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1.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811497

RESUMO

HIV-1 infection-induced cGAS-STING-TBK1-IRF3 signaling activates innate immunity to produce type I interferon (IFN). The HIV-1 nonstructural protein viral infectivity factor (Vif) is essential in HIV-1 replication, as it degrades the host restriction factor APOBEC3G. However, whether and how it regulates the host immune response remains to be determined. In this study, we found that Vif inhibited the production of type I IFN to promote immune evasion. HIV-1 infection induced the activation of the host tyrosine kinase FRK, which subsequently phosphorylated the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) of Vif and enhanced the interaction between Vif and the cellular tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 to inhibit type I IFN. Mechanistically, the association of Vif with SHP-1 facilitated SHP-1 recruitment to STING and inhibited the K63-linked ubiquitination of STING at Lys337 by dephosphorylating STING at Tyr162. However, the FRK inhibitor D-65495 counteracted the phosphorylation of Vif to block the immune evasion of HIV-1 and antagonize infection. These findings reveal a previously unknown mechanism through which HIV-1 evades antiviral immunity via the ITIM-containing protein to inhibit the posttranslational modification of STING. These results provide a molecular basis for the development of new therapeutic strategies to treat HIV-1 infection.

2.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807347

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to observe the effects of active vitamin D supplementation on insulin resistance and islet ß-cell function (HOMA-ß) in patients with non-diabetic chronic kidney disease (NDCKD). METHODS: A total of 134 patients with NDCKD who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled in the prospective controlled study and categorized as such: 60 patients in the non-dialysis (ND) group; 36, hemodialysis (HD) group; and 38, peritoneal dialysis (PD) group. Each group was divided into two equal-numbered subgroups for vitamin D supplementation. Those in the experimental subgroups received calcitriol 0.5 ug/day orally, and were followed-up for 6 months. A total of 117 patients were followed-up, including 57 patients in the ND group; 29, HD group; and 31, PD group. Changes in the insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) and HOMA-ß index were calculated and compared at the time of enrollment and after 1, 3, and 6 months of intervention. RESULTS: (1) Mean HOMA-IR value: In the ND group, mean HOMA-IR value of the experimental group significantly decreased compared with that of the control group after 3 months of intervention (P = 0.02). In the HD and PD groups, there was no statistical difference between the experimental and control groups (P > 0.05). (2) Mean HOMA-ß index: In the ND group, mean HOMA-ß index of the experimental group was higher than that of the control group after 1 month of active vitamin D treatment (P = 0.03), and, with an extended intervention time, the index gradually increased (P < 0.001). In the HD group, mean HOMA-ß index of the experimental group was higher than that of the control group after 3 months of active vitamin D treatment (P = 0.01). Among PD patients, mean HOMA-ß index of the patients in the experimental group was higher than that of the control group after 6 months of active vitamin D treatment (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Active vitamin D supplementation improved insulin resistance and HOMA-ß after 6 months in ND patients, but only improved HOMA-ß in the dialysis patients, with no significant effect on insulin resistance.

3.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 777885, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34803997

RESUMO

One big threat from influenza A viruses (IAVs) is that novel viruses emerge from mutation alongside reassortment. Some of them have gained the capability to transmit into human from the avian reservoir. Understanding the molecular events and the involved factors in breaking the cross-species barrier holds important implication for the surveillance and prevention of potential influenza outbreaks. In this review, we summarize recent progresses, including several ground-breaking findings, in how the interaction between host and viral factors, exemplified by the PB2 subunit of the influenza virus RNA polymerase co-opting host ANP32 protein to facilitate transcription and replication of the viral genome, shapes the evolution of IAVs from host specificity to cross-species infection.

4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 771279, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34804062

RESUMO

It remains poorly defined whether any human miRNAs play protective roles during HIV infection. Here, focusing on a unique cohort of HIV-infected former blood donors, we identified miR-31 (hsa-miR-31) by comparative miRNA profiling as the only miRNA inversely correlating with disease progression. We further validated this association in two prospective cohort studies. Despite conservation during evolution, hsa-miR-31, unlike its mouse counterpart (mmu-miR-31), was downregulated in human T cell upon activation. Our ex vivo studies showed that inhibiting miR-31 in naïve CD4+ T cells promoted a transcriptional profile with activation signature. Consistent with this skewing effect, miR-31 inhibition led to remarkably increased susceptibility to HIV infection. The suppressive nature of miR-31 in CD4+ T cell activation was pinpointed to its ability to decrease T-bet, the key molecule governing IFN-γ production and activation of CD4+ T cells, by directly targeting the upstream STAT1 transcriptional factor for downregulation, thus blunting Th1 response. Our results implicated miR-31 as a useful biomarker for tracking HIV disease progression and, by demonstrating its importance in tuning the activation of CD4+ T cells, suggested that miR-31 may play critical roles in other physiological contexts where the CD4+ T cell homeostasis needs to be deliberately controlled.

5.
Cell Res ; 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34837059

RESUMO

Host cellular receptors play key roles in the determination of virus tropism and pathogenesis. However, little is known about SARS-CoV-2 host receptors with the exception of ACE2. Furthermore, ACE2 alone cannot explain the multi-organ tropism of SARS-CoV-2 nor the clinical differences between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV, suggesting the involvement of other receptor(s). Here, we performed genomic receptor profiling to screen 5054 human membrane proteins individually for interaction with the SARS-CoV-2 capsid spike (S) protein. Twelve proteins, including ACE2, ASGR1, and KREMEN1, were identified with diverse S-binding affinities and patterns. ASGR1 or KREMEN1 is sufficient for the entry of SARS-CoV-2 but not SARS-CoV in vitro and in vivo. SARS-CoV-2 utilizes distinct ACE2/ASGR1/KREMEN1 (ASK) receptor combinations to enter different cell types, and the expression of ASK together displays a markedly stronger correlation with virus susceptibility than that of any individual receptor at both the cell and tissue levels. The cocktail of ASK-related neutralizing antibodies provides the most substantial blockage of SARS-CoV-2 infection in human lung organoids when compared to individual antibodies. Our study revealed an interacting host receptome of SARS-CoV-2, and identified ASGR1 and KREMEN1 as alternative functional receptors that play essential roles in ACE2-independent virus entry, providing insight into SARS-CoV-2 tropism and pathogenesis, as well as a community resource and potential therapeutic strategies for further COVID-19 investigations.

6.
Vaccine ; 39(48): 7001-7011, 2021 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34750014

RESUMO

COVID-19 pandemic has severely impacted the public health and social economy worldwide. A safe, effective, and affordable vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 infections/diseases is urgently needed. We have been developing a recombinant vaccine based on a prefusion-stabilized spike trimer of SARS-CoV-2 and formulated with aluminium hydroxide and CpG 7909. The spike protein was expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, purified, and prepared as a stable formulation with the dual adjuvant. Immunogenicity studies showed that candidate vaccines elicited robust neutralizing antibody responses and substantial CD4+ T cell responses in both mice and non-human primates. And vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies persisted at high level for at least 6 months. Challenge studies demonstrated that candidate vaccine reduced the viral loads and inflammation in the lungs of SARS-CoV-2 infected golden Syrian hamsters significantly. In addition, the vaccine-induced antibodies showed cross-neutralization activity against B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 variants. These data suggest candidate vaccine is efficacious in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infections and associated pneumonia, thereby justifying ongoing phase I/II clinical studies in China (NCT04982068 and NCT04990544).


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Compostos de Alúmen , Hidróxido de Alumínio , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Células CHO , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Humanos , Camundongos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética
7.
Genome Med ; 13(1): 164, 2021 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The receptor-binding domain (RBD) variants of SARS-CoV-2 could impair antibody-mediated neutralization of the virus by host immunity; thus, prospective surveillance of antibody escape mutants and understanding the evolution of RBD are urgently needed. METHODS: Using the single B cell cloning technology, we isolated and characterized 93 RBD-specific antibodies from the memory B cells of four COVID-19 convalescent individuals in the early stage of the pandemic. Then, global RBD alanine scanning with a panel of 19 selected neutralizing antibodies (NAbs), including several broadly reactive NAbs, was performed. Furthermore, we assessed the impact of single natural mutation or co-mutations of concern at key positions of RBD on the neutralization escape and ACE2 binding function by recombinant proteins and pseudoviruses. RESULTS: Thirty-three amino acid positions within four independent antigenic sites (1 to 4) of RBD were identified as valuable indicators of antigenic changes in the RBD. The comprehensive escape mutation map not only confirms the widely circulating strains carrying important immune escape RBD mutations such as K417N, E484K, and L452R, but also facilitates the discovery of new immune escape-enabling mutations such as F486L, N450K, F490S, and R346S. Of note, these escape mutations could not affect the ACE2 binding affinity of RBD, among which L452R even enhanced binding. Furthermore, we showed that RBD co-mutations K417N, E484K, and N501Y present in B.1.351 appear more resistant to NAbs and human convalescent plasma from the early stage of the pandemic, possibly due to an additive effect. Conversely, double mutations E484Q and L452R present in B.1.617.1 variant show partial antibody evasion with no evidence for an additive effect. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides a global view of the determinants for neutralizing antibody recognition, antigenic conservation, and RBD conformation. The in-depth escape maps may have value for prospective surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 immune escape variants. Special attention should be paid to the accumulation of co-mutations at distinct major antigenic sites. Finally, the new broadly reactive NAbs described here represent new potential opportunities for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19 , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Mutação , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Adulto , Idoso , Linfócitos B/imunologia , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Memória Imunológica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia
8.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(10)2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypoxia is a striking feature of most solid tumors and could be used to discriminate tumors from normoxic tissues. Therefore, the design of hypoxia-conditioned Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T cells is a promising strategy to reduce on-target off-tumor toxicity in adoptive cell therapy. However, existing hypoxia-conditioned CAR-T designs have been only partially successful in enhancing safety profile but accompanied with reduced cytotoxic efficacy. Our goal is to further improve safety profile with retained excellent antitumor efficacy. METHODS: In this study, we designed and constructed a hypoxia-inducible transcription amplification system (HiTA-system) to control the expression of CAR in T (HiTA-CAR-T) cells. CAR expression was determined by Flow cytometry, and the activation and cytotoxicity of HiTA-CAR-T cells in vitro were evaluated in response to antigenic stimulations under hypoxic or normoxic conditions. The safety of HiTA-CAR-T cells was profiled in a mouse model for its on-target toxicity to normal liver and other tissues, and antitumor efficacy in vivo was monitored in murine xenograft models. RESULTS: Our results showed that HiTA-CAR-T cells are highly restricted to hypoxia for their CAR expression, activation and cytotoxicity to tumor cells in vitro. In a mouse model in vivo, HiTA-CAR-T cells targeting Her2 antigen showed undetectable CAR expression in all different normoxic tissues including human Her2-expresing liver, accordingly, no liver and systemic toxicity were observed; In contrast, regular CAR-T cells targeting Her2 displayed significant toxicity on human Her2-expression liver. Importantly, HiTA-CAR-T cells were able to achieve significant tumor suppression in murine xenograft models. CONCLUSION: Our HiTA system showed a remarkable improvement in hypoxia-restricted transgene expression in comparison with currently available systems. HiTA-CAR-T cells presented significant antitumor activities in absence of any significant liver or systemic toxicity in vivo. This approach could be also applied to design CAR-T cell targeting other tumor antigens.

9.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2388: 123-129, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524667

RESUMO

Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are credited with antitumor activity by preclinical studies and clinical trials. Efficient expansion of iNKT cells ex vivo is essential for their translational usage. The culturing procedure described here provides an optimized method for ex vivo expansion of iNKT cells using recombinant human IL-15 (rhIL-15) and recombinant human IL-12 (rhIL-12), which results in cell products with enhanced cytokine secretion and cytotoxicity while maintaining the purity and viability of iNKT cells.


Assuntos
Células T Matadoras Naturais , Galactosilceramidas , Humanos , Interleucina-12 , Ativação Linfocitária , Células T Matadoras Naturais/imunologia
10.
Clin Transl Immunology ; 10(9): e1336, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34522380

RESUMO

Objectives: Although co-expression of CD38 and HLA-DR reflects T-cell activation during viral infections, high and prolonged CD38+HLA-DR+ expression is associated with severe disease. To date, the mechanism underpinning expression of CD38+HLA-DR+ is poorly understood. Methods: We used mouse models of influenza A/H9N2, A/H7N9 and A/H3N2 infection to investigate mechanisms underpinning CD38+MHC-II+ phenotype on CD8+ T cells. To further understand MHC-II trogocytosis on murine CD8+ T cells as well as the significance behind the scenario, we used adoptively transferred transgenic OT-I CD8+ T cells and A/H3N2-SIINKEKL infection. Results: Analysis of influenza-specific immunodominant DbNP366 +CD8+ T-cell responses showed that CD38+MHC-II+ co-expression was detected on both virus-specific and bystander CD8+ T cells, with increased numbers of both CD38+MHC-II+CD8+ T-cell populations observed in immune organs including the site of infection during severe viral challenge. OT-I cells adoptively transferred into MHC-II-/- mice had no MHC-II after infection, suggesting that MHC-II was acquired via trogocytosis. The detection of CD19 on CD38+MHC-II+ OT-I cells supports the proposition that MHC-II was acquired by trogocytosis sourced from B cells. Co-expression of CD38+MHC-II+ on CD8+ T cells was needed for optimal recall following secondary infection. Conclusions: Overall, our study demonstrates that both virus-specific and bystander CD38+MHC-II+ CD8+ T cells are recruited to the site of infection during severe disease, and that MHC-II presence occurs via trogocytosis from antigen-presenting cells. Our findings highlight the importance of the CD38+MHC-II+ phenotype for CD8+ T-cell recall.

11.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1555-1573, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304724

RESUMO

To curb the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), multiple platforms have been employed toward a safe and highly effective vaccine. Here, we develop a novel cell-based vaccine candidate, namely K562-S, by utilizing human cell K562 as a cellular carrier to display Spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 on the membrane. Analogous to the traditional inactivated vaccine, K562-S cells can be propagated to a large scale by culturing and completely lose their viability after exposure to X-ray irradiation or formalin. We in turn demonstrated high immunogenicity of formalin-inactivated K562-S vaccine in both mouse and non-human primates and its protective efficacy in mice. In mice, immunization with inactivated K562-S vaccines can elicit potent neutralizing antibody (nAb) responses persisting longer than 5 months. We consequently showed in a hACE2 mouse model of SARS-CoV-2 infection that a two-shot vaccination with adjuvanted K562-S rendered greater than 3 log reduction in viral lung load and concomitant ameliorated lung pathology. Of importance, the administration of the same regimen in non-human primates was able to induce a neutralizing antibody titer averaging three-fold higher relative to human convalescent serum. These results together support the promise of K562-based, S-protein-expressing vaccines as a novel vaccination approach against SARS-CoV-2. Importantly, with a powerful capacity to carry external genes for cell-based vectors, this platform could rapidly generate two- and multiple-valent vaccines by incorporating SARS-CoV-2 mutants, SARS-CoV, or MERS-CoV.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/imunologia , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Células K562 , Macaca mulatta , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Primatas , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/administração & dosagem , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia
12.
mBio ; 12(4): e0079521, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281390

RESUMO

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) cannot be completely eliminated because of existence of the latent HIV-1 reservoir. However, the facts of HIV-1 latency, including its establishment and maintenance, are incomplete. FKBP3, encoded by the FKBP3 gene, belongs to the immunophilin family of proteins and is involved in immunoregulation and such cellular processes as protein folding. In a previous study, we found that FKBP3 may be related to HIV-1 latency using CRISPR screening. In this study, we knocked out the FKBP3 gene in multiple latently infected cell lines to promote latent HIV-1 activation. We found that FKBP3 could indirectly bind to the HIV-1 long terminal repeat through interaction with YY1, thereby recruiting histone deacetylase 1/2 to it. This promotes histone deacetylation and induces HIV-1 latency. Finally, in a primary latent cell model, we confirmed the effect of FKBP3 knockout on the latent activation of HIV-1. Our results suggest a new mechanism for the epigenetic regulation of HIV-1 latency and a new potential target for activating latent HIV-1. IMPORTANCE The primary reason why AIDS cannot be completely cured is the existence of a latent HIV-1 reservoir. Currently, the facts of HIV-1 latency, including its establishment and maintenance, are incomplete. Using a CRISPR library in our earlier screening of genes related to HIV-1 latency, we identified FBKP3 as a candidate gene related to HIV-1 latency. Therefore, in this mechanistic study, we first confirmed the HIV-1 latency-promoting effect of FKBP3 and determined that FKBP3 promotes histone deacetylation by recruiting histone deacetylase 1/2 to the HIV-1 long terminal repeat. We also confirmed, for the first time, that FKBP3 can act as a transcription factor (TF) recruitment scaffold and participate in epigenetic regulation of HIV-1 latency. These findings suggest a new mechanism for the epigenetic regulation of HIV-1 latency and a new potential target for activating latent HIV-1.

13.
Front Public Health ; 9: 672215, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34164371

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia is caused by the virus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and has rapidly become a global public health concern. As the new type of betacoronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 can spread across species and between populations and has a greater risk of transmission than other coronaviruses. To control the spread of SARS-CoV-2, it is vital to have a rapid and effective means of diagnosing asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2-positive individuals and patients with COVID-19, an early isolation protocol for infected individuals, and effective treatments for patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. In this review, we will summarize the novel diagnostic tools that are currently available for coronavirus, including imaging examinations and laboratory medicine by next-generation sequencing (NGS), real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) analysis, immunoassay for COVID-19, cytokine and T cell immunoassays, biochemistry and microbiology laboratory parameters in the blood of the patients with COVID-19, and a field-effect transistor-based biosensor of COVID-19. Specifically, we will discuss the effective detection rate and assay time for the rRT-PCR analysis of SARS-CoV-2 and the sensitivity and specificity of different antibody detection methods, such as colloidal gold and ELISA using specimen sources obtained from the respiratory tract, peripheral serum or plasma, and other bodily fluids. Such diagnostics will help scientists and clinicians develop appropriate strategies to combat COVID-19.


Assuntos
Teste para COVID-19 , COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
14.
Arch Physiol Biochem ; : 1-9, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33950771

RESUMO

Exosomes are a kind of nanoscale extracellular vesicles with diameters of 30-100 nm and act as intracellular communication vehicles to influence cellular activities. Emerging pieces of evidence have indicated that exosomes play important roles in inflammation. However, the biological roles of plasma exosomes in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients have remained largely unexplored. In the current study, we found the plasma exosome levels were notably increased in patients with AMI in comparison with healthy controls (HCs), and AMI exosomes could induce endothelial cell injury. Furthermore, our data demonstrated that AMI exosomes triggered a pro-inflammatory immune response, at least partly depending on the activation of the NF-ĸB signalling. Together, AMI exosomes have pro-inflammatory properties and play a significant role in inflammation in AMI patients.

15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2691, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33976217

RESUMO

How innate and adaptive immune responses work in concert to resolve influenza disease is yet to be fully investigated in one single study. Here, we utilize longitudinal samples from patients hospitalized with acute influenza to understand these immune responses. We report the dynamics of 18 important immune parameters, related to clinical, genetic and virological factors, in influenza patients across different severity levels. Influenza disease correlates with increases in IL-6/IL-8/MIP-1α/ß cytokines and lower antibody responses. Robust activation of circulating T follicular helper cells correlates with peak antibody-secreting cells and influenza heamaglutinin-specific memory B-cell numbers, which phenotypically differs from vaccination-induced B-cell responses. Numbers of influenza-specific CD8+ or CD4+ T cells increase early in disease and retain an activated phenotype during patient recovery. We report the characterisation of immune cellular networks underlying recovery from influenza infection which are highly relevant to other infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Formação de Anticorpos/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Estudos de Coortes , Citocinas/metabolismo , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/classificação , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Vírus da Influenza A/fisiologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Vacinação/métodos
16.
Virol Sin ; 36(4): 784-795, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723807

RESUMO

Raising a heterologous tier 2 neutralizing antibody (nAb) response remains a daunting task for HIV vaccine development. In this study, we explored the utility of diverse HIV-1 envelope (Env) immunogens in a sequential immunization scheme as a solution to this task. This exploration stemmed from the rationale that gp145, a membrane-bound truncation form of HIV Env, may facilitate the focusing of induced antibody response on neutralizing epitopes when sequentially combined with the soluble gp140 form as immunogens in a prime-boost mode. We first showed that gp140 DNA prime-gp145 Tiantan vaccinia (TV) boost likely represents a general format for inducing potent nAb response in mice. However, when examined in rhesus macaque, this modality showed little effectiveness. To improve the efficacy, we extended the original modality by adding a strong protein boost, namely native-like SOSIP.664 trimer displayed on ferritin-based nanoparticle (NP), which was generated by a newly developed click approach. The resulting three-immunization regimen succeeded in eliciting tier-2 nAb response with substantial breadth when implemented in rhesus macaque over a short 8-week schedule. Importantly, the elicited nAb response was able to effectively contain viremia upon a heterologous SHIV challenge. Collectively, our studies highlighted that diversification of Env immunogens, in both types and formulations, under the framework of a sequential immunization scheme might open new opportunity toward HIV vaccine development.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra a AIDS , Infecções por HIV , HIV-1 , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Imunização , Macaca mulatta , Camundongos , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/genética
17.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(6): 1578-1585, 2021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606578

RESUMO

Vaccinia virus was used to prevent smallpox. After the World Health Organization declared smallpox extinct, vaccinia virus has been explored for the development of vaccines against a variety of infectious diseases. It also finds a new place in oncolytic therapy. Here we provide a brief review of the history, current status, and future prospect of vaccinia virus-based vaccine and oncolytic virus. New advancements, including a single vaccine targeting multiple viruses, strategies of arming vaccinia viruses to enhance anti-tumor activity, the promise and challenge of combining vaccinia-based virotherapy with immunotherapy, are discussed as special focus.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Terapia Viral Oncolítica , Vírus Oncolíticos , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Vírus Vaccinia
18.
J Immunol ; 206(6): 1161-1170, 2021 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568397

RESUMO

Helicobacter pylori is the major etiological agent for most gastric cancer. CagA has been reported to be an important virulence factor of H. pylori, but its effect on the immune response is not yet clear. In this study, wild-type C57BL/6 mice and Ptpn6me-v/me-v mice were randomly assigned for infection with H. pylori We demonstrated that CagA suppressed H. pylori-stimulated expression of proinflammatory cytokines in vivo. Besides, we infected mouse peritoneal macrophages RAW264.7 and AGS with H. pylori Our results showed that CagA suppressed expression of proinflammatory cytokines through inhibiting the MAPKs and NF-κB pathways activation in vitro. Mechanistically, we found that CagA interacted with the host cellular tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1, which facilitated the recruitment of SHP-1 to TRAF6 and inhibited the K63-linked ubiquitination of TRAF6, which obstructed the transmission of signal downstream. Taken together, these findings reveal a previously unknown mechanism by which CagA negatively regulates the posttranslational modification of TRAF6 in innate antibacterial immune response and provide molecular basis for new therapeutics to treat microbial infection.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Infecções por Helicobacter/imunologia , Helicobacter pylori/imunologia , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 6/metabolismo , Fator 6 Associado a Receptor de TNF/metabolismo , Animais , Antígenos de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Mucosa Gástrica/imunologia , Mucosa Gástrica/microbiologia , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/patologia , Helicobacter pylori/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Lisina/metabolismo , Macrófagos Peritoneais , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Cultura Primária de Células , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 6/genética , Células RAW 264.7 , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Transfecção , Ubiquitinação/imunologia
19.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(1)2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oncolytic viruses (OVs) have shown promise in containing cancer progression in both animal models and clinical trials. How to further improve the efficacy of OVs are intensively explored. Arming OVs with immunoregulatory molecules has emerged as an important means to enhance their oncolytic activities majorly based on the mechanism of reverting the immunosuppressive nature of tumor environment. In this study, we aimed to identify the optimal combination of different OVs and immunomodulatory molecules for solid tumor treatment as well as the underlying mechanism, and subsequently evaluated its potential synergy with other immunotherapies. METHODS: Panels of oncolytic viruses and cells stably expressing immunoregulatory molecules were separately evaluated for treating solid tumors in mouse model. A tumor-targeted replicating vaccinia virus Tian Tan strain with deletion of TK gene (TTVΔTK) was armed rationally with IL-21 to create rTTVΔTK-IL21 through recombination. CAR-T cells and iNKT cells were generated from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The impact of rTTVΔTK-IL21 on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes was assessed by flow cytometry, and its therapeutic efficacy as monotherapy or in combination with CAR-T and iNKT therapy was assessed in mouse tumor models. RESULTS: IL-21 and TTV was respectively identified as most potent immunomodulatory molecule and oncolytic virus for solid tumor suppression in mouse models. A novel recombinant oncolytic virus that resulted from their combination, namely rTTVΔTK-mIL21, led to significant tumor regression in mice, even for noninjected distant tumor. Mechanistically, rTTV∆TK-mIL21 induced a selective enrichment of immune effector cells over Treg cells and engage a systemic response of therapeutic effect. Moreover, its human form showed a notable synergy with CAR-T or iNKT therapy for tumor treatment when coupled in humanized mice. CONCLUSION: With a strong potency of shaping tumor microenvironment toward favoring TIL activities, rTTVΔTK-IL21 represents a new opportunity worthy of further exploration in clinical settings for solid tumor control, particularly in combinatorial strategies with other immunotherapies. ONE SENTENCE SUMMARY: IL21-armed recombinant oncolytic vaccinia virus has potent anti-tumor activities as monotherapy and in combination with other immunotherapies.

20.
Virol Sin ; 36(2): 167-175, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997323

RESUMO

Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) recently emerged as a global public threat. The licensure of inactivated enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) vaccine was the first step in using a vaccine to control HFMD. New challenges arise from changes in the pathogen spectrum while vaccines directed against other common serotypes are in the preclinical stage. The mission of a broad-spectrum prevention strategy clearly favors multivalent vaccines. The development of multivalent vaccines was attempted via the simple combination of potent monovalent vaccines or the construction of chimeric vaccines comprised of epitopes derived from different virus serotypes. The present review summarizes recent advances in HFMD vaccine development and discusses the next steps toward a safe and effective HFMD vaccine that is capable of establishing a cross-protective antibody response.


Assuntos
Enterovirus Humano A , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca , Vacinas Virais , Enterovirus , Enterovirus Humano A/imunologia , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Vacinas Combinadas
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