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1.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(2): 2892-2902, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860260

RESUMO

Conventional polymer composites normally suffer from undesired thermal conductivity enhancement which has hampered the development of modern electronics as they face a stricter heat dissipating requirement. It is still challenging to achieve satisfactory thermal conductivity enhancement with reasonable mechanical properties. Herein, we present a three-dimensional (3D), lightweight, and mechanically strong boron nitride (BN)-silicon carbide (SiC) skeleton with aligned thermal pathways via the combination of ice-templated assembly and high-temperature sintering. The sintering has introduced atomic-level coupling at the BN-SiC junction which contributes to efficient phonon transport via the newly formed borosilicate glass BCxN3-x (0 ≤ x ≤ 3) and SiCxN4-x (0 ≤ x ≤ 4) phases, leading to much lower interfacial thermal resistance. Thus, the obtained BN-SiC skeleton shows satisfactory thermal performance. The prepared 3D BN-SiC/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composites exhibit a maximum through-plane thermal conductivity of 3.87 W·m-1·K-1 at a filler loading of only 8.35 vol %. The thermal conductivity enhancement efficiency reaches 220% per 1 vol % filler when compared to pure PDMS matrix, superior to other reported BN skeleton-based composites. The feature of our strategy is to allow the oriented three-dimensional skeleton to be strongly bonded by a sintered ceramic phase instead of polymer-like adhesive, namely, to improve the intrinsic thermal conductivity of the skeleton to the greatest extent. This strategy can be applied to develop novel thermal management materials that are lightweight and mechanically tough that rapidly transfer heat. It represents a new avenue to addressing the heat challenges in traditional electronic products.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5589, 2019 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811122

RESUMO

Excitons in two-dimensional (2D) materials are tightly bound and exhibit rich physics. So far, the optical excitations in 2D semiconductors are dominated by Wannier-Mott excitons, but molecular systems can host Frenkel excitons (FE) with unique properties. Here, we report a strong optical response in a class of monolayer molecular J-aggregates. The exciton exhibits giant oscillator strength and absorption (over 30% for monolayer) at resonance, as well as photoluminescence quantum yield in the range of 60-100%. We observe evidence of superradiance (including increased oscillator strength, bathochromic shift, reduced linewidth and lifetime) at room-temperature and more progressively towards low temperature. These unique properties only exist in monolayer owing to the large unscreened dipole interactions and suppression of charge-transfer processes. Finally, we demonstrate light-emitting devices with the monolayer J-aggregate. The intrinsic device speed could be beyond 30 GHz, which is promising for next-generation ultrafast on-chip optical communications.

3.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(41): 37892-37900, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560511

RESUMO

Flexible thermoelectric materials that can harvest waste heat energy have attracted great attention because of the rapid progress of flexible electronics. Ag2Te nanowires (Ag2Te NWs) are considered as promising thermoelectric materials to fabricate flexible thermoelectric film and device because of their high Seebeck coefficient, but poor contact between the Ag2Te NWs results in low electrical conductivity. Generally, hot or cold pressing can increase the electrical conductivity between the Ag2Te NWs. However, these process tend to destroy the initial morphology of the Ag2Te NWs and/or cause only physical contact between the Ag2Te NWs. Herein, we report an approach to the room-temperature welding of Ag2Te NWs to enhance their contacts by facile combination of vacuum filtration and drop-coating methods. The obtained Ag2Te NWs film exhibits excellent Seebeck coefficient of -99.48 µV/K and high electrical conductivity of 15 335.05 S/m at room temperature, which gives the power factor of 151.76 µW m-1 K-2. Surprisingly, an optimal Seebeck coefficient of -154.96 µV/K and electrical conductivity of 14 982.42 S/m can be obtained at 420 K, giving a power factor of 359.76 µW m-1 K-2. Moreover, the electrical resistance of the Ag2Te NWs film was only 1.3 times of the initial electrical resistance after 1000 bending cycles, indicating good flexibility of the film. A finger-touch test is conducted by using the Ag2Te NWs film as thermoelectric power generator, which achieves a stable output voltage of about 0.52 mV, suggesting its great potential applications in self-powered flexible electronic devices.

