intermediate, analogous to previously proposed mechanisms for direct microbial oxidation of elemental sulfur. The action of this and other direct microbial pyrite oxidation pathways have major implications for controls on pyrite weathering rates in circumneutral pH sedimentary environments where pore throat sizes permit widespread access of microorganisms to pyrite surfaces.

3.
Front Oncol ; 11: 716762, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34671550

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the clinical performance and utility for risk stratification of DH3 HPV assay in women (≥30 years) with NILM cytology. Methods: A prospective cohort was established in Central China between November 8 to December 14, 2016 which consisted of 2180 women aging 30-64 years with NILM cytology. At baseline, all women were screened using DH3 HPV assay. HPV 16/18 positive women would be assigned to colposcopy and biopsied if necessary. Then, hr-HPV positive women without CIN2+ lesions would be followed up by cytology every 12 months for two years. In the 3rd year of follow up, all women that were not biopsy proven CIN2+ would be called back and screened by cytology again. In follow-up period, women with ASC-US and above were referred to colposcopy and biopsied if clinically indicated. CIN2+ was the primary endpoint in analysis. The clinical performance and utility for risk stratification of DH3 HPV assay were assessed by SPSS 22.0 and SAS 9.4. Results: Of 2180 qualified women, the prevalence of hr-HPV was 8.5% (185/2180), 45(2.1%) were HPV 16/18 positive. The clinical performance for HPV16/18 was 91.7% for sensitivity, 98.4% for specificity, respectively against CIN2+ detection at baseline. In four years of study, the corresponding rates of HPV 16/18 were 51.5% and 98.7%, respectively. The cumulative absolute risk for the development of CIN2+ was as high as 37.8% for HPV 16/18 positive women, followed by hr-HPV positive (14.6%), other hr-HPV positive (11.0%) and HPV negative (0.3%) in three years. The relative risk was 125.6 and 3.4 for HPV 16/18 positive group when compared with HPV negative and other hr-HPV positive group, respectively. Conclusions: DH3 HPV assay demonstrated excellent clinical performance against CIN2+ detection in cervical cancer screening and utility of risk stratification by genotyping to promote scientific management of women with NILM cytology.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34675066

RESUMO

Identification of high-risk population among HBV/HCV-infected individuals with first-degree relatives (FDRs) who have liver cancer is important to implement precise intervention. A cross-sectional study was conducted under the framework of a population-based Cancer Screening Program in Urban China (CanSPUC), aimed to develop and validate a simple non-invasive model that could assess and stratify cirrhosis risk, in HBV/HCV-infected individuals with FDRs who have liver cancer. People who participated in liver cancer screening in Henan province were enrolled. Using the dataset consisting of participants admitted from October 1,2013 to December 31, 2016, a 24-point scale risk score model was developed through logistic regression, based on education background, dietary habit, smoking index, cooking oil fume exposure, history of severe trauma, HBV/HCV infection status, history of diabetes, history of hyperlipidaemia, and parent history of liver cancer. The model showed excellent discrimination with AUROC of 0.875 (95%CI: 0.853-0.896) and fair calibration with a Hosmer-Lemeshow test P=0.106. The prevalence rates in the medium- and high-risk groups were 2.87 (95%CI: 1.94-4.25) and 47.57 (95%CI: 31.59-71.63) times of low-risk group, respectively. After internal validation, bias-corrected AUROC was 0.874 (95%CI: 0.873-0.875). In the external validation dataset consisting of participants admitted from January 1,2017 to October 31, 2018, the model had achieved similar discrimination, calibration and risk stratification ability. In conclusion, this risk score model we developed can be a practical tool for the screening and prevention of liver cirrhosis among HBV/HCV-infected individuals with FDRs who have liver cancer.

5.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 197, 2021 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474668

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current methods for cervical cancer screening result in an increased number of referrals and unnecessary diagnostic procedures. This study aimed to develop and evaluate a more accurate model for cervical cancer screening. METHODS: Multiple predictors including age, cytology, high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) DNA/mRNA, E6 oncoprotein, HPV genotyping, and p16/Ki-67 were used for model construction in a cross-sectional population including women with normal cervix (N = 1085), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN, N = 279), and cervical cancer (N = 551) to predict CIN2+ or CIN3+. A base model using age, cytology, and hrHPV was calculated, and extended versions with additional biomarkers were considered. External validations in two screening cohorts with 3-year follow-up were further conducted (NCohort-I = 3179, NCohort-II = 3082). RESULTS: The base model increased the area under the curve (AUC, 0.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.88-0.93) and reduced colposcopy referral rates (42.76%, 95% CI = 38.67-46.92) compared to hrHPV and cytology co-testing in the cross-sectional population (AUC 0.80, 95% CI = 0.79-0.82, referrals rates 61.62, 95% CI = 59.4-63.8) to predict CIN2+. The AUC further improved when HPV genotyping and/or E6 oncoprotein were included in the base model. External validation in two screening cohorts further demonstrated that our models had better clinical performances than routine screening methods, yielded AUCs of 0.92 (95% CI = 0.91-0.93) and 0.94 (95% CI = 0.91-0.97) to predict CIN2+ and referrals rates of 17.55% (95% CI = 16.24-18.92) and 7.40% (95% CI = 6.50-8.38) in screening cohort I and II, respectively. Similar results were observed for CIN3+ prediction. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to routine screening methods, our model using current cervical screening indicators can improve the clinical performance and reduce referral rates.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/diagnóstico , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia
6.
AIDS Res Ther ; 18(1): 59, 2021 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We estimated the predictive effects of ART-related perceptions on the actual ART uptake behavior among ART naïve PLWH stratified by different time of HIV diagnosis under the new strategy. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted among ART naïve PLWH in Guangzhou, China from June 2016 to June 2017. Cox regression model was used to evaluate the predictive effects of ART-related perceptions on ART initiation among PLWH stratified by different timepoint of HIV diagnosis (i.e., before or after the update of the new treatment policy). RESULTS: Among 411 participants, 150 and 261 were diagnosed before (pre-scaleup group) and after (post-scaleup group) the implementation of the new strategy, respectively. The ART initiation rate in the post-scaleup group (88.9%) was higher than that in the pre-scaleup group (73.3%) (p < 0.001). A significant difference of mean score was detected in each HBM construct between pre- and post-scaleup groups (p < 0.05). After adjusting for significant background variables, among all participants, only the self-efficacy [adjusted HR (HRa) = 1.23, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.43, p = 0.006], has a predictive effect on ART initiation; in pre-scaleup group, all constructs of HBM-related ART perceptions were predictors of ART initiation (HRa = 0.71 to 1.83, p < 0.05), while in post-scaleup group, no significant difference was found in each construct (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The ART initiation rate was high particularly among participants who diagnosed after the new treatment strategy. The important role of the time of HIV diagnosis on ART initiation identified in this study suggested that future implementation interventions may consider to modify the ART-related perceptions for HIV patients who diagnosed before the implementation of the new ART strategy, while expand the accessibility of ART service for those who diagnosed after the implementation of the new strategy.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos
7.
Lancet Reg Health West Pac ; 13: 100196, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34527987

RESUMO

Background: Although recent studies have suggested that naturally acquired Human papillomavirus (HPV) antibodies are partly protective against subsequent homotypic infection, the extent of protection remains indecisive. Here, we evaluate the protective effect of neutralizing and IgG antibodies simultaneously. Methods: In a cohort of 3634 women aged 18-45 years from the control arm of a phase III trial of the HPV-16/18 bivalent vaccine, participants were tested for neutralizing antibodies by pseudovirion-based neutralization assay (PBNA) and IgG antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at baseline. HPV-16/18 incident and persistent infections were identified using cervical specimens periodically collected during the 5·5 years of follow-up. The protective effects of HPV-16/18 neutralizing and IgG antibodies against homotypic infection were assessed using a Cox proportional hazard model. Findings: For the persistent infection (PI) endpoints of HPV-16/18 lasting for over 6/12 months, a prevalence of type-specific neutralizing antibodies was highly protective (6-month PI: hazard ratio (HR) = 0·16, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0·04, 0·65; 12-month PI: HR = 0·23, 95% CI: 0·06, 0·94), whereas a prevalence of IgG antibodies was associated with minor and non-significant protection (6-month PI: HR = 0·66, 95% CI: 0·40, 1·09; 12-month PI: HR = 0·66, 95% CI: 0·36, 1·20). After increasing the cut-off value to the median IgG level, the risk of 6-month PI was significantly lower in seropositive vs seronegative women (HR = 0·38, 95% CI: 0·18, 0·83). Interpretation: Naturally acquired antibodies are associated with a substantially reduced risk of subsequent homotypic infection. Funding: NSFC; The Fujian Province Health Education Joint Research Project; Xiamen Science and Technology Major Project; CIFMS; and Xiamen Innovax.

8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(19): e023491, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569277

RESUMO

Background Therapy with mesenchymal stem cells remains a promising but challenging approach to critical limb ischemia in diabetes because of the dismal cell survival. Methods and Results Critical limb ischemia in type 2 diabetes mouse model was used to explore the impact of diabetic limb ischemia on the survival of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (bMSCs). Inhibition of intracellular reactive oxygen species was achieved with concomitant overexpression of superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1 and glutathione peroxidase-1 in the transplanted bMSCs, and extracellular reactive oxygen species was attenuated using SOD-3 overexpression and N-acetylcysteine treatment. In vivo optical fluorescence imaging and laser Doppler perfusion imaging were used to track cell retention and determine blood flow in diabetic ischemic limb, respectively. Survival of the transplanted bMSCs was significantly decreased in diabetic ischemic limb compared with the control. In vitro study indicated that advanced glycation end products, not high glucose, significantly decreased the proliferation of bMSCs and increased their apoptosis associated with increased reactive oxygen species production and selective reduction of SOD-1 and SOD-3. In vivo study demonstrated that concomitant overexpression of SOD-1, SOD-3, and glutathione peroxidase-1, or host treatment with N-acetylcysteine, significantly enhanced in vivo survival of transplanted bMSCs, and improved critical limb ischemia in diabetic mice. Combination of triple antioxidant enzyme overexpression in bMSCs with host N-acetylcysteine treatment further improved bMSC survival with enhanced circulatory and functional recovery from diabetic critical limb ischemia. Conclusions Simultaneous suppression of reactive oxygen species from transplanted bMSCs and host tissue could additively enhance bMSC survival in diabetic ischemic limb with increased therapeutic efficacy in diabetes.

9.
Plant Cell ; 33(9): 2981-3003, 2021 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34240197

RESUMO

To overcome nitrogen deficiency, legume roots establish symbiotic interactions with nitrogen-fixing rhizobia that are fostered in specialized organs (nodules). Similar to other organs, nodule formation is determined by a local maximum of the phytohormone auxin at the primordium site. However, how auxin regulates nodule development remains poorly understood. Here, we found that in soybean, (Glycine max), dynamic auxin transport driven by PIN-FORMED (PIN) transporter GmPIN1 is involved in nodule primordium formation. GmPIN1 was specifically expressed in nodule primordium cells and GmPIN1 was polarly localized in these cells. Two nodulation regulators, (iso)flavonoids trigger expanded distribution of GmPIN1b to root cortical cells, and cytokinin rearranges GmPIN1b polarity. Gmpin1abc triple mutants generated with CRISPR-Cas9 showed the impaired establishment of auxin maxima in nodule meristems and aberrant divisions in the nodule primordium cells. Moreover, overexpression of GmPIN1 suppressed nodule primordium initiation. GmPIN9d, an ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana PIN2, acts together with GmPIN1 later in nodule development to acropetally transport auxin in vascular bundles, fine-tuning the auxin supply for nodule enlargement. Our findings reveal how PIN-dependent auxin transport modulates different aspects of soybean nodule development and suggest that the establishment of auxin gradient is a prerequisite for the proper interaction between legumes and rhizobia.

10.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(12): e0296520, 2021 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837014

