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1.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e053991, 2022 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35027421

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Stroke survivors can have a high disability rate with low quality of daily life, resulting in a heavy burden on family and society. Transcranial magnetic stimulation has been widely applied to brain injury repair, neurological disease treatment, cognition and emotion regulation and so on. However, there is still much to be desired in the theories of using these neuromodulation techniques to treat stroke-caused hemiplegia. It is generally recognised that synaptic plasticity is an important basis for functional repair after brain injury. This study protocol aims to examine the corticocortical paired associative stimulation (ccPAS) for inducing synaptic plasticity to rescue the paralysed after stroke. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The current study is designed as a 14-week double-blind randomised sham-controlled clinical trial, composed of 2-week intervention and 12-week follow-up. For the study, 42 patients who had a stroke aged 40-70 will be recruited, who are randomly assigned either to the ccPAS intervention group, or to the control group at a 1:1 ratio, hence an equal number each. In the intervention group, ccPAS is practised in conjunction with the conventional rehabilitation treatment, and in the control group, the conventional rehabilitation treatment is administered with sham stimulation. A total of 10 interventions will be made, 5 times a week for 2 weeks. The same assessors are supposed to evaluate the participants' motor function at four time points of the baseline (before 10 interventions), treatment ending (after 10 interventions), and two intervals of follow-up (1 and 3 months later, respectively). The Fugl-Meyer Assessment Upper Extremity is used for the primary outcomes. The secondary outcomes include changes in the assessment of Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), Modified Barthel Index (MBI), electroencephalogram (EEG) and functional MRI data. The adverse events are to be recorded throughout the study. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study was approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of Yueyang Hospital. All ethical work was performed in accordance with the Helsinki declaration. Written informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study. Study findings will be disseminated in the printed media. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR2000036685.

2.
Pain Physician ; 25(1): E147-E156, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35051163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuropathic pain following brachial plexus avulsion injury (BPAI) induces plastic changes in multiple brain regions associated with somatosensory function, pain, or cognition at the group level. The alternation of the whole pattern of resting-state brain activity and the feasibility of a brain imaging, information-based diagnosis of pain following BPAI is poorly investigated. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether brain pattern alternation can  identify neuropathic pain from healthy controls at an individual level and the specific regions that can be used as diagnostic neuroimaging biomarkers. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled animal study. SETTING: The research took place in the school of rehabilitation science of a university and affiliated hospitals. METHODS: A total of 48 female Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 180 g-200 g were randomly assigned to either the BPAI group (n = 24) or normal control group (n = 24). A neuropathic pain rat model following BPAI was established in the BPAI group and a mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) test was performed to verify the presence of neuropathic pain. Micro-positron emission tomography with [Fluorine-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG-PET) was used to obtain the whole brain metabolic activity scans. Multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) was performed with a linear support vector machine (SVM) analysis both in PRoNTo toolbox (based on regions of interests) and SearchlightSearchlight approach (based on voxels within the region). RESULTS: Compared with baseline status, MWT of the left (intact) forepaw was significantly reduced in the BPAI group (P < 0.001). The accuracy of a whole brain image that correctly discriminated BPAI from normal controls rats was 87.5% with both the PRoNTo toolbox and SearchlightSearchlight method. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed significant positive correlations (P < 0.05) between MWT and the standard taken values of brain regions including the left olfactory nucleus, right entorhinal cortex in the PRoNTo toolbox, and bilateral amygdala, right piriform cortex and right ventral hippocampus in Searchlight method. LIMITATIONS: The alternation of metabolic connectivity among regions and functional connectivity among different networks were not investigated in the present study. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicated that MVPA based on the PET scans of rats' brains  could successfully identify neuropathic pain from health condition at the individual level and predictive regions could potentially be provided as neuroimaging biomarkers for the neuropathic pain following BPAI.

3.
Neural Regen Res ; 17(4): 806-811, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472479

RESUMO

Pain is one of the manifestations of hip disorder and has been proven to lead to the remodeling of somatotopic map plasticity in the cortex. However, most studies are volume-based which may lead to inaccurate anatomical positioning of functional data. The methods that work on the cortical surface may be more sensitive than those using the full brain volume and thus be more suitable for map plasticity study. In this prospective cross-sectional study performed in Yueyang Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China, 20 patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head (12 males and 8 females, aged 56.80 ± 13.60 years) and 20 healthy controls (9 males and 11 females, aged 54.56 ± 10.23 years) were included in this study. Data of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging were collected. The results revealed that compared with healthy controls, compared with the healthy controls, patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) showed significantly increased surface-based regional homogeneity (ReHo) in areas distributed mainly in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, frontal eye field, right frontal eye field, and the premotor cortex and decreased surface-based ReHo in the right primary motor cortex and primary sensory cortex. Regions showing significant differences in surface-based ReHo values between the healthy controls and patients with ONFH were defined as the regions of interests. Seed-based functional connectivity was performed to investigate interregional functional synchronization. When the areas with decreased surface-based ReHo in the frontal eye field and right premotor cortex were used as the regions of interest, compared with the healthy controls, the patients with ONFH displayed increased functional connectivity in the right middle frontal cortex and right inferior parietal cortex and decreased functional connectivity in the right precentral cortex and right middle occipital cortex. Compared with healthy controls, patients with ONFH showed significantly decreased cortical thickness in the para-insular area, posterior insular area, anterior superior temporal area, frontal eye field and supplementary motor cortex and reduced volume of subcortical gray matter nuclei in the right nucleus accumbens. These findings suggest that hip disorder patients showed cortical plasticity changes, mainly in sensorimotor- and pain-related regions. This study was approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of Yueyang Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (approval No. 2018-041) on August 1, 2018.

4.
Neural Regen Res ; 17(7): 1545-1555, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34916440

RESUMO

Electroacupuncture (EA) has been widely used for functional restoration after stroke. However, its role in post-stroke rehabilitation and the associated regulatory mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this study, we applied EA to the Zusanli (ST36) and Quchi (LI11) acupoints in rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion. We found that EA effectively increased the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and its receptor tyrosine kinase B, synapsin-1, postsynaptic dense protein 95, and microtubule-associated protein 2 in the ischemic penumbra of rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion. Moreover, EA greatly reduced the expression of myelin-related inhibitors Nogo-A and NgR in the ischemic penumbra. Tyrosine kinase B inhibitor ANA-12 weakened the therapeutic effects of EA. These findings suggest that EA can improve neurological function after middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion, possibly through regulating the activity of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor/tyrosine kinase B signal pathway. All procedures and experiments were approved by the Animal Research Committee of Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China (approval No. PZSHUTCM200110002) on January 10, 2020.

5.
Neurosurgery ; 89(6): 978-986, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common peripheral entrapment neuropathy. However, CTS-related changes of brain structural covariance and structural covariance networks (SCNs) patterns have not been clearly studied. OBJECTIVE: To explore CTS-related brain changes from perspectives of structural connectivity and SCNs. METHODS: Brain structural magnetic resonance images were acquired from 27 CTS patients and 19 healthy controls (HCs). Structural covariance and SCNs were constructed based on gray matter volume. The global network properties including clustering coefficient (Cp), characteristic path length (Lp), small-worldness index, global efficiency (Eglob), and local efficiency (Eloc) and regional network properties including degree, betweenness centrality (BC), and Eloc of a given node were calculated with graph theoretical analysis. RESULTS: Compared with HCs, the strength of structural connectivity between the dorsal anterior insula and medial prefrontal thalamus decreased (P < .001) in CTS patients. There was no intergroup difference of area under the curve for Cp, Lp¸ Eglob, and Eloc (all P > .05). The real-world SCN of CTS patients showed a small-world topology ranging from 2% to 32%. CTS patients showed lower nodal degrees of the dorsal anterior insula and medial prefrontal thalamus, and higher Eloc of a given node and BC in the lateral occipital cortex (P < .001) and the dorsolateral middle temporal gyrus (P < .001) than HCs, respectively. CONCLUSION: CTS had a profound impact on brain structures from perspectives of structural connectivity and SCNs.

6.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550534

RESUMO

Currently, the treatments for postparalysis facial synkinesis are still inadequate. However, neuroimaging mechanistic studies are very limited and blurred. Instead of mapping activation regions, we were devoted to characterizing the organizational features of brain regions to develop new targets for therapeutic intervention. Eighteen patients with unilateral facial synkinesis and 19 healthy controls were enrolled. They were instructed to perform task functional magnetic resonance imaging (eye blinking and lip pursing) examinations and resting-state scans. Then, we characterized group differences in task-state fMRI to identify three foci, including the contralateral precentral gyrus (PreCG), supramarginal gyrus (SMG), and superior parietal gyrus (SPG). Next, we employed a novel approach (using dynamic causal modeling) to identify directed connectivity differences between groups in different modes. Significant patterns in multiple regions in terms of regionally specific actions following synkinetic movements were demonstrated, although the resting state was not significant. The couplings from the SMG to the PreCG (p = 0.03) was significant in the task of left blinking, whereas the coupling from the SMG to the SPG (p = 0.04) was significant in the task of left smiling. We speculated that facial synkinesis affects disruption among the brain networks, and specific couplings that are modulated simultaneously can compensate for motor deficits. Therefore, behavioral or brain stimulation technique treatment could be applied to alter reorganization within specific couplings in the rehabilitation of facial function.

7.
Front Neurol ; 12: 566119, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34276529

RESUMO

Neuropathic pain has been found to be related to profound reorganization in the function and structure of the brain. We previously demonstrated changes in local brain activity and functional/metabolic connectivity among selected brain regions by using neuroimaging methods. The present study further investigated large-scale metabolic brain network changes in 32 Sprague-Dawley rats with right brachial plexus avulsion injury (BPAI). Graph theory was applied in the analysis of 2-deoxy-2-[18F] fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG) PET images. Inter-subject metabolic networks were constructed by calculating correlation coefficients. Global and nodal network properties were calculated and comparisons between pre- and post-BPAI (7 days) status were conducted. The global network properties (including global efficiency, local efficiency and small-world index) and nodal betweenness centrality did not significantly change for all selected sparsity thresholds following BPAI (p > 0.05). As for nodal network properties, both nodal degree and nodal efficiency measures significantly increased in the left caudate putamen, left medial prefrontal cortex, and right caudate putamen (p < 0.001). The right entorhinal cortex showed a different nodal degree (p < 0.05) but not nodal efficiency. These four regions were selected for seed-based metabolic connectivity analysis. Strengthened connectivity was found among these seeds and distributed brain regions including sensorimotor area, cognitive area, and limbic system, etc. (p < 0.05). Our results indicated that the brain had the resilience to compensate for BPAI-induced neuropathic pain. However, the importance of bilateral caudate putamen, left medial prefrontal cortex, and right entorhinal cortex in the network was strengthened, as well as most of their connections with distributed brain regions.

8.
Brain Behav ; 11(8): e2243, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34124857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic recurrent intestinal inflammatory disease, often accompanied by poor adaptation and excessive stress response. However, the potential neurological mechanisms of these symptoms have not yet been studied in-depth. OBJECTIVE: To investigate alterations in brain activity in patients with Crohn's disease and study the relationship between altered regions and clinical indices. METHODS: A total of 15 CD patients and 26 matched healthy controls were recruited. All participants underwent fMRI scans. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) assessed differences in spontaneous regional brain activity. Differences between the groups were selected as seeds for functional connectivity (FC) analyses. Correlations between disease duration and ALFF/ReHo/FC values in abnormal regions were analyzed. RESULTS: Patients with CD had significantly higher ALFF values in the left superior frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate cortex, and supplementary motor area, and lower values in the left hippocampus. They also had higher ReHo values in the left anterior cingulate cortex, supplementary motor area, putamen, and the bilateral superior frontal gyri. FC strength in the left precentral and middle temporal gyri was found to be increased when the left superior frontal gyrus was used as the seed point. FC strength was also observed to be increased in the left postcentral, middle frontal gyri, inferior frontal orbital cortex, and right rolandic operculum when the left anterior cingulate cortex was used as the seed point. CONCLUSION: CD demonstrated abnormal neural activity and FC in various regions primarily associated with emotional, pain and cognitive-related functions, which provides more information to further understand the neural mechanisms of the disease.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn , Córtex Motor , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Doença de Crohn/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética
9.
Brain Res ; 1767: 147558, 2021 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116054

RESUMO

Functional and structural brain alterations have been noted in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), the most common entrapment peripheral neuropathy. Previous studies were mainly focused on somatosensory cortices. However, the changes of white matter diffusion properties in nonsensorimotor cortices remain uninvestigated. We utilized a modified tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) pipeline to explore CTS-related white matter plasticity, omitting the skeletonization step and registering diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data to a study-specific, high resolution T1 template by an optimized registration method. The modified TBSS was demonstrated to be more sensitive to detect changes in white matter integrity than the standard TBSS approach. In this study, 25 moderate/severe CTS patients and 17 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC) were evaluated with DTI. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and radial diffusivity (RD) were calculated for group comparison. And the relationship between diffusion parameters and clinical assessments was also analyzed. Comparing with the healthy controls, CTS patients showed significantly increased FA and decreased RD in areas of multisensory integration and motor control involving the central opercular cortex and supplementary motor area (SMA) of the dominant hemisphere. Moreover, altered diffusion parameters in the central opercular cortex of the dominant hemisphere were significantly correlated with Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (BCTQ) scores. It is considered to be a form of maladaptive neuroplastic response to CTS-associated afference and motor control deficits. Such insight may be helpful in developing new strategies for the treatment of CTS.

10.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183756

RESUMO

Jingyin granules, a marketed antiviral herbal medicine, have been recommended for treating H1N1 influenza A virus infection and Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China. To fight viral diseases in a more efficient way, Jingyin granules are frequently co-administered in clinical settings with a variety of therapeutic agents, including antiviral drugs, anti-inflammatory drugs, and other Western medicines. However, it is unclear whether Jingyin granules modulate the pharmacokinetics of Western drugs or trigger clinically significant herb-drug interactions. This study aims to assess the inhibitory potency of the herbal extract of Jingyin granules (HEJG) against human drug-metabolizing enzymes and to clarify whether HEJG can modulate the pharmacokinetic profiles of Western drug(s) in vivo. The results clearly demonstrated that HEJG dose-dependently inhibited human CES1A, CES2A, CYPs1A, 2A6, 2C8, 2C9, 2D6, and 2E1; this herbal medicine also time- and NADPH-dependently inhibited human CYP2C19 and CYP3A. In vivo tests showed that HEJG significantly increased the plasma exposure of lopinavir (a CYP3A-substrate drug) by 2.43-fold and strongly prolonged its half-life by 1.91-fold when HEJG (3 g/kg) was co-administered with lopinavir to rats. Further investigation revealed licochalcone A, licochalcone B, licochalcone C and echinatin in Radix Glycyrrhizae, as well as quercetin and kaempferol in Folium Llicis Purpureae, to be time-dependent CYP3A inhibitors. Collectively, our findings reveal that HEJG modulates the pharmacokinetics of CYP substrate-drug(s) by inactivating CYP3A, providing key information for both clinicians and patients to use herb-drug combinations for antiviral therapy in a scientific and reasonable way.

11.
Fitoterapia ; 152: 104913, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932529

RESUMO

Vine tea has been used as a traditionally functional herbal tea in China for centuries, which exhibits paramount potential for chronic metabolic diseases. Herein, the inhibitory potential of vine tea toward human catechol-O-methyltransferase (hCOMT) was investigated. A practical bioactivity-guided fractionation combined with chemical profiling strategy was developed to identify the naturally occurring hCOMT inhibitors. Five flavonoids in vine tea displayed moderate to strong inhibition on hCOMT with IC50 values ranging from 0.96 µM to 42.47 µM, in which myricetin was the critically potent constituent against hCOMT. Inhibition kinetics assays and molecular docking simulations showed that myricetin could bind to the active site of COMT and inhibited COMT-catalyzed 3-BTD methylation in a mixed manner. Collectively, our findings not only suggested that the strong hCOMT inhibition of vine tea has guiding significance in the drug exposure of catechol drugs, but also identified a promising lead compound for developing more efficacious hCOMT inhibitors.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Catecol O-Metiltransferase/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Chás de Ervas , Inibidores de Catecol O-Metiltransferase/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia
12.
Brain Res Bull ; 173: 108-115, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) is widely applied to explore abnormal functional connectivity (FC) in patients with post-facial paralysis synkinesis (PFPS). However, most studies considered steady spatial-temporal signal interactions between distinct brain regions during the period of scanning. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aim to investigate abnormal dynamic functional connectivity (dFC) in PFPS patients. METHODS: We enrolled 31 PFPS patients and 19 healthy controls. All participants underwent rs-fMRI. Sliding windows approach was applied to construct dFC matrices. Next, these matrices were clustered into distinct states using the k-means clustering algorithm. RESULTS: We found that it was not the dFC patterns, but rather the temporal properties including the mean dwell time (MDT) and occurrence frequencies, that showed a significant difference between PFPS patients and healthy controls. Two randomly clustered dFC states were recognized for both groups. Among them, State 1 showed significantly lower connectivity compared to State 2 in patients group. Compared to healthy controls, the duration spent by the PFPS patients in the state with lower connectivity significantly increased and is positively correlated with the better facial function. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, aberrant dFC is a fundamental feature of brain dysfunction in PFPS patients, which is associated with the facial nerve function. These findings may contribute to a better understanding of the abnormal brain reorganization mechanisms in PFPS patients.

13.
Neural Regen Res ; 16(12): 2528-2533, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33907044

RESUMO

Facial synkinesis is a troublesome sequelae of facial nerve malfunction. It is difficult to recover from synkinesis, despite improved surgical techniques for isolating the peripheral facial nerve branches. Furthermore, it remains unclear whether long-term dysfunction of motor control can lead to irreversible plasticity-induced structural brain changes. This case-control study thus investigated the structural brain alterations associated with facial synkinesis. The study was conducted at Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, China. Twenty patients with facial synkinesis (2 male and 18 female, aged 33.35 ± 6.97 years) and 19 healthy volunteers (2 male and 17 female, aged 33.21 ± 6.75 years) underwent magnetic resonance imaging, and voxel-based and surface-based morphometry techniques were used to analyze data. There was no significant difference in brain volume between patients with facial synkinesis and healthy volunteers. Patients with facial synkinesis exhibited a significantly reduced cortical thickness in the contralateral superior and inferior temporal gyri and a reduced sulcal depth of the ipsilateral precuneus compared with healthy volunteers. In addition, sulcal depth of the ipsilateral precuneus was negatively correlated with the severity of depression. These findings suggest that there is a structural remodeling of gray matter in patients with facial synkinesis after facial nerve malfunction. This study was approved by the Ethics Review Committee of the Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, China (approval No. 2017-365-T267) on September 13, 2017, and was registered with the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (registration number: ChiCTR1800014630) on January 25, 2018.

14.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(6): 1367-1378, 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33644204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the clinical scenario, adult patients with periodontal diseases and dental malformation, characterized by dental crowding in lower anterior teeth with the thin biotype, often require orthodontic treatment. This case report aimed to evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of periodontally accelerated osteogenic orthodontics (PAOO) combined with autologous platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) in an adult patient with class I malocclusion along with dental crowding, a thin periodontal biotype, and buccal plate deficiency. CASE SUMMARY: A 32-year-old female complaining of dental crowding and gingival bleeding was referred to the orthodontic clinic. The patient underwent periodontal risk assessment prior to orthodontic treatment. She was diagnosed with a high risk of gingival recession due to dental crowding, root prominence, loss of buccal plates, and a thin gingival tissue biotype. The treatment regimen included PAOO combined with autologous PRF for alveolar augmentation and interproximal enamel reduction for moderate dental crowding. Clinically, PAOO-assisted orthodontic tooth movement in this case showed enhanced periodontium remodeling. Radiographic outcomes also showed statistically significant improvements (P < 0.01) in the mandibular buccal alveolar bone. CONCLUSION: This case report suggests the combination of autologous PRF with PAOO to enhance bone augmentation and long-term tissue support in adult orthodontic patients with periodontal disease.

15.
J Pain Res ; 14: 693-701, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33732015

RESUMO

Introduction: Numerous resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) researches have indicated that large-scale functional and structural remodeling occurs in the whole brain despite an intact sensorimotor network after carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Investigators aimed to explore alterations of the global and nodal properties that occur in the whole brain network of patients with CTS based on topographic theory. Methods: Standard-compliant fMRI data were collected from 27 patients with CTS in bilateral hands and 19 healthy control subjects in this cross-sectional study. The statistics based on brain networks were calculated the differences between the patients and the healthy. Several topological properties were computed, such as the small-worldness, nodal clustering coefficient, characteristic path length, and degree centrality. Results: Compared to those of the healthy controls, the global properties of the CTS group exhibited a decreased characteristic path length. Changes in the local-level properties included a decreased nodal clustering coefficient in 6 separate brain regions and significantly different degree centrality in several brain regions that were related to sensorimotor function and pain. Discussion: The study suggested that CTS reinforces global connections and makes their networks more random. The changed nodal properties were affiliated with basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuits and the pain matrix. These results provided new insights for improving our understanding of abnormal topological theory in relation to the functional brain networks of CTS patients. Perspective: This article presents that the CTS patients' brain with a higher global efficiency. And the significant alterations in several brain regions which are more related to pain and motor processes. The results provided effective complements to the neural mechanisms underlying CTS.

16.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(3): 240, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33708867

RESUMO

Background: The treatment of post-facial palsy synkinesis (PFPS) remains inadequate. Previous studies have confirmed that brain plasticity is involved in the process of functional restoration. Isolated activation has been well studied, however, the brain works as an integrity of several isolated regions. This study aimed to assess the alteration of the brain network topology with overall and local characteristics of information dissemination. Understanding the neural mechanisms of PFPS could help to improve therapy options and prognosis. Methods: Patients with facial synkinesis and healthy controls (HCs) were estimated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of resting-state. Subsequently, an independent component analysis (ICA) was used to extract four subnets from the whole brain. Then we used the measurements of graph theory and calculated in the whole-brain network and each sub-network. Results: We found no significant difference between the patient group and the HCs on the whole-brain scale. Then we identified four subnetworks from the resting-state data. In the sub-network property analysis, patients' locally distributed properties in the sensorimotor network (SMN) and ventral default mode network (vDMN) were reduced. It revealed that γ (10,000 permutations, P=0.048) and S (10,000 permutations, P=0.022) within the SMN progressively decreased in patients with PFPS. For the analysis of vDMN, significant differences were found in γ (10,000 permutations, P=0.019), Elocal (10,000 permutations, P=0.008), and ß (10,000 permutations, P=0.011) between the groups. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated a reduction in local network processing efficiency in patients with PFPS. Therefore, we speculate that decreased characteristics in the intra-vDMN and intra-SMN, rather than the whole-brain network, may serve distinct symptoms such as facial nerve damage or more synkinetic movements. This finding of the alteration of network properties is a small step forward to help uncover the underlying mechanism.

17.
Neural Plast ; 2021: 8815144, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33603780

RESUMO

Purpose: This study is aimed at investigating brain structural changes and structural network properties in complete spinal cord injury (SCI) patients, as well as their relationship with clinical variables. Materials and Methods: Structural MRI of brain was acquired in 24 complete thoracic SCI patients (38.50 ± 11.19 years, 22 males) within the first postinjury year, while 26 age- and gender-matched healthy participants (38.38 ± 10.63 years, 24 males) were enrolled as control. The voxel-based morphometry (VBM) approach and graph theoretical network analysis based on cross-subject grey matter volume- (GMV-) based structural covariance networks (SCNs) were conducted to investigate the impact of SCI on brain structure. Partial correlation analysis was performed to explore the relationship between the GMV of structurally changed brain regions and SCI patients' clinical variables, including injury duration, injury level, Visual Analog Scale (VAS), American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS), International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) scale, Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS), and Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), after removing the effects of age and gender. Results: Compared with healthy controls, SCI patients showed higher SDS score (t = 4.392 and p < 0.001). In the VBM analysis, significant GMV reduction was found in the left middle frontal cortex, right superior orbital frontal cortex (OFC), and left inferior OFC. No significant difference was found in global network properties between SCI patients and healthy controls. In the regional network properties, significantly higher betweenness centrality (BC) was noted in the right anterior cingulum cortex (ACC) and left inferior OFC and higher nodal degree and efficiency in bilateral middle OFCs, while decreased BC was noted in the right putamen in SCI patients. Only negative correlation was found between GMV of right middle OFC and SDS score in SCI patients (r = -0.503 and p = 0.017), while no significant correlation between other abnormal brain regions and any of the clinical variables (all p > 0.05). Conclusions: SCI patients would experience depressive and/or anxious feelings at the early stage. Their GMV reduction mainly involved psychology-cognition related rather than sensorimotor brain regions. The efficiency of regional information transmission in psychology-cognition regions increased. Greater GMV reduction in psychology region was related with more severe depressive feelings. Therefore, early neuropsychological intervention is suggested to prevent psychological and cognitive dysfunction as well as irreversible brain structure damage.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medula Espinal , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Neural Regen Res ; 16(2): 388-393, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859803

RESUMO

Massage therapy is an alternative treatment for chronic pain that is potentially related to brain plasticity. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We established a peripheral nerve injury model in rats by unilateral sciatic nerve transection and direct anastomosis. The experimental rats were treated over the gastrocnemius muscle of the affected hindlimb with a customized massage instrument (0.45 N, 120 times/min, 10 minutes daily, for 4 successive weeks). Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed that compared with control rats, the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations in the sensorimotor cortex contralateral to the affected limb was significantly lower after sciatic nerve transection. However, amplitudes were significantly higher in the massage group than in a sham-massage group. These findings suggest that massage therapy facilitated adaptive change in the somatosensory cortex that led to the recovery of peripheral nerve injury and repair. This study was approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine of China (approval No. 201701001) on January 12, 2017.

19.
Int J Endocrinol ; 2021: 5720145, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34976051

RESUMO

Objective: We evaluated the effects and mechanisms of GDC0623 on osteogenic differentiation of osteoblasts induced by IL-1ß. Methodology. Osteoblasts were treated with 20 ng/ml IL-1ß and 0.1 µM GDC0623. Cell proliferation levels were evaluated by the cell counting kit 8 (CCK8), EdU assay, and western blotting [proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Cyclin D1]. Osteoblasts were cultured in an osteogenic induction medium for 1-3 weeks after which their differentiations were assessed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, Alizarin Red staining, calcium concentration, immunocytochemistry staining, real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), and immunofluorescence staining. The osteogenesis-associated mechanisms were further evaluated by western blotting using appropriate antibodies. Results: Relative to the control group, IL-1ß induced the rapid proliferation of osteoblasts and suppressed their osteogenic differentiations by upregulating the activities of MEK-Erk1/2 as well as Jak-Stat3 pathways and by elevating MMP13 and MMP9 levels. However, blocking of the MEK-Erk1/2 signaling pathway by GDC0623 treatment reversed these effects. Conclusion: Inhibition of Jak-Stat3 pathway by C188-9 downregulated the expression levels of MMP9 and MMP13, activated MEK-Erk1/2 pathway, and inhibited osteogenic differentiation.

20.
Front Chem ; 8: 603577, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33330398

RESUMO

In recent years, bone repair biomaterials that combine cells and bioactive factors are superior to autologous and allogeneic bone implants. However, neither natural nor synthetic biomaterials can possess all desired qualities such as strength, porosity, and biological activity. In this study, we used poly (glycerol sebacate) (PGS), a synthetic material with great osteogenic potential that has attracted more attention in the field of tissue (such as bone tissue) regeneration owing to its good biocompatibility and high elasticity. It also has the advantage of being regulated by material synthesis to match the bone tissue's strength and can be easily modified to become functional. However, pure PGS lacks functional groups and hydrophilicity. Therefore, we used PGS as the substrate to graft the adhesive ligands RGD and vascular endothelial growth factor mimetic peptide. The bone repair scaffold can be prepared through photo crosslinking, as it not only improves hydrophobicity but also promotes vascularization and accelerates osteogenesis. Simultaneously, we improved the preparation method of hydrogels after freeze-drying and crosslinking to form a sponge-like structure and to easily regenerate blood vessels. In summary, a bone repair scaffold was prepared to meet the structural and biological requirements. It proved to serve as a potential bone-mimicking scaffold by enhancing tissue regenerative processes such as cell infiltration and vascularization and subsequent replacement by the native bone tissue.

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