4.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 38(1): 378, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455359

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cripto-1 (CR-1) has been reported to be involved in the development of several human cancers. The potential role of CR-1 in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is still not clear. METHODS: CR-1 expression was evaluated in ccRCC tissues by Real-time quantitative PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Serum levels of CR-1 were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The clinical significance of CR-1 was analyzed. The effects of CR-1 on cell proliferation, migration, invasion and angiogenesis were investigated in ccRCC cell lines in vitro and in vivo, and markers of the epithelial -mesenchymal transition (EMT) were analyzed. The impact of CR-1 on Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway was also evaluated in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: CR-1 expression was elevated in ccRCC tumor tissues and serum samples. CR-1 expression was correlated with aggressive tumor phenotype and poor survival. Ectopic expression of CR-1 significantly promoted cell proliferation, migration, invasion and angiogenesis whereas knockdown of CR-1 inhibited these activities both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we found that CR-1 induced EMT and activated Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway both in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that CR-1 is likely to play important roles in ccRCC development and progression, and that CR-1 is a prognostic biomarker and a promising therapeutic target for ccRCC.

5.
ACS Nano ; 13(7): 7402-7409, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203604

RESUMO

Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs), structural analogues of carbon nanotubes, have attracted significant attention due to their superb thermal conductivity, wide bandgap, excellent hydrogen storage capacity, and thermal and chemical stability. Despite considerable progress in the preparation and surface functionalization of BNNTs, it remains a challenge to assemble one-dimensional BNNTs into three-dimensional (3D) architectures (such as aerogels) for practical applications. Here, we report a highly compressive BNNT aerogel reinforced with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) fabricated using a freeze-drying method. The reinforcement effect of rGO and 3D honeycomb-like framework offer the BNNTs/rGO aerogel with a high compression resilience. The BNNTs/rGO aerogels were then infiltrated with polyethylene glycol to prepare a kind of phase change materials. The prepared phase change material composites show zero leakage even at 100 °C and enhanced thermal conductivity, due to the 3D porous structure of the BNNTs/rGO aerogel. This work provides a simple method for the preparation of 3D BNNTs/rGO aerogels for many potential applications, such as high-performance polymer composites.

6.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4909, 2018 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30464172

RESUMO

Terahertz modulators with high tunability of both intensity and phase are essential for effective control of electromagnetic properties. Due to the underlying physics behind existing approaches there is still a lack of broadband devices able to achieve deep modulation. Here, we demonstrate the effect of tunable Brewster angle controlled by graphene, and develop a highly-tunable solid-state graphene/quartz modulator based on this mechanism. The Brewster angle of the device can be tuned by varying the conductivity of the graphene through an electrical gate. In this way, we achieve near perfect intensity modulation with spectrally flat modulation depth of 99.3 to 99.9 percent and phase tunability of up to 140 degree in the frequency range from 0.5 to 1.6 THz. Different from using electromagnetic resonance effects (for example, metamaterials), this principle ensures that our device can operate in ultra-broadband. Thus it is an effective principle for terahertz modulation.

7.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(28): 8696-8704, 2018 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29927248

RESUMO

Plasmon-free surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) based on the chemical mechanism (CM) is drawing great attention due to its capability for controllable molecular detection. However, in comparison to the conventional noble-metal-based SERS technique driven by plasmonic electromagnetic mechanism (EM), the low sensitivity in the CM-based SERS is the dominant barrier toward its practical applications. Herein, we demonstrate the 1T' transition metal telluride atomic layers (WTe2 and MoTe2) as ultrasensitive platforms for CM-based SERS. The SERS sensitivities of analyte dyes on 1T'-W(Mo)Te2 reach EM-comparable ones and become even greater when it is integrated with a Bragg reflector. In addition, the dye fluorescence signals are efficiently quenched, making the SERS spectra more distinguishable. As a proof of concept, the SERS signals of analyte Rhodamine 6G (R6G) are detectable even with an ultralow concentration of 40 (400) fM on pristine 1T'-W(Mo)Te2, and the corresponding Raman enhancement factor (EF) reaches 1.8 × 109 (1.6 × 108). The limit concentration of detection and the EF of R6G can be further enhanced into 4 (40) fM and 4.4 × 1010 (6.2 × 109), respectively, when 1T'-W(Mo)Te2 is integrated on the Bragg reflector. The strong interaction between the analyte and 1T'-W(Mo)Te2 and the abundant density of states near the Fermi level of the semimetal 1T'-W(Mo)Te2 in combination gives rise to the promising SERS effects by promoting the charge transfer resonance in the analyte-telluride complex.

