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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2041, 2021 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33824314

RESUMO

An effective tumor vaccine vector that can rapidly display neoantigens is urgently needed. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) can strongly activate the innate immune system and are qualified as immunoadjuvants. Here, we describe a versatile OMV-based vaccine platform to elicit a specific anti-tumor immune response via specifically presenting antigens onto OMV surface. We first display tumor antigens on the OMVs surface by fusing with ClyA protein, and then simplify the antigen display process by employing a Plug-and-Display system comprising the tag/catcher protein pairs. OMVs decorated with different protein catchers can simultaneously display multiple, distinct tumor antigens to elicit a synergistic antitumour immune response. In addition, the bioengineered OMVs loaded with different tumor antigens can abrogate lung melanoma metastasis and inhibit subcutaneous colorectal cancer growth. The ability of the bioengineered OMV-based platform to rapidly and simultaneously display antigens may facilitate the development of these agents for personalized tumour vaccines.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/metabolismo , Bioengenharia/métodos , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Vacinação , Animais , Apresentação do Antígeno/imunologia , Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Imunidade Inata , Memória Imunológica , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/imunologia
2.
J Mater Chem B ; 9(15): 3346-3356, 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33881426

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer incidence among males worldwide. Radiotherapy can achieve similar oncological outcomes to those of radical prostatectomy. One concern is, however, radiation damage to the rectum because of the extreme proximity between the two organs. Inserting a biomaterial to separate the prostate and rectum is a promising strategy, and an injectable hydrogel is regarded to be the preferred spacer after screening of various materials. Nevertheless, there exist shortcomings for the currently available injectable hydrogel that cannot fully meet the unique requirements in clinical practice. In this work, a novel injectable hydrogel spacer based on carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC), aldehyde guar gum (AG), and aldehyde iohexol (DHQ) with an imaging function is fabricated. Contrast agent DHQ is chemically attached to CMC-AG network to form a double-crosslinking network to obtain a controlled degradation rate and high strength as well as durable CT imaging function. The hydrogel is injected subcutaneously into rats, where rapid gelation occurs and it serves as a hydrogel spacer. During the month-long in vivo studies, the spacer exhibits remarkable radiation dose attenuation and sustainable imaging function, as well as excellent toxicity profiles. This novel hydrogel shows excellent potential in the protection of critical organs during prostate cancer radiotherapy.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852269

RESUMO

Cationic group distribution and elemental composition are two key factors determining the conductivity and stability of anion exchange membranes (AEMs) for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). Herein, fluorinated tetra-dimethylaminomethyl-poly(fluorenyl ether)s (TAPFE)s were designed as the polymer precursors, which were reacted with 6-bromo-N,N,N-trimethylhexan-1-aminium bromide to introduce di-quaternary ammonium (DQA) containing side chains. The resultant DQA-TAPFEs with a rigid fluorinated backbone and flexible multi-cationic side chains exhibited distinct micro-phase separation as probed by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). DQA-TAPFE-20 with an ion exchange capacity (IEC) of 1.55 mmol g-1 exhibited a SO42- conductivity of 10.1 mS cm-1 at room temperature, much higher than that of a control AEM with an identical backbone but spaced out cationic groups, which had a similar IEC of 1.60 mmol g-1 but a SO42- conductivity of only 3.2 mS cm-1. Due to the Donnan repulsion effect, the DQA-TAPFEs exhibited significantly lower VO2+ permeability than Nafion 212. The VRFB assembled with DQA-TAPFE-20 achieved an energy efficiency of 80.4% at 80 mA cm-1 and a capacity retention rate of 82.9% after the 50th cycling test, both higher than those of the VRFB assembled with Nafion 212 and other AEMs in the literature. Therefore, the rationally designed DQA-TAPFEs are promising candidates for VRFB applications.

4.
Nano Lett ; 21(6): 2588-2595, 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650872

RESUMO

Compared with traditional chemotherapeutics, vascular disruption agents (VDAs) have the advantages of rapidly blocking the supply of nutrients and starving tumors to death. Although the VDAs are effective under certain scenarios, this treatment triggers angiogenesis in the later stage of therapy that frequently leads to tumor recurrence and treatment failure. Additionally, the nonspecific tumor targeting and considerable side effects also impede the clinical applications of VDAs. Here we develop a customized strategy that combines a VDA with an anti-angiogenic drug (AAD) using mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) coated with platelet membrane for the self-assembled tumor targeting accumulation. The tailor-made nanoparticles accumulate in tumor tissues through the targeted adhesion of platelet membrane surface to damaged vessel sites, resulting in significant vascular disruption and efficient anti-angiogenesis in animal models. This study demonstrates the promising potential of combining VDA and AAD in a single nanoplatform for tumor eradication.

5.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(16): 8705-8709, 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33470491

RESUMO

Converting CO2 and H2 O into carbon-based fuel by IR light is a tough task. Herein, compared with other single-component photocatalysts, the most efficient IR-light-driven CO2 reduction is achieved by an element-doped ultrathin metallic photocatalyst-Ni-doped CoS2 nanosheets (Ni-CoS2 ). The evolution rate of CH4 over Ni-CoS2 is up to 101.8 µmol g-1 h-1 . The metallic and ultrathin nature endow Ni-CoS2 with excellent IR light absorption ability. The PL spectra and Arrhenius plots indicate that Ni atoms could facilitate the separation of photogenerated carriers and the decrease of the activation energy. Moreover, in situ FTIR, DFT calculations, and CH4 -TPD reveal that the doped Ni atoms in CoS2 could effectively depress the formation energy of the *COOH, *CHO and desorption energy of CH4 . This work manifests that element doping in atomic level is a powerful way to control the reaction intermediates, providing possibilities to realize high-efficiency IR-light-driven CO2 reduction.

6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1014, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441695

RESUMO

As the global population continues to increase, global food production needs to double by 2050 to meet the demand. Given the current status of the not expansion of cultivated land area, agronomic seedlings are complete, well-formed and strong, which is the basis of high crop yields. The aim of this experiment was to study the effects of seed germination and seedling growth in response to silicon (from water-soluble Si fertilizer). The effects of Si on the maize germination, seedling growth, chlorophyll contents, osmoprotectant contents, antioxidant enzyme activities, non-enzymatic antioxidant contents and stomatal characteristics were studied by soaking Xianyu 335 in solutions of different concentrations of Si (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 g·L-1). In this study, Si treatments significantly increased the seed germination and per-plant dry weight of seedlings (P < 0.05), and the optimal concentration was 15 g·L-1. As a result of the Si treatment of the seeds, the chlorophyll content, osmotic material accumulation and antioxidant defence system activity increased, reducing membrane system damage, reactive oxygen species contents, and stomatal aperture. The results suggested that 15 g·L-1 Si significantly stimulated seed germination and promoted the growth of maize seedlings, laying a solid foundation for subsequent maize growth.

7.
Environ Pollut ; 273: 116479, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460871

RESUMO

Trichlorocarban (TCC) is ubiquitously detected in environmental matrices, while there is a paucity of information regarding its systemic toxicity. In the present study, we observed that TCC exposure led to high embryo mortality, delayed hatching and yolk absorption, as well as increased malformations, such as closure of swim sac and yolk sac edema. Meanwhile, TCC affected the formation and branch of subintestinal veins (SIVs), intersegmental vessels and posterior cardinal veins. Especially, the SIVs were shrunk, and their branches were reduced or even broken along with reduced coverage area. TCC-induced oxidative stress and excessive apoptosis resulted from abnormal expression of the anti/pro-apoptotic genes. Significant reduction in the number and aggregation function of immune cells proved that TCC had prominent immunotoxicity to zebrafish. TCC-targeted TLR4 signaling pathway was demonstrated by abnormal expression of the marker genes (tlr4, MyD88 and nf-κb) and release of the downstream inflammatory factors (TNF-α, IL-6, etc.). Inhibition of TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB pathway by an inhibitor (CA-4948) rescued the decreasing trend of the immune cells induced by TCC. Molecular docking results demonstrated that TCC could stably bind to TLR4 receptor to form hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions with amino acids. Overall, these findings reveal the underlying molecular mechanisms on TCC-induced developmental and immune toxicity to zebrafish.

8.
Transpl Int ; 34(3): 412-422, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316839

RESUMO

The objective of this meta-analysis was to assess the incidence of de novo autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) in children and adolescents with increased autoantibodies after liver transplantation. We systematically retrieved studies from PubMed, Embase, Central, CNKI, VIP and Wanfang published before February 1, 2020. All analyses were conducted using R-4.0.1 statistical package (Meta). Seven studies with high quality were pooled in our final analysis (N = 251 participants). The incidence of de novo AIH was 9% [95% confidence interval (CI) 1-23%, I2  = 86%]. Subgroup analysis suggested that publications not using the International Autoimmune Hepatitis Group (IAIHG) criteria have marginally significantly higher incidence of de novo AIH than those using IAIHG criteria (P for interaction = 0.08). The incidence of chronic rejection was 8% (95% CI 2-17%, I2  = 72%). Meta-regression indicated significant correlation (P = 0.04; estimate: 1.51) between the incidence of de novo AIH and the rate of increase of antibodies to liver/kidney microsome (anti-LKM). It is still challenging to distinguish de novo AIH and chronic rejection in children and adolescents with increased autoantibodies after liver transplantation. The diagnostic criteria for de novo AIH in children and adolescents and the role of anti-LKM in the development of de novo AIH deserve future investigation.

9.
Sci Total Environ ; : 143694, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33267995

RESUMO

The organophosphate flame retardant, tris (1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), is ubiquitous in environmental matrices; however, there is a paucity of information concerning its systemic toxicity. Herein, we investigated the effects of TCPP exposure on zebrafish neurodevelopment and swimming behavior to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of neurotoxicity. Under TCPP gradient concentration exposure, the hatching rates were declined by up to 33.3% in 72 hpf, and the malformation rates increased from 15% to 50%. Meanwhile, TCPP led to abnormal behaviors including decreased locomotive activity in the dark and slow/insensitive responses to sound and light stimulation of larvae. TCPP caused excessive apoptosis and ROS accumulation in early embryonic development, with hair cell defects and structural deformity of neuromast. Abnormal expression of neurodevelopment (pax6a, nova1, sox11b, syn2a, foxo3a and robo2) and apoptosis-related genes (baxa, bcl2a and casp8) revealed molecular mechanisms regarding abnormal behavioral and phenotypic symptoms. Chronic TCPP exposure led to anxiety-like behavior and excessive panic, lower capacity for discrimination and risk avoidance, and conditioned place preference in adults. Social interaction tests demonstrated that long-term TCPP stress resulted in unsociable, eccentric, lonely and silent behaviors in adults. Zebrafish memory and cognitive function were severely reduced as concluded from T-maze tests. Potential mechanisms triggering behavioral abnormality were attributed to histopathological injury of diencephalon, abnormal changes in nerve-related genes at transcription and expression levels, and inhibited activity of AChE by TCPP stress. These findings provide an important reference for risk assessment and early warning to TCPP exposure, and offer insights for prevention/mitigation of pollutant-induced nervous system diseases.

10.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33232124

RESUMO

Natural, extracellular membrane vesicles secreted by Gram-negative bacteria, outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), contain numerous pathogen-associated molecular patterns which can activate systemic immune responses. Previous studies have shown that OMVs induce strong IFN-γ- and T cell-mediated anti-tumor effects in mice. However, IFN-γ is known to upregulate immunosuppressive factors in the tumor microenvironment, especially the immune checkpoint programmed death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1), which may hamper T cell function and limit immunotherapeutic effectiveness. Here, we report the development of genetically engineered OMVs whose surface has been modified by insertion of the ectodomain of programmed death 1 (PD1). This genetic modification does not affect the ability of OMVs to trigger immune activation. More importantly, the engineered OMV-PD1 can bind to PD-L1 on the tumor cell surface and facilitate its internalization and reduction, thereby protecting T cells from the PD1/PD-L1 immune inhibitory axis. Through the combined effects of immune activation and checkpoint suppression, the engineered OMVs drive the accumulation of effector T cells in the tumor, which, in turn, leads to a greater impairment of tumor growth, compared with not only native OMVs but also the commonly used PD-L1 antibody. In conclusion, this work demonstrates the potential of bioengineered OMVs as effective immunotherapeutic agents that can comprehensively regulate the tumor immune microenvironment to effect markedly increased anti-tumor efficacy.

12.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 6095673, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33014273

RESUMO

Redox homeostasis is regulated by critical molecules that modulate antioxidant and redox signaling (ARS) within the cell. Imbalances among these molecules can lead to oxidative stress and damage to cell functions, causing a variety of diseases. Brahma-related gene 1 (BRG1), also known as SMARCA4, is the central ATPase catalytic subunit of the switch/sucrose nonfermentable (SWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complex, which plays a core role in DNA replication, repair, recombination, and transcriptional regulation. Numerous recent studies show that BRG1 is involved in the regulation of various cellular processes associated with ARS. BRG1, as a major factor in chromatin remodeling, is essential for the repair of oxidative stress-induced DNA damage and the activation of antioxidant genes under oxidative stress. Consequently, a comprehensive understanding of the roles of BRG1 in redox homeostasis is crucial to understand the normal functioning as well as pathological mechanisms. In this review, we summarized and discussed the role of BRG1 in the regulation of ARS.

13.
J Appl Clin Med Phys ; 21(10): 89-96, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918385

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To study the impact of abdominal deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) technique on knowledge-based radiotherapy treatment planning for left-sided breast cancer to guide the application of DIBH technology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two kernel density estimation (KDE) models were developed based on 40 left-sided breast cancer patients with two CT acquisitions of free breathing (FB-CT) and DIBH (DIBH-CT). Each KDE model was used to predict dose volume histograms (DVHs) based on DIBH-CT and FB-CT for another 10 new patients similar to our training datasets. The predicted DVHs were taken as a substitute for dose constraints and objective functions in the Eclipse treatment planning system, with the same requirements for the planning target volume (PTV). The mean doses to the heart, the left anterior descending coronary artery (LADCA) and the ipsilateral lung were evaluated and compared using the T-test among clinical plans, KDE predictions, and KDE plans. RESULTS: Our study demonstrated that the KDE model can generate deliverable simulations equivalent to clinically applicable plans. The T-test was applied to test the consistency hypothesis on another ten left-sided breast cancer patients. In cases of the same breathing status, there was no statistically significant difference between the predicted and the clinical plans for all clinically relevant DVH indices (P > 0.05), and all predicted DVHs can be transferred into deliverable plans. For DIBH-CT images, significant differences were observed between FB model predictions and clinical plans (P < 0.05). DIBH model prediction cannot be optimized to a deliverable plan based on FB-CT, with a counsel of perfection. CONCLUSION: KDE models can predict DVHs well for the same breathing conditions but degrade with different breathing conditions. The benefits of DIBH for a given patient can be evaluated with a quick comparison of prediction results of the two models before treatment planning.

15.
J Neurochem ; 2020 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799401

RESUMO

Aggregation of amyloid-ß peptide 1-42 (Aß42) initiates the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and all the drugs designed to attenuate AD have failed in clinical trials. Emodin reduces levels of ß-amyloid, tau aggregation, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response, demonstrating AD therapeutic potential, whereas its effect on the accumulation of the amyloid-ß protein is not well understood. In this work, we investigated emodin activity on Aß aggregation using a range of biochemical, biophysical, and cell-based approaches. We provide evidence to suggest that emodin blocks Aß42 fibrillogenesis and Aß-induced cytotoxicity, displaying a greater effect than that of curcumin. Through adopting three short peptides (Aß1-16, Aß17-33, and Aß28-42), it was proven that emodin interacts with the Leu17-Gly33 sequence. Furthermore, our findings indicated that Val18 and Phe19 in Aß42 are the target residues with which emodin interacts according amino acid mutation experiments. When fed to 8-month-old B6C3-Tg mice for 2 months, high-dose emodin ameliorates cognitive impairment by 60%-70%. Pathological results revealed that levels of Aß deposition in the brains of AD mice treated with a high dose of emodin decreased by 50%-70%. Therefore, our study indicates that emodin may represent a promising drug for AD treatment.

16.
IEEE Trans Med Imaging ; 39(11): 3583-3594, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746106

RESUMO

Deep learning approaches have demonstrated remarkable progress in automatic Chest X-ray analysis. The data-driven feature of deep models requires training data to cover a large distribution. Therefore, it is substantial to integrate knowledge from multiple datasets, especially for medical images. However, learning a disease classification model with extra Chest X-ray (CXR) data is yet challenging. Recent researches have demonstrated that performance bottleneck exists in joint training on different CXR datasets, and few made efforts to address the obstacle. In this paper, we argue that incorporating an external CXR dataset leads to imperfect training data, which raises the challenges. Specifically, the imperfect data is in two folds: domain discrepancy, as the image appearances vary across datasets; and label discrepancy, as different datasets are partially labeled. To this end, we formulate the multi-label thoracic disease classification problem as weighted independent binary tasks according to the categories. For common categories shared across domains, we adopt task-specific adversarial training to alleviate the feature differences. For categories existing in a single dataset, we present uncertainty-aware temporal ensembling of model predictions to mine the information from the missing labels further. In this way, our framework simultaneously models and tackles the domain and label discrepancies, enabling superior knowledge mining ability. We conduct extensive experiments on three datasets with more than 360,000 Chest X-ray images. Our method outperforms other competing models and sets state-of-the-art performance on the official NIH test set with 0.8349 AUC, demonstrating its effectiveness of utilizing the external dataset to improve the internal classification.

17.
Life Sci ; 257: 118053, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634424

RESUMO

AIMS: Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) play a crucial role in the progression of atherosclerosis. Paired box 9 (Pax9) is a member of the Pax gene family which participates in the development of various tissues and organs. However, the effect of Pax9 on atherosclerosis and VSMCs and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. MAIN METHODS: Western blotting was performed to assess Pax9 expression in atherosclerosis and VSMCs. Pax9 siRNA and overexpression plasmid were constructed to explore the biological function. Cell proliferation assay, phalloidin staining, and Transwell assay, accompanied by the sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway antagonist, cyclopamine (5 µM) and agonist, SAG (100 nM), were used to evaluate the VSMC phenotype, proliferation, and migration, as well as explore the associated mechanisms. KEY FINDINGS: We first discovered Pax9 to be significantly increased in atherosclerotic mice and platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB)-induced VSMCs. Pax9 knockdown inhibited the phenotypic transformation, proliferation, and migration of VSMCs, whereas the opposite effect was observed when Pax9 was overexpressed. Next, we established that Shh was activated in PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs. Moreover, Pax9 overexpression further activated Shh and exacerbated the phenotypic transformation, proliferation, and migration of PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs. These changes were effectively inhibited by treatment with the Shh signaling pathway antagonist. Consistently, Pax9 knockdown down-regulated Shh expression and inhibited the phenotypic transformation, proliferation, and migration of PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs. Treatment with the Shh signaling pathway agonist prevented these changes. SIGNIFICANCE: Pax9 regulated VSMC phenotypic transformation, proliferation, and migration via Shh, which may represent a novel target for the treatment of atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/genética , Proteínas Hedgehog/genética , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/citologia , Fator de Transcrição PAX9/genética , Animais , Aterosclerose/patologia , Becaplermina/metabolismo , Movimento Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Cicloexilaminas/farmacologia , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Fenótipo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Alcaloides de Veratrum/farmacologia
18.
J Exp Biol ; 223(Pt 17)2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665446

RESUMO

High temperatures and heatwaves are rapidly emerging as an important threat to many aspects of physiology and behavior in females during lactation. The body's capacity to dissipate heat is reduced by high ambient temperatures, increasing the risk of hyperthermia. Exposure to wind, a pervasive environmental factor for most terrestrial animals, is known to increase heat loss, but its effects on the reproductive performance of small mammals remains unclear. In the present study, the effects of wind on the energy budgets, resting metabolic rate and milk energy output (MEO) were measured in lactating Swiss mice at 21 and 32.5°C. Females kept at 32.5°C had a significantly lower resting metabolic rate, food intake and MEO, and lighter offspring, than those kept at 21°C. However, exposure to wind increased the asymptotic food intake of females kept at 32.5°C by 22.5% (P<0.01), their MEO by 20.7% (P<0.05) and their litter mass by 17.6% (P<0.05). The body temperature of females kept at 32.5°C was significantly higher during lactation than that of females kept at 21°C, but this difference was reduced by exposure to wind. These findings suggest that exposure to wind considerably improves reproductive performance, increasing the fitness of small mammals while undergoing hot temperatures during heatwaves.

19.
Bioresour Technol ; 314: 123731, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615447

RESUMO

In this study, the differences on the physico-chemical parameters, lignocellulose degradation, dynamic succession of microbial community, gene expression of carbohydrate-active enzymes and antibiotics resistance genes were compared during composting systems of bagasse pith/pig manure (BP) and manioc waste/pig manure (MW). The results revealed that biodegradation rates of organic matter, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin (29.14%, 17.53%,45.36% and 36.48%) in BP were higher than those (15.59%, 16.74%, 41.23% and 29.77%) in MW. In addition, the relative abundance of Bacillus, Luteimonas, Clostridium, Pseudomonas, Streptomyces and expression of genes encoding carbohydrate- active enzymes in BP were higher than those in MW based on metagenomics sequencing. During composting, antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes were substantially reduced, but the removal efficiency was divergent in the both samples. Taken together, metagenomics analysis was a potential method for evaluating lignocellulose's biodegradation process and determining the elimination of antibiotic and antibiotic resistance genes from different composting sources of biomass.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lignina , Esterco , Metagenômica , Solo , Suínos
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673739

RESUMO

Adaptive adjustments of energy intake and body fat play an important role in allowing animals' to meet the energy demands of thermoregulation during cold conditions and reproduction. Body fat is usually metabolized during lactation, which is one of the most energetically demanding activities of female mammals, however the effect of this on the energy budget and body fat regulation after lactation remains unclear. We compared the energy intake and body fat of female striped hamsters (Cricetulus barabensis) fed either a high-fat or low-fat diet for 21 days after the end of lactation (post-lactation, PL) to those of virgin controls. Serum leptin levels and the expression of hypothalamic orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptide genes were also measured and compared. Although lactating females consumed significantly more food, they had significantly lower body fat than virgin controls. The energy intake and body fat levels of the PL females were, however, significantly higher than those of virgin females. This was particularly true for the PL females that were fed high-fat diet. These females had significantly higher serum leptin concentrations, but lower hypothalamic leptin receptor gene expression, than virgin females. Neither orexigenic nor anorexigenic neuropeptide levels in the hypothalamus differed significantly between the PL and virgin females. This suggests that a negative energy balance during lactation drives fat accumulation after lactation. Furthermore, leptin resistance may occur after the end of lactation, causing females to consume more food, and accumulate more fat, than virgin females.

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