Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 141
Filtrar
1.
Food Chem ; 366: 130611, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388403

RESUMO

Anthocyanins are pigments abundant in fruits and vegetables, and commonly applied in foods due to attractive colour and health-promoting benefits. However, instability of anthocyanins leads to their easy degradation, reduced bioactivity, and colour fading in food processing, limiting their application and causing economic losses. Stability of anthocyanins depends on their own structures and environmental factors. For structural factors, modification including copigmentation, acylation and biosynthesis is a potential solution to increase anthocyanin stability due to forming stable structures. With regard to environmental factors, encapsulation such as microencapsulation, liposome and nanoparticles has been shown effectively to enhance the stability. We proposed the potential challenges and perspectives for the diversification of anthocyanin-rich products for food application, particularly, introduction of hazards, technical limitations, interaction with other ingredients in food system and exploration of pyranoanthocyanins. The integrated strategies are warranted for improving anthocyanin stabilization for promoting their further application in food industry.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Frutas , Pigmentação , Extratos Vegetais , Verduras
2.
Infect Genet Evol ; 96: 105135, 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781036

RESUMO

Our objective was to describe the epidemiological features of an outbreak of norovirus infection in a health school in Guangdong province, China, to identify the cause of such a large scale outbreak of norovirus among older students, to simulate the transmission dynamics, and to evaluate the effect of intervention measures of GII.17 [P17] genotype norovirus infection. We identified all cases during the outbreak. Descriptive epidemiological, analytical epidemiological and hygiene survey methods were used to described the outbreak epidemic course and identify the cause of the outbreak of norovirus infection. We also used dynamical model to simulate the transmission dynamics of norovirus infection and evaluate the effect of intervention measures. Norovirus genotyping was assigned to the newly obtained strains, with a maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis conducted. There were 360 cases of 42 classes in five grades with a 12.99% attack rate. Proportionally, more students were in contact with sick students and vomit in the suspected case group than the control group (χ2 = 5.535, P = 0.019 and χ2 = 5.549, P = 0.019, respectively). The basic reproduction number was 8.32 before and 0.49 after the intervention. Dynamical modeling showed that if the isolation rate was higher or case isolation began earlier, the total attack rate would decrease. Molecular characterization identified the GII.17 [P17] genotype in all stains obtained from the health school, which were clustered with high support in the phylogenetic tree. This was an outbreak of norovirus infection caused by contact transmission. The main reasons for the spread of the epidemic were the later control time, irregular treatment of vomit and no case isolation. The transmission dynamics of contact transmission was high, more efficient control measures should be employed.

3.
Food Chem ; : 131613, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34815111

RESUMO

In order to improve the structure and cooking quality of extruded whole buckwheat noodles (EWBN), maltodextrin (MD), the homologous substances of starch, was added to buckwheat flour to prepare the EWBN. Hydrogen bonds formed between MD and buckwheat starch molecules and the crystallinity of EWBN decreased as determined by FT-IR and X-ray diffraction, which indicated plasticization effects of MD on buckwheat starch. The content of tightly bound water first increased and then decreased with the increasing amount of MD and the cooking time of EWBM decreased from 5.4 to 3.1 min due to the hydration effects of MD. The cooking loss first decreased and then increased, and showed a minimum value of 9.22% when adding 1 wt% of MD. For texture properties, the hardness, stickiness, chewiness and elongation at break of EWBN first increased and then decreased with the addition of MD, and all reached the maximum value at 3 wt% of MD. These findings showed the potential of adding MD, especially at the appropriate concentration, for improving structure and cooking quality of EWBN.

4.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718578

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To observe a long-term prognosis in late-onset multiple acyl-coenzyme-A dehydrogenation deficiency(MADD) patients and to determine whether riboflavin should be administrated in the long-term and high-dosage manner. METHODS: We studied the clinical, pathological and genetic features of 110 patients with late-onset MADD in a single neuromuscular center. The plasma riboflavin levels and a long-term follow-up were performed. RESULTS: Fluctuating proximal muscle weakness, exercise intolerance and dramatic responsiveness to riboflavin treatment were essential clinical features for all 110 MADD patients. Among them, we identified 106 cases with ETFDH variants, 1 case with FLAD1 variants and 3 cases without causal variants. On muscle pathology, fibers with cracks, atypical ragged red fibers(aRRFs) and diffuse decrease of SDH activity were the distinctive features of these MADD patients. The plasma riboflavin levels before treatment were significantly decreased in these patients as compared to healthy controls. Among 48 MADD patients with a follow-up of 6.1 years on average, 31 patients were free of muscle weakness recurrence, while 17 patients had episodes of slight muscle weakness upon riboflavin withdrawal, but recovered after retaking a small-dose of riboflavin for a short-term. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed vegetarian diet and masseter weakness were independent risk factors for muscle weakness recurrence. CONCLUSION: Fibers with cracks, aRRFs and diffuse decreased SDH activity distinguish MADD from other genotypes of lipid storage myopathy. For late-onset MADD, increased fatty acid oxidation and reduced riboflavin levels can induce episodes of muscle symptoms, which can be treated by short-term and small-dose of riboflavin therapy.

5.
Food Funct ; 12(22): 11503-11514, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34700334

RESUMO

Purple sweet potato anthocyanins have been acknowledged for their beneficial effects on human inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Although the ability of anthocyanins in modulating the gut microbiota has been reported, the relationship between the bacteria modulated by anthocyanins and intestinal inflammation has not been fully elucidated. We aimed to ascertain whether the purple sweet potato anthocyanin extract (PSPAE) modulation of gut microbiota in the dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) induced chronic colitis mouse model could result in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and protection against bacterial intestinal inflammation. Chronic colitis was induced by adding DSS in drinking water while administering the mice with PSPAE via gavage (20 mg kg-1). Effects on colon tissue damage, gut microbiota composition, tight junction protein, and cytokines were evaluated. PSPAE prevented the loss of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus and inhibited the increase of Gammaproteobacteria and Helicobacter upon DSS treatment. The non-pathogenic-dependent and pathogenic-dependent microenvironments were established upon treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics. Both PSPAE treatment and non-pathogenic treatments modified the colonic expression of mouse tight junction proteins and maintained the architecture of the colon. However, the non-pathogenic treatment could not attenuate intestinal inflammation. Moreover, the pathogenic-dependent dysbiosis was exacerbated because of the increasing colonization of pathogens such as Helicobacter. The PSPAE exerted the modulation of gut microbiota to maintain the gut microbiome homeostasis in DSS-induced chronic colitis mice, which may help to propose a new treatment that combines efficacy and reduction of the possibility of bacterial intestinal infection.

6.
Front Public Health ; 9: 720953, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34650949

RESUMO

Background: The disease burden of hepatitis E remains high. We used a new method (richness, diversity, evenness, and similarity analyses) to classify cities according to the occupational classification of hepatitis E patients across regions in China and compared the results of cluster analysis. Methods: Data on reported hepatitis E cases from 2008 to 2018 were collected from 24 cities (9 in Jilin Province, 13 in Jiangsu Province, Xiamen City, and Chuxiong Yi Autonomous Prefecture). Traditional statistical methods were used to describe the epidemiological characteristics of hepatitis E patients, while the new method and cluster analysis were used to classify the cities by analyzing the occupational composition across regions. Results: The prevalence of hepatitis E in eastern China (Jiangsu Province) was similar to that in the south (Xiamen City) and southwest of China (Chuxiong Yi Autonomous Prefecture), but higher than that in the north (Jilin Province). The age of hepatitis E patients was concentrated between 41 and 60 years, and the sex ratio ranged from 1:1.6 to 1:3.4. Farming was the most highly prevalent occupation; other sub-prevalent occupations included retirement, housework and unemployment. The incidence of occupations among migrant workers, medical staff, teachers, and students was moderate. There were several occupational types with few or no records, such as catering industry, caregivers and babysitters, diaspora children, childcare, herders, and fishing (boat) people. The occupational similarity of hepatitis E was high among economically developed cities, such as Nanjing, Wuxi, Baicheng, and Xiamen, while the similarity was small among cities with large economic disparities, such as Nanjing and Chuxiong Yi Autonomous Prefecture. A comparison of the classification results revealed more similarities and some differences when using these two methods. Conclusion: In China, the factors with the greatest influence on the prevalence of hepatitis E are living in the south, farming as an occupation, being middle-aged or elderly, and being male. The 24 cities we studied were highly diverse and moderately similar in terms of the occupational distribution of patients with hepatitis E. We confirmed the validity of the new method on in classifying cities according to their occupational composition by comparing it with the clustering method.


Assuntos
Hepatite E , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Hepatite E/diagnóstico , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
Vaccine ; 39(44): 6510-6519, 2021 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600750

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the potent and broad neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb) against enterovirus A (EV-A) in vitro and in vivo induced by enterovirus A71(EVA71) and coxsackievirus 16 (CVA16) co-immunization. METHODS: The mAb was Generated by co-immunization with EVA71 and CVA16 through hybridomas technology. The characteristics and neutralizing ability of mAb were analysed in vitro and in mice. RESULTS: We screened three mAb, the IgM antibody M20 and IgG antibody B1 and C31. All three antibodies showed cross-reactivity against tetra-EV-As. However, M20 showed potent and broad neutralizing ability against tetra-EV-As than B1 and C31. Meanwhile, M20 provided cross-antiviral efficacy in tetra-EV-As orally infected mice. Moreover, M20 binds to a conserved neutralizing epitope within the GH loop of tetra-EV-As VP1. CONCLUSIONS: M20 and its property exhibited potent and broad antiviral activity against tetra-EV-As, and that is expected to be a potential preventive and therapeutic candidate against EV-As.


Assuntos
Enterovirus Humano A , Infecções por Enterovirus , Enterovirus , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Imunização , Imunoglobulina M , Camundongos
8.
J Integr Plant Biol ; 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647689

RESUMO

Grain size is determined by the size and number of cells in the grain. The regulation of grain size is crucial for improving crop yield; however, the genes and molecular mechanisms that control grain size remain elusive. Here, we report that a member of the detoxification efflux carrier /Multidrug and Toxic Compound Extrusion (DTX/MATE) family transporters, BIG RICE GRAIN 1 (BIRG1), negatively influences grain size in rice (Oryza sativa L.). BIRG1 is highly expressed in reproductive organs and roots. In birg1 grain, the outer parenchyma layer cells of spikelet hulls are larger than in wild-type (WT) grains, but the cell number is unaltered. When expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, BIRG1 exhibits chloride efflux activity. Consistent with this role of BIRG1, the birg1 mutant shows reduced tolerance to salt stress at a toxic chloride level. Moreover, grains from birg1 plants contain a higher level of chloride than those of WT plants when grown under normal paddy field conditions, and the roots of birg1 accumulate more chloride than those of WT under saline conditions. Collectively, the data suggest that BIRG1 in rice functions as a chloride efflux transporter that is involved in mediating grain size and salt tolerance by controlling chloride homeostasis.

9.
Chem Asian J ; 16(22): 3767-3773, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581014

RESUMO

Perylene diimide (PDI) is one of the most intensively studied building blocks for the construction of non-fullerene acceptors (NFAs). In this contribution, based on combination of the direct and indirect linkage manners of PDI units at the bay position, a propeller-shaped PDI hexamer T-DPDI was designed and synthesized. The singly bonded PDI dimer DPDI and the benzene ring cored PDI trimer TPDI were synthesized for comparison. The photovoltaic performances of these three PDI derivatives were investigated using the commercially available PTB7-Th as electron donor. A best power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.58% was obtained for T-DPDI based organic solar cells (OSCs), which is higher than those of DPDI and TPDI based ones. The superior photovoltaic performance of T-DPDI can be ascribed to its stronger absorption and more favorable morphology. This study presents an interesting example of improving the photovoltaic performances of PDI based NFAs by hybridizing the direct and indirect linkage manners.

10.
Chem Biol Interact ; 348: 109648, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506766

RESUMO

Allium chinense is a vegetable with nutrition and unique flavor, and it is used as traditional Chinese medicine. We previously reported that the active compound A-24 induces apoptosis and autophagy in p53 wild-type gastric cancer cells through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. Our present work indicates that A-24 also has a significant proliferation inhibition effect on p53-deficient KATO-III cells, and the p53 status did not affect A-24 induced migration inhibition, but negatively controlled the occurrence of autophagy. We also found that the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated A-24 induced apoptosis is p53-independent. Besides, p-Akt was not downregulated by A-24 in p53-deficient gastric cancer cells. Taken together, our results indicate that A-24 induced apoptosis and autophagy via the ROS-PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in p53 wild-type gastric cancer cells and through the ROS-mTOR pathway in p53-deficient gastric cancer cells. Our study recommended A-24 as a promising future phytotherapeutic candidate for gastric cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Allium/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Saponinas/farmacologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Saponinas/química , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/deficiência
11.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 701836, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34485337

RESUMO

Background: It is much valuable to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) prevention and control in the non-pharmacological intervention phase of the pandemic across countries and identify useful experiences that could be generalized worldwide. Methods: In this study, we developed a susceptible-exposure-infectious-asymptomatic-removed (SEIAR) model to fit the daily reported COVID-19 cases in 160 countries. The time-varying reproduction number (R t ) that was estimated through fitting the mathematical model was adopted to quantify the transmissibility. We defined a synthetic index (I AC ) based on the value of R t to reflect the national capability to control COVID-19. Results: The goodness-of-fit tests showed that the SEIAR model fitted the data of the 160 countries well. At the beginning of the epidemic, the values of R t of countries in the European region were generally higher than those in other regions. Among the 160 countries included in the study, all European countries had the ability to control the COVID-19 epidemic. The Western Pacific Region did best in continuous control of the epidemic, with a total of 73.76% of countries that can continuously control the COVID-19 epidemic, while only 43.63% of the countries in the European Region continuously controlled the epidemic, followed by the Region of Americas with 52.53% of countries, the Southeast Asian Region with 48% of countries, the African Region with 46.81% of countries, and the Eastern Mediterranean Region with 40.48% of countries. Conclusion: Large variations in controlling the COVID-19 epidemic existed across countries. The world could benefit from the experience of some countries that demonstrated the highest containment capabilities.

12.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 483, 2021 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the period of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, strong intervention measures, such as lockdown, travel restriction, and suspension of work and production, may have curbed the spread of other infectious diseases, including natural focal diseases. In this study, we aimed to study the impact of COVID-19 prevention and control measures on the reported incidence of natural focal diseases (brucellosis, malaria, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome [HFRS], dengue, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome [SFTS], rabies, tsutsugamushi and Japanese encephalitis [JE]). METHODS: The data on daily COVID-19 confirmed cases and natural focal disease cases were collected from Jiangsu Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention (Jiangsu Provincial CDC). We described and compared the difference between the incidence in 2020 and the incidence in 2015-2019 in four aspects: trend in reported incidence, age, sex, and urban and rural distribution. An autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) (p, d, q) × (P, D, Q)s model was adopted for natural focal diseases, malaria and severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS), and an ARIMA (p, d, q) model was adopted for dengue. Nonparametric tests were used to compare the reported and the predicted incidence in 2020, the incidence in 2020 and the previous 4 years, and the difference between the duration from illness onset date to diagnosed date (DID) in 2020 and in the previous 4 years. The determination coefficient (R2) was used to evaluate the goodness of fit of the model simulation. RESULTS: Natural focal diseases in Jiangsu Province showed a long-term seasonal trend. The reported incidence of natural focal diseases, malaria and dengue in 2020 was lower than the predicted incidence, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The reported incidence of brucellosis in July, August, October and November 2020, and SFTS in May to November 2020 was higher than that in the same period in the previous 4 years (P < 0.05). The reported incidence of malaria in April to December 2020, HFRS in March, May and December 2020, and dengue in July to November 2020 was lower than that in the same period in the previous 4 years (P < 0.05). In males, the reported incidence of malaria in 2020 was lower than that in the previous 4 years, and the reported incidence of dