Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 10 de 10
Filtrar
Filtros adicionais











Intervalo de ano
1.
World J Gastroenterol ; 24(11): 1181-1195, 2018 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29568199

RESUMO

Macrophages (MΦ) differentiate from blood monocytes and participate in innate and adaptive immunity. Because of their abilities to recognize pathogens and activate bactericidal activities, MΦ are always discovered at the site of immune defense. MΦ in the intestine are unique, such that in the healthy intestine, they possess complex mechanisms to protect the gut from inflammation. In these complex mechanisms, they produce anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-ß, and inhibit the inflammatory pathways mediated by Toll-like receptors. It has been demonstrated that resident MΦ play a crucial role in maintaining intestinal homeostasis, and they can be recognized by their unique markers. Nonetheless, in the inflamed intestine, the function of MΦ will change because of environmental variation, which may be one of the mechanisms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We provide further explanation about these mechanisms in our review. In addition, we review recent discoveries that MΦ may be involved in the development of gastrointestinal tumors. We will highlight the possible therapeutic targets for the management of IBD and gastrointestinal tumors, and we also discuss why more details are needed to fully understand all other effects of intestinal MΦ.


Assuntos
Citocinas/imunologia , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/imunologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Citocinas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/patologia , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica , Imunidade Inata , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/patologia , Mucosa Intestinal/citologia , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Monócitos/fisiologia , Receptores Toll-Like/imunologia , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo
2.
J Vet Med Sci ; 79(2): 314-319, 2017 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27890904

RESUMO

In this study, 24 male and female broiler chickens at 30-day-old were divided into three groups with 8 animals in each group. The animals were administered with recombinant chicken interferon-α (rChIFN-α) at a dose of 1.0 × 106 IU/kg intravenously, intramuscularly or subcutaneously, respectively. Serum samples were collected at different time points post administration, and the titers of rChIFN-α in the blood were determined by cytopathic effect inhibition assay. The results showed that the pharmacokinetic characteristics of rChIFN-α by intramuscular injection and subcutaneous injection were fitted to one compartment open model, and the Tmax was 3.21 ± 0.79 hr and 3.95 ± 0.85 hr, respectively, and the elimination half-life (T1/2) was 6.20 ± 2.77 hr and 5.03 ± 3.70 hr, respectively. In contrast, the pharmacokinetics of rChIFN-α via intravenous injection was in line with the open model of two-compartment and was eliminated in the first order, and the elimination half-life (T1/2) was 4.61 ± 0.84 hr. In addition, compared with those in the intravenous group and the subcutaneous group, the bioavailability of rChIFN-α in the intramuscular group was 82.80%. In conclusion, rChIFN-α was rapidly absorbed and slowly eliminated after intramuscular administration of single dose of rChIFN-α aqueous formulations. Thus, rChIFN-α can be used as a commonly-used therapeutic agent.


Assuntos
Interferon-alfa/farmacocinética , Animais , Galinhas/sangue , Galinhas/metabolismo , Feminino , Injeções Intramusculares/veterinária , Injeções Intravenosas/veterinária , Injeções Subcutâneas/veterinária , Interferon-alfa/administração & dosagem , Interferon-alfa/sangue , Masculino , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacocinética
3.
World J Gastroenterol ; 21(12): 3509-18, 2015 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25834315