RESUMO

Warming strongly stimulates soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emission, contributing to the global warming trend. Submerged paddy soils exhibit huge N2O emission potential; however, the N2O emission pathway and underlying mechanisms for warming are not clearly understood. We conducted an incubation experiment using 15N to investigate the dynamics of N2O emission at controlled temperatures (5, 15, 25, and 35°C) in 125% water-filled pore space. The community structures of nitrifiers and denitrifiers were determined via high-throughput sequencing of functional genes. Our results showed that elevated temperature sharply enhanced soil N2O emission from submerged paddy soil. Denitrification was the main contributor, accounting for more than 90% of total N2O emission at all treatment temperatures. N2O flux was coordinatively regulated by nirK-, nirS-, and nosZ-containing denitrifiers but not ammonia-oxidizing archaea or ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. The nirS-containing denitrifiers were more sensitive to temperature shifts, especially at a lower temperature range (5 to 25°C), and showed a stronger correlation with N2O flux than that of nirK-containing denitrifiers. In contrast, nosZ-containing denitrifiers exhibited substantial variation at higher temperatures (15 to 35°C), thereby playing an important role in N2O consumption. Certain taxa of nirS- and nosZ-containing denitrifiers regulated N2O flux, including nirS-containing denitrifiers affiliated with Rhodanobacter and Cupriavidus as well as nosZ-containing denitrifiers affiliated with Azoarcus and Azospirillum. Together, these findings suggest that elevated temperature can significantly increase N2O emission from denitrification in submerged paddy soils by shifting the overall community structures and enriching some indigenous taxa of nirS- and nosZ-containing denitrifiers. IMPORTANCE The interdependence between global warming and greenhouse gas N2O has always been the hot spot. However, information on factors contributing to N2O and temperature-dependent community structure changes is scarce. This study demonstrated high-temperature-induced N2O emission from submerged paddy soils, mainly via stimulating denitrification. Further, we speculate that key functional denitrifiers drive N2O emission. This study showed that denitrifiers were more sensitive to temperature rise than nitrifiers, and the temperature sensitivity differed among denitrifier communities. N2O-consuming denitrifiers (nosZ-containing denitrifiers) were more sensitive at a higher temperature range than N2O-producing denitrifiers (nirS-containing denitrifiers). This study's findings help predict N2O fluxes under different degrees of warming and develop strategies to mitigate N2O emissions from paddy fields based on microbial community regulation.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Desnitrificação , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Aquecimento Global , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nitrificação , Oryza , Solo/química , Temperatura
11.
BMC Med Genomics ; 14(1): 84, 2021 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have identified susceptibility genes of HBV clearance, chronic hepatitis B, liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and showed the host genetic factors play an important role in these HBV-related outcomes. METHODS: Collected samples from different outcomes of HBV infection and performed genotyping by Affymetrix 500 k SNP Array. GCTA tool, PLINK, and Bonferroni method were applied for analysis of genotyping and disease progression. ANOVA was used to evaluate the significance of the association between biomarkers and genotypes in healthy controls. PoMo, FST, Vcftools and Rehh package were used for building the racial tree and population analysis. FST statistics accesses 0.15 was used as a threshold to detect the signature of selection. RESULTS: There are 1031 participants passed quality control from 1104 participants, including 275 HBV clearance, 92 asymptomatic persistence infection (ASPI), 93 chronic hepatitis B (CHB), 188 HBV-related decompensated cirrhosis (DC), 214 HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and 169 healthy controls (HC). In the case-control study, one novel locus significantly associated with CHB (SNP: rs1264473, Gene: GRHL2, P = 1.57 × 10-6) and HCC (SNP: rs2833856, Gene: EVA1C, P = 1.62 × 10-6; SNP: rs4661093, Gene: ETV3, P = 2.26 × 10-6). In the trend study across progressive stages post HBV infection, one novel locus (SNP: rs1537862, Gene: LACE1, P = 1.85 × 10-6), and three MHC loci (HLA-DRB1, HLA-DPB1, HLA-DPA2) showed significant increased progressive risk from ASPI to CHB. Underlying the evolutionary study of HBV-related genes in public database, the derived allele of two HBV clearance related loci, rs3077 and rs9277542, are under strong selection in European population. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we identified several novel candidate genes associated with individual HBV infectious outcomes, progressive stages, and liver enzymes. Two SNPs that show selective significance (HLA-DPA1, HLA-DPB1) in non-East Asian (European, American, South Asian) versus East Asian, indicating that host genetic factors contribute to the ethnic disparities of susceptibility of HBV infection. Taken together, these findings provided a new insight into the role of host genetic factors in HBV related outcomes and progression.

12.
Int J STD AIDS ; 32(3): 228-238, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555232

RESUMO

The association between relationship characteristics and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) acceptability among same-sex male couples has been limitedly examined. Dyadic survey data of 139 concordant HIV-negative same-sex male couples in Guangzhou, China were collected. The willingness to use PrEP was measured assuming that the participant's partner was HIV-positive. The actor-partner interdependence model was used to examine how one's relationship characteristics affected the PrEP willingness of the subject and his partner. Most participants (79.5%) were willing to use PrEP. The two individuals of the couple were distinguished by sex role in relationship, namely one usually playing the insertive role and the other usually playing the receptive role in anal intercourse. The former was labeled as "top" and the latter labeled as "bottom". The PrEP willingness of the top partner increased when he would think his partner is having sex with other people if the partner requests condom use in relationship (AOR: 5.74, 95% CI: 1.10-29.87), and decreased when his partner would get violent upon condom use requests in relationship (AOR: 0.19, 95% CI: 0.04-0.88). The PrEP willingness of the bottom partner increased when he trusted his partner (AOR: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.02-1.25) and when he or his partner disclosed the relationship to parents (AOR: 10.57, 95% CI: 1.91-58.61). Considering the sex role and relationship characteristics in couple-based interventions are important to optimize PrEP uptake among HIV-discordant same-sex male couples.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/estatística & dados numéricos , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/etnologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/etnologia , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Sexo sem Proteção
13.
AIDS Behav ; 25(11): 3494-3502, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33506306

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of HIV self-testing (HIVST) on promoting regular HIV testing, which defined as having uptake HIV testing every three to 6 months, among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Guangzhou, China. 491 ever-tested MSM were recruited from a community-based HIV clinic and randomly assigned into either intervention arm that provided text message plus HIVST service (n = 250) or standard of care arm (n = 241) being a text message promoting HIV testing every 3 months. Overall, 73.7% (330/448) of the participants had uptake HIV testing, and 27.7% (124/448) of them reported ever used of an HIV self-test during study period. HIVST significantly increased regularly HIV testing among participants in the intervention arm compared with standard of care arm (77.4% vs 69.5%). HIVST as a supplement to the existing facility-based testing services is promising in promoting regular HIV testing among MSM in China. Trial registration number: ChiCTR1800016811.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , China , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Teste de HIV , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Autoteste
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(11): e2019039, 2020 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141158

RESUMO

Importance: Lung cancer screening has been widely implemented in Europe and the US. However, there is little evidence on participation and diagnostic yields in population-based lung cancer screening in China. Objective: To assess the participation rate and detection rate of lung cancer in a population-based screening program and the factors associated with participation. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used data from the Cancer Screening Program in Urban China from October 2013 to October 2019, with follow-up until March 10, 2020. The program is conducted at centers in 8 cities in Henan Province, China. Eligible participants were aged 40 to 74 and were evaluated for a high risk for lung cancer using an established risk score system. Main Outcomes and Measures: Overall and group-specific participation rates by common factors, such as age, sex, and educational level, were calculated. Differences in participation rates between those groups were compared. The diagnostic yield of both screening and nonscreening groups was calculated. Results: The study recruited 282 377 eligible participants and included 55 428 with high risk for lung cancer; the mean (SD) age was 55.3 (8.1) years, and 34 966 participants (63.1%) were men. A total of 22 260 participants underwent LDCT (participation rate, 40.16%; 95% CI, 39.82%-40.50%). The multivariable logistic regression model showed that female sex (odds ratio [OR], 1.64; 95% CI, 1.52-1.78), former smoking (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.13-1.41), lack of physical activity (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.14-1.24), family history of lung cancer (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.66-1.79), and 7 other factors were associated with increased participation of LDCT screening. Overall, at 6-year follow-up, 78 participants in the screening group (0.35%; 95% CI, 0.29%-0.42%) and 125 in the nonscreening group (0.38%; 95% CI, 0.33%-0.44%) had lung cancer detected, which resulted in an odds ratio of 0.93 (95% CI, 0.70-1.23; P = .61). Conclusions and Relevance: The low participations rate in the program studied suggests that an improved strategy is needed. These findings may provide useful information for designing effective population-based lung cancer screening strategies in the future.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5792, 2020 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33235196

RESUMO

Although calcareous anatomical structures have evolved in diverse animal groups, such structures have been unknown in insects. Here, we report the discovery of high-magnesium calcite [CaMg(CO3)2] armor overlaying the exoskeletons of major workers of the leaf-cutter ant Acromyrmex echinatior. Live-rearing and in vitro synthesis experiments indicate that the biomineral layer accumulates rapidly as ant workers mature, that the layer is continuously distributed, covering nearly the entire integument, and that the ant epicuticle catalyzes biomineral nucleation and growth. In situ nanoindentation demonstrates that the biomineral layer significantly hardens the exoskeleton. Increased survival of ant workers with biomineralized exoskeletons during aggressive encounters with other ants and reduced infection by entomopathogenic fungi demonstrate the protective role of the biomineral layer. The discovery of biogenic high-magnesium calcite in the relatively well-studied leaf-cutting ants suggests that calcareous biominerals enriched in magnesium may be more common in metazoans than previously recognized.


Assuntos
Exoesqueleto/química , Formigas/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Carbonato de Cálcio , Magnésio
16.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 42(4): 535-539, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895107

RESUMO

Cervical cancer is the second most common malignant tumor in women worldwide.The burden of cervical cancer is particularly heavy in less developed countries as the malignancy brings huge pain to the patients and their family members and causes huge losses to social development and global health.However,cervical cancer is a preventable and curable disease.While screening and human papillomavirus vaccination in developed countries have remarkably lowered the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer,there is still a far way to go to achieve the prevention and treatment of this disease.The multidisciplinary prevention and control programs slightly differ in different countries due to diverse economic and health conditions.The general principle is to vaccinate the young females and to implement a comprehensive strategy including human papillomavirus vaccine vaccination,screening,early diagnosis,and early treatment in adults.


Assuntos
Infecções por Papillomavirus , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Vacinação
17.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(10): e22628, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has threatened the health systems of many countries worldwide. Several studies have suggested that the pandemic affects not only physical health but also all aspects of society. A lot of information has been reported about the disease since the beginning of the outbreak. For that reason, it is essential to investigate the attitudes and level of knowledge and awareness that different populations had regarding COVID-19 during the critical period of the outbreak. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the knowledge and awareness of and attitudes toward the COVID-19 pandemic among different populations in Central China during the critical period of the outbreak. METHODS: A cross-sectional web-based survey was conducted in Central China from February to March 2020. The study participants included three different populations: medical workers, students, and those with other occupations. In this study, a questionnaire was designed to collect information on the following four aspects: sociodemographic information, knowledge related to COVID-19, awareness of COVID-19, and attitude toward COVID-19. The chi-square test and Fisher test were used for comparison among groups. The level of significance was set at P<.05. RESULTS: This study enrolled a total of 508 participants. Among them, there were 380 students (74.8%), 39 medical workers (7.7%), and 89 people with other occupations (17.5%). Most of the participants were female (n=272, 53.5%), lived in rural areas (n=258, 50.8%), and were single (n=423, 86.9%). The majority of the respondents had attended college (n=454, 89.4%). Most of the participants said they had heard about COVID-19 by January, and most of them looked for information on social media (Sina Weibo, 84.7%), and WeChat and QQ groups (74.2%). The participants showed an adequate level of knowledge about COVID-19 with no significant differences among the groups. However, medical workers demonstrated a slightly advanced knowledge in their responses to professional questions such as the potential susceptible population, possible host, treatment of COVID-19, and disease category. A higher proportion of medical workers (71.8%) and those in the other occupations group (52.8%) were highly concerned about the COVID-19 pandemic. More than 43% of the participants stated that the lockdown of their village/city had a significant impact on their lives. Nevertheless, the majority of respondents had an overall optimistic attitude toward the control of the disease (92.1% of students [n=350], 94.9% of medical workers [n=37], and 92.3% of those in other occupations [n=83]). CONCLUSIONS: All three groups reported an adequate background knowledge about COVID-19 but medical workers showed a slightly advanced knowledge in their responses to professional questions. Most of the participants were highly concerned about COVID-19 during the critical period of the outbreak. The majority of respondents declared that the village/city lockdown policy had a significant impact on their daily life but most of them held an optimistic attitude toward the control of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19 , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
18.
Acta Crystallogr B Struct Sci Cryst Eng Mater ; 76(Pt 1): 93-107, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32831245

RESUMO

Labradorite feldspars of the plagioclase solid solution series have been known for their complicated subsolidus phase relations and enigmatic incommensurately modulated structures. Characterized by the irrationally indexed e-reflections in the diffraction pattern, e-labradorite shows the largest variation in the incommensurate ordering states among the e-plagioclase structures. The strongly ordered low-temperature e-labradorite is one of the last missing pieces of the e-plagioclase puzzle. Nine plutonic and metamorphic labradorite feldspar samples from Canada, Ukraine, Minnesota (USA), Tanzania and Greenland with compositions ranging from An52.5 to An68 were studied with single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Two crystals from Labrador, Canada, and Duluth, MN, USA, with wide enough twin lamellae were analyzed with single-crystal neutron diffraction. The incommensurately modulated structures of e-plagioclase are refined for the first time with neutron diffraction data, which confirmed that the T-O distance modulation in the low-temperature e-plagioclase results from the Al-Si ordering in the framework. Detailed configurations of the M site are also observed in the structures refined from neutron diffraction data, which were not possible to see with X-ray diffraction data. The relation between the q-vectors and the mole% An composition is revealed for the entire compositional range of e-plagioclase, from An25 to An75. The previously proposed two-trend relation depending on the cooling rate and phase transition path is confirmed. A new classification of e-plagioclase (eα, eß and eγ) is proposed based on the q-vector of the structure, which makes it an independent character from the presence/absence of density modulation. New parameters are proposed to quantify the ordering states of these complicated aperiodic structures of e-plagioclases, such as the difference between 〈T1o-O〉 and 〈T1m-O〉 at phase t = 0.2 or the normalized intensity of the (071\bar 1) reflection.

19.
Front Oncol ; 10: 1173, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32850337

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening has been widely implemented in Europe and the USA. However, there is little evidence of participation and diagnostic yields in population-based CRC screening in China. The participation rate and detection of colorectal lesions in this program were reported and related factors were explored. The analysis was conducted in the context of the Cancer Screening Program in Urban China, which recruited 282,377 eligible participants aged 40-74 years from eight cities in Henan province from 2013 to 2019. A total of 39,834 participants were evaluated to be high risk for CRC by an established risk score system and were subsequently recommended for colonoscopy. Of 39,834 with high risk for CRC, 7,454 subjects undertook colonoscopy (participation rate of 18.71%). We found that 50-64 years, high level of education, marriage, former smoking, current alcohol drinking, low levels dietary intake of vegetables, high levels dietary intake of processed meat, lack of physical activity, fecal occult blood test positive result, history of colonic polyp, history of colorectitis, and family history of CRC were associated with increased participation of colonoscopy screening. Overall, 17 CRC (0.23%), 95 advanced adenoma (1.27%), 478 non-advanced adenomas dysplasia (6.41%), 248 hyperplastic polyp (3.33%), and 910 other benign lesions (12.21%) were detected. The findings from the study will provide important references for designing effective population-based CRC screening strategies in the future. Given the relatively low participation rate, there was room for improvement in the yield of CRC screening.

20.
Virol Sin ; 35(4): 378-387, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32297155

RESUMO

Some patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection failed to clear HBV, even persistently continue to produce antibodies to HBV. Here we performed a two stage genome wide association study in a cohort of Chinese patients designed to discover single nucleotide variants that associate with HBV infection and clearance of HBV. The first stage involved genome wide exome sequencing of 101 cases (HBsAg plus anti-HBs positive) compared with 102 control patients (anti-HBs positive, HBsAg negative). Over 80% of individual sequences displayed 20 × sequence coverage. Adapters, uncertain bases > 10% or low-quality base calls (> 50%) were filtered and compared to the human reference genome hg19. In the second stage, 579 chronic HBV infected cases and 439 HBV clearance controls were sequenced with selected genes from the first stage. Although there were no significant associated gene variants in the first stage, two significant gene associations were discovered when the two stages were assessed in a combined analysis. One association showed rs506121-"T" allele [within the dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) gene] was higher in chronic HBV infection group than that in clearance group (P = 0.002, OR = 0.77, 95% CI [0.65, 0.91]). The second association involved rs2071676-A allele within the Carbonic anhydrase (CA9) gene that was significantly elevated in chronic HBV infection group compared to the clearance group (P = 0.0003, OR = 1.35, 95% CI [1.15, 1.58]). Upon replication these gene associations would suggest the influence of DOCK8 and CA9 as potential risk genetic factors in the persistence of HBV infection.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Genoma Humano , Hepatite B Crônica/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , DNA Viral/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Vírus da Hepatite B , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sequência de DNA
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