8.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(11): 9669-9678, 2018 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29488374

RESUMO

Efficient heat removal via thermal management materials has become one of the most critical challenges in the development of modern microelectronic devices. However, previously reported polymer composites exhibit limited enhancement of thermal conductivity, even when highly loaded with thermally conductive fillers, because of the lack of efficient heat transfer pathways. Herein, we report vertically aligned and interconnected SiC nanowire (SiCNW) networks as efficient fillers for polymer composites, achieving significantly enhanced thermal conductivity. The SiCNW networks are produced by freeze-casting nanowire aqueous suspensions followed by thermal sintering to consolidate the nanowire junctions, exhibiting a hierarchical architecture in which honeycomb-like SiCNW layers are aligned. The composite obtained by infiltrating SiCNW networks with epoxy resin, at a relatively low SiCNW loading of 2.17 vol %, represents a high through-plane thermal conductivity (1.67 W m-1 K-1) compared to the pure matrix, which is equivalent to a significant enhancement of 406.6% per 1 vol % loading. The orderly SiCNW network which can act as a macroscopic expressway for phonon transport is believed to be the main contributor for the excellent thermal performance. This strategy provides insights for the design of high-performance composites with potential to be used in advanced thermal management materials.

9.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(31): 25878-25901, 2018 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29509395

RESUMO

Solution-processed metal oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) are considered as one of the most promising transistor technologies for future large-area flexible electronics. This work surveys the recent advances in solution-processed metal oxide TFTs, including n-type oxide semiconductors, oxide dielectrics, and p-type oxide semiconductors. We first deliver a review on the history and present status of metal oxide TFTs. Then, we present the recent progress in solution-processed n-type oxide semiconductors, with a special focus on low-temperature and large-area solution-based approaches as well as emerging nondisplay applications. Next, we give a detailed analysis of the state-of-the-art solution-processed oxide dielectrics for low-power electronics. We further discuss the recent advances in solution-based p-type oxide semiconductors, which will enable the highly desirable future low-cost large-area complementary circuits. Finally, we draw conclusions and outline the perspectives over the research field.

10.
Small ; 14(13): e1704044, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29392850

RESUMO

Owing to the growing heat removal issue in modern electronic devices, electrically insulating polymer composites with high thermal conductivity have drawn much attention during the past decade. However, the conventional method to improve through-plane thermal conductivity of these polymer composites usually yields an undesired value (below 3.0 Wm-1 K-1 ). Here, construction of a 3D phonon skeleton is reported composed of stacked boron nitride (BN) platelets reinforced with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) for epoxy composites by the combination of ice-templated and infiltrating methods. At a low filler loading of 13.16 vol%, the resulting 3D BN-rGO/epoxy composites exhibit an ultrahigh through-plane thermal conductivity of 5.05 Wm-1 K-1 as the best thermal-conduction performance reported so far for BN sheet-based composites. Theoretical models qualitatively demonstrate that this enhancement results from the formation of phonon-matching 3D BN-rGO networks, leading to high rates of phonon transport. The strong potential application for thermal management has been demonstrated by the surface temperature variations of the composites with time during heating and cooling.

11.
ACS Nano ; 12(2): 1720-1731, 2018 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29406752

RESUMO

Directional optical nanoantennas are often realized by nanostructured systems with ingenious or complex designs. Herein we report on the realization of directional scattering of visible light from a simple configuration made of single Ag nanorods supported on Si substrates, where the incident light can be routed toward the two flanks of each nanorod. Such an intriguing far-field scattering behavior, which has not been investigated so far, is proved to result from the near-field coupling between high-aspect-ratio Ag nanorods and high-refractive-index Si substrates. A simple and intuitive model is proposed, where the complicated plasmon resonance is found to be equivalent to several vertically aligned electric dipoles oscillating in phase, to understand the far-field properties of the system. The interference among the electric dipoles results in wavefront reshaping and sidewise light routing in a similar manner to the broadside antenna described in the traditional antenna theory, allowing for the naming of these Si-supported Ag nanorods as "broadside nanoantennas". We have carried out comprehensive experiments to understand the physical origins behind and the affecting factors on the directional scattering behavior of such broadside nanoantennas.

12.
Chem Soc Rev ; 46(23): 7469, 2017 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29098211

RESUMO

Correction for 'The physics and chemistry of graphene-on-surfaces' by Guoke Zhao, Xinming Li, Meirong Huang et al., Chem. Soc. Rev., 2017, 46, 4417-4449.

13.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(38): 33001-33010, 2017 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28871780

RESUMO

Inspired by the microstructures of naturally layered and highly oriented materials, such as natural nacre, we report a thermally conductive polymer composite that consists of epoxy resin and Al2O3 platelets deposited with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Owing to their unique two-dimensional structure, Al2O3 platelets are stacked together via a hot-pressing technique, resulting in a brick-and-mortar structure, which is similar to the one of natural nacre. Moreover, the AgNPs deposited on the surfaces of the Al2O3 platelets act as bridges that link the adjacent Al2O3 platelets due to the reduced melting point of the AgNPs. As a result, the polymer composite with 50 wt % filler achieves a maximum thermal conductivity of 6.71 W m-1 K-1. In addition, the small addition of AgNPs (0.6 wt %) minimally affects the electrical insulation of the composites. Our bioinspired approach will find uses in the design and fabrication of thermally conductive materials for thermal management in modern electronics.

14.
Sci Adv ; 3(9): e1701186, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28913429

RESUMO

Organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) with high mobility and low contact resistance have been actively pursued as building blocks for low-cost organic electronics. In conventional solution-processed or vacuum-deposited OTFTs, due to interfacial defects and traps, the organic film has to reach a certain thickness for efficient charge transport. Using an ultimate monolayer of 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) molecules as an OTFT channel, we demonstrate remarkable electrical characteristics, including intrinsic hole mobility over 30 cm2/Vs, Ohmic contact with 100 Ω · cm resistance, and band-like transport down to 150 K. Compared to conventional OTFTs, the main advantage of a monolayer channel is the direct, nondisruptive contact between the charge transport layer and metal leads, a feature that is vital for achieving low contact resistance and current saturation voltage. On the other hand, bilayer and thicker C8-BTBT OTFTs exhibit strong Schottky contact and much higher contact resistance but can be improved by inserting a doped graphene buffer layer. Our results suggest that highly crystalline molecular monolayers are promising form factors to build high-performance OTFTs and investigate device physics. They also allow us to precisely model how the molecular packing changes the transport and contact properties.

15.
Chem Soc Rev ; 46(15): 4417-4449, 2017 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28678225

RESUMO

Graphene has demonstrated great potential in next-generation electronics due to its unique two-dimensional structure and properties including a zero-gap band structure, high electron mobility, and high electrical and thermal conductivity. The integration of atom-thick graphene into a device always involves its interaction with a supporting substrate by van der Waals forces and other intermolecular forces or even covalent bonding, and this is critical to its real applications. Graphene films on different surfaces are expected to exhibit significant differences in their properties, which lead to changes in their morphology, electronic structure, surface chemistry/physics, and surface/interface states. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the surface/interface properties is of great importance. In this review, we describe the major "graphene-on-surface" structures and examine the roles of their properties and related phenomena in governing the overall performance for specific applications including optoelectronics, surface catalysis, anti-friction and superlubricity, and coatings and composites. Finally, perspectives on the opportunities and challenges of graphene-on-surface systems are discussed.

16.
ACS Nano ; 11(5): 5167-5178, 2017 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28402626

RESUMO

With the current development of modern electronics toward miniaturization, high-degree integration and multifunctionalization, considerable heat is accumulated, which results in the thermal failure or even explosion of modern electronics. The thermal conductivity of materials has thus attracted much attention in modern electronics. Although polymer composites with enhanced thermal conductivity are expected to address this issue, achieving higher thermal conductivity (above 10 W m-1 K-1) at filler loadings below 50.0 wt % remains challenging. Here, we report a nanocomposite consisting of boron nitride nanotubes and cellulose nanofibers that exhibits high thermal conductivity (21.39 W m-1 K-1) at 25.0 wt % boron nitride nanotubes. Such high thermal conductivity is attributed to the high intrinsic thermal conductivity of boron nitride nanotubes and cellulose nanofibers, the one-dimensional structure of boron nitride nanotubes, and the reduced interfacial thermal resistance due to the strong interaction between the boron nitride nanotubes and cellulose nanofibers. Using the as-prepared nanocomposite as a flexible printed circuit board, we demonstrate its potential usefulness in electronic device-cooling applications. This thermally conductive nanocomposite has promising applications in thermal interface materials, printed circuit boards or organic substrates in electronics and could supplement conventional polymer-based materials.

17.
ACS Nano ; 11(5): 4507-4513, 2017 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28380292

RESUMO

The piezoelectric effect is widely applied in pressure sensors for the detection of dynamic signals. However, these piezoelectric-induced pressure sensors have challenges in measuring static signals that are based on the transient flow of electrons in an external load as driven by the piezopotential arisen from dynamic stress. Here, we present a pressure sensor with nanowires/graphene heterostructures for static measurements based on the synergistic mechanisms between strain-induced polarization charges in piezoelectric nanowires and the caused change of carrier scattering in graphene. Compared to the conventional piezoelectric nanowire or graphene pressure sensors, this sensor is capable of measuring static pressures with a sensitivity of up to 9.4 × 10-3 kPa-1 and a fast response time down to 5-7 ms. This demonstration of pressure sensors shows great potential in the applications of electronic skin and wearable devices.

18.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(15): 13544-13553, 2017 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28362080

RESUMO

In this work, we report a fabrication of epoxy resin/ordered three-dimensional boron nitride (3D-BN) network composites through combination of ice-templating self-assembly and infiltration methods. The polymer composites possess much higher thermal conductivity up to 4.42 W m-1 K-1 at relatively low loading 34 vol % than that of random distribution composites (1.81 W m-1 K-1 for epoxy/random 3D-BN composites, 1.16 W m-1 K-1 for epoxy/random BN composites) and exhibit a high glass transition temperature (178.9-229.2 °C) and dimensional stability (22.7 ppm/K). We attribute the increased thermal conductivity to the unique oriented 3D-BN thermally conducive network, in which the much higher thermal conductivity along the in-plane direction of BN microplatelets is most useful. This study paves the way for thermally conductive polymer composites used as thermal interface materials for next-generation electronic packaging and 3D integration circuits.

19.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(13): 12073-12081, 2017 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28297598

RESUMO

MoS2 monolayer attracts considerable attention due to its semiconducting nature with a direct bandgap which can be tuned by various approaches. Yet a controllable and low-cost method to produce large-scale, high-quality, and uniform MoS2 monolayer continuous film, which is of crucial importance for practical applications and optical measurements, remains a great challenge. Most previously reported MoS2 monolayer films had limited crystalline sizes, and the high density of grain boundaries inside the films greatly affected the electrical properties. Herein, we demonstrate that highly crystalline MoS2 monolayer film with spatial size up to centimeters can be obtained via a facile chemical vapor deposition method with solid-phase precursors. This growth strategy contains selected precursor and controlled diffusion rate, giving rise to the high quality of the film. The well-defined grain boundaries inside the continuous film, which are invisible under an optical microscope, can be clearly detected in photoluminescence mapping and atomic force microscope phase images, with a low density of ∼0.04 µm-1. Transmission electron microscopy combined with selected area electron diffraction measurements further confirm the high structural homogeneity of the MoS2 monolayer film with large crystalline sizes. Electrical measurements show uniform and promising performance of the transistors made from the MoS2 monolayer film. The carrier mobility remains high at large channel lengths. This work opens a new pathway toward electronic and optical applications, and fundamental growth mechanism as well, of the MoS2 monolayer.

20.
ACS Nano ; 11(1): 430-437, 2017 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28005326

RESUMO

Graphene's unique electronic and optical properties have made it an attractive material for developing ultrafast short-wave infrared (SWIR) photodetectors. However, the performance of graphene SWIR photodetectors has been limited by the low optical absorption of graphene as well as the ultrashort lifetime of photoinduced carriers. Here, we present two mechanisms to overcome these two shortages and demonstrate a graphene-based SWIR photodetector with high responsivity and fast photoresponse. In particular, a vertical built-in field is employed in the graphene channel for trapping the photoinduced electrons and leaving holes in graphene, which results in prolonged photoinduced carrier lifetime. On the other hand, plasmonic effects were employed to realize photon trapping and enhance the light absorption of graphene. Thanks to the above two mechanisms, the responsivity of this proposed SWIR photodetector is up to a record of 83 A/W at a wavelength of 1.55 µm with a fast rising time of less than 600 ns. This device design concept addresses key challenges for high-performance graphene SWIR photodetectors and is promising for the development of mid/far-infrared optoelectronic applications.

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