RESUMO

AIM: To study the effects of entacapone, a catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor, on colon motility and electrolyte transport in Parkinson's disease (PD) rats. METHODS: Distribution and expression of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) were measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting methods. The colonic smooth muscle motility was examined in vitro by means of a muscle motility recording device. The mucosal electrolyte transport of PD rats was examined by using a short-circuit current (ISC ) technique and scanning ion-selective electrode technique (SIET). Intracellular detection of cAMP and cGMP was accomplished by radioimmunoassay testing. RESULTS: COMT was expressed in the colons of both normal and PD rats, mainly on the apical membranes of villi and crypts in the colon. Compared to normal controls, PD rats expressed less COMT. The COMT inhibitor entacapone inhibited contraction of the PD rat longitudinal muscle in a dose-dependent manner. The ß2 adrenoceptor antagonist ICI-118,551 blocked this inhibitory effect by approximately 67% (P < 0.01). Entacapone increased mucosal ISC in the colon of rats with PD. This induction was significantly inhibited by apical application of Cl(-) channel blocker diphenylamine-2, 2'-dicarboxylic acid, basolateral application of Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-)co-transporter antagonist bumetanide, elimination of Cl(-) from the extracellular fluid, as well as pretreatment using adenylate cyclase inhibitor MDL12330A. As an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthetase, indomethacin can inhibit entacapone-induced ISC by 45% (P < 0.01). When SIET was applied to measure Cl(-) flux changes, this provided similar results. Entacapone significantly increased intracellular cAMP content in the colonic mucosa, which was greatly inhibited by indomethacin. CONCLUSION: COMT expression exists in rat colons. The ß2 adrenoceptor is involved in the entacapone-induced inhibition of colon motility. Entacapone induces cAMP-dependent Cl(-) secretion in the PD rat.


Assuntos
Antiparkinsonianos/farmacologia , Inibidores de Catecol O-Metiltransferase/farmacologia , Catecóis/farmacologia , Canais de Cloreto/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloretos/metabolismo , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrilos/farmacologia , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Adenilil Ciclases/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/farmacologia , Animais , Catecol O-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Canais de Cloreto/metabolismo , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/fisiopatologia , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Transporte de Íons , Masculino , Oxidopamina , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/metabolismo , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/fisiopatologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fatores de Tempo
4.
Biomed Res Int ; 2015: 569853, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25821812

RESUMO

The peach tree, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, is widely cultivated in China, and its flowers have been used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine to treat gut motility disorders. But few studies have explored the pharmacological effect of Prunus persica (L.) Batsch flowers on gastrointestinal motility. In this study, the activities of different extracts from Prunus persica (L.) Batsch flowers on the smooth muscle contractions were evaluated using isolated colon model, and the ethyl acetate extract (EAE) showed the strongest effects in vitro. EAE (10(-8)-10(-5) g/mL) caused a concentration-dependent stimulatory effect in rat colonic tissue. Additionally, ketotifen (100 µM), cimetidine (10 µM), and pyrilamine (1 µM) produced a significant inhibition of contractions caused by EAE. Furthermore, immunofluorescence and toluidine blue staining revealed increased numbers of mast cells in the EAE group, and EAE increased histamine release from the colonic tissues. These data indicate that EAE has significant prokinetic activity and acts by a mechanism that mainly involves mast cell degranulation. Our study provides a pharmacological basis for the use of an extract of Prunus persica (L.) Batsch flowers in the treatment of gut motility disorders.


Assuntos
Colo/fisiologia , Flores/química , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Prunus persica/química , Animais , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/administração & dosagem , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Contração Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
PLoS One ; 9(6): e101194, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24979385

RESUMO

Treating the vascular elements within the neurovascular unit is essential for protecting and repairing the brain after stroke. Acute injury on endothelial systems results in the disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB), while post-ischemic angiogenesis plays an important role in delayed functional recovery. Here, we considered alterations in microvessel integrity to be targets for brain recovery, and tested the natural compound morroniside as a therapeutic approach to restore the vascular elements of injured tissue in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model, and morroniside was then administered intragastrically once a day at doses of 30, 90, and 270 mg/kg. BBB integrity and associated factors were analyzed to identify cerebrovascular permeability 3 days after MCAO. The recruitment of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), the expression of angiogenic factors and the new vessel formation in the peri-infarct cortex of rats were examined 7 days after MCAO to identify the angiogenesis. We demonstrated that at 3 days post-ischemia, morroniside preserved neurovascular unit function by ameliorating BBB injury. By 7 days post-ischemia, morroniside amplified angiogenesis, in part by enhancing endothelial progenitor cell proliferation and expression of angiogenic factors. Morever, the increase in the amount of vWF+ vessels induced by ischemia could be extended to 28 days after administration of morroniside, indicating the crucial role of morroniside in angiogenesis during the chronic phase. Taken together, our findings suggested that morroniside might offer a novel therapeutic approach for promoting microvascular integrity recovery and provide a thoroughly new direction for stroke therapy.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Glicosídeos/uso terapêutico , Microvasos/fisiopatologia , Animais , Barreira Hematoencefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Barreira Hematoencefálica/patologia , Barreira Hematoencefálica/fisiopatologia , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Permeabilidade Capilar/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Cerebral/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/enzimologia , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/patologia , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Inflamação/complicações , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Microvasos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microvasos/patologia , Modelos Biológicos , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptor TIE-2/metabolismo , Fator de von Willebrand/metabolismo
6.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 738: 214-21, 2014 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24876057

RESUMO

Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of mortality and permanent disability in adults worldwide. Neurogenesis triggered by ischemia in the adult mammalian brain may provide insights into stroke treatment. Morroniside is an active component of sarcocarp of C. officinalis that have shown neuroprotective effects. The aim of the present study is to test whether morroniside promotes neurogenesis via Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway for brain recovery in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia. Morroniside was administered intragastrically once daily at the concentrations of 30, 90 and 270 mg/kg for 7 days post-ischemia. Neurological functions were detected by Ludmila Belayev score tests. Endogenous neural stem cells responses were investigated with immunofluorescence staining of Ki-67 and Nestin to identify the neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ). The expression of proteins involved in and related to Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway was detected by western blotting analysis. Morroniside significantly promoted neurogenesis for brain recovery 7 days post-ischemia. Increased expression of Wnt 3a, ß-catenin and T-cell transcription factor-4 (Tcf-4), along with activation of downstream transcription factors Pax6 and neurogenin2 (Ngn2), indicated that the neurorestorative effects of morroniside may be associated with Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway. These data provide support for understanding the mechanisms of morroniside in neurorestorative effects and suggest a potential new strategy for ischemic stroke treatment.


Assuntos
Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/patologia , Neurogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Via de Sinalização Wnt/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicosídeos/uso terapêutico , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/metabolismo , Masculino , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fatores de Tempo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
7.
Chem Asian J ; 7(8): 1895-901, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22588989

RESUMO

The effects of calcination temperature and feedstock pretreatment on the catalytic performance of Co/γ-Al(2)O(3) catalysts were studied for partial oxidation of methane (POM) to synthesis gas, with emphasis on the role of feedstock pretreatment. The physicochemical properties of the catalysts were characterized by N(2) adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), H(2) temperature-programmed reduction (H(2) -TPR), and Raman spectroscopy. The results showed that the pretreatment of the catalyst by reaction gas significantly improved the catalytic activity and stability for the POM reaction. On the other hand, the effect of calcination temperature was less significant. Although the initial activity was increased by an increased calcination temperature, the catalyst without the feedstock pretreatment suffered a rapid deactivation. The reaction-atmosphere pretreatment was revealed as a process that mainly modified the surface structure of the catalyst. In that process, the formation of a CoAl(2)O(4) -like compound led to high Co metal dispersion after reduction, and the transformation of the carrier into α-Al(2)O(3) occurred over the catalyst surface. Both the high dispersion of cobalt and the presence of α-Al(2)O(3) surface phase were assumed as the important factors resulting in an excellent catalytic performance in terms of high activity and high stability.

8.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 656(1-3): 94-100, 2011 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21291881

RESUMO

We have demonstrated that the activation of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor 3 in the submucosal plexus suppresses 5-HT-induced colonic ion secretion by increasing submucosal somatostatin release. A number of psychological and physical stresses have impacts on the intestinal mucosal functions, including secretion and the epithelial barrier. Whether the 5-HT(3) receptor-mediated somatostatin-dependent secretoinhibitory pathway in the rat distal colon is involved in the stress process is still unknown. The present study aims to investigate the effect of the water-immersion restraint stress on this inhibitory pathway and its underlying mechanisms. Mucosa/submucosa preparations from the rat distal colon were mounted in the Ussing chambers for the measurement of short-circuit current (I(SC)). Real-time PCR and western blot were performed to study the expression of the 5-HT(3) receptor, 5-HT(4) receptor, and somatostatin receptor 2. Radioimmunoassay was used to measure somatostatin release. After 2h of water-immersion restraint stress, the membrane resistance (Rte) of rat mucosa/submucosa preparations was significantly decreased, but the baseline I(SC) and 5-HT-induced I(SC) responses were significantly increased. The protein expression of the submucosal 5-HT(3) receptors and mucosal somatostatin receptor 2 were down-regulated, and the 5-HT-induced somatostatin release from the mucosa/submucosa preparations was significantly reduced in the stress group. Taken together, these results suggest that the 5-HT(3) receptor-mediated somatostatin-dependent secretoinhibitory pathway is suppressed in the water-immersion restraint stressed rats, which may contribute to the acute stress-induced increase in colonic secretion.


Assuntos
Imersão , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Receptores 5-HT3 de Serotonina/metabolismo , Somatostatina/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Água , Animais , Colo , Condutividade Elétrica , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas In Vitro , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores 5-HT3 de Serotonina/genética , Receptores 5-HT4 de Serotonina/genética , Receptores 5-HT4 de Serotonina/metabolismo , Receptores de Somatostatina/antagonistas & inibidores , Restrição Física , Serotonina/farmacologia , Antagonistas do Receptor 5-HT3 de Serotonina/farmacologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Tropanos/farmacologia
9.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 30(11): 2058-62, 2007 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17978475

RESUMO

It has been reported that emodin is able to promote gastrointestinal motility and stimulate large intestinal water secretion; however, the mechanism is still not clear. The aim of the present study is to examine the effects of emodin on the rat colonic transepithelial ion transport and the underlying mechanism. The study was carried out by means of the short circuit current (I(SC)) recording. Basolateral application of emodin induced a concentration-dependent I(SC) increase, and the EC(50) was 76.0 micromol/l. Pretreatment with epithelial Na(+) channel blocker, amiloride (10 micromol/l), did not affect the I(SC) responses elicited by emodin, but removal of extracellular Cl(-) or apical pretreatment with Cl(-) channel blocker, glibenclamide (1 mmol/l) inhibited emodin-elicited I(SC) responses by 76.3% and 83.8% respectively. Inhibiting basolateral Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC) with bumetanide (100 micromol/l) decreased emodin-induced I(SC) from 118.1+/-6.7 microA/cm(2) to 16.7+/-2.0 microA/cm(2), which was reduced by 85.9%. Basolateral pretreatment with neuronal Na(+) channel blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX) (1 micromol/l) did not affect emodin-induced I(SC) increase, but pretreatment with indomethacin (10 micromol/l) alone or with both TTX and indomethacin significantly decreased emodin-induced I(SC) increase by 88.4 and 81.2%, respectively. The present study demonstrated that emodin was able to stimulate rat colonic epithelial Cl(-) secretion, which was predominantly mediated by endogenous prostaglandin release.


Assuntos
Ânions/metabolismo , Cloretos/metabolismo , Colo/metabolismo , Emodina/farmacologia , Prostaglandinas/metabolismo , Animais , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Emodina/química , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Masculino , Estrutura Molecular , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
10.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 30(4): 295-7, 319, 2005 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15724412

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To research the effects of Polygala tenuifolia decoction on myoelectric activity of uterine smooth muscle and contractile activity of uterine smooth muscle strips of virginal rats. METHOD: To record the effects of P. tenuifolia decoction on myoelectric activity of uterine smooth muscle and contractile activity of uterine smooth muscle strips of virginal rats with biolap 410 biological system. Five blocking agents were used to study their mechanisms respectively. RESULT: Different dosages of water extract of P. tenuifolia (0.02, 0.04, 0.08 g x kg(-1)), could significantly potentiate uterine myoelectric activity and contractile activity of virginal rats. CONCLUSION: The effect of P. tenuifolia on myoelectric activity of uterine smooth muscle and contractile activity of uterine smooth muscle strips in rats may be mainly associated with H1 receptor, L-voltage-dependant calcium channels or prostaglandin synthese, its nothing to M receptor.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Polygala , Contração Uterina/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos alfa/farmacologia , Animais , Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos H1/farmacologia , Técnicas In Vitro , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Polygala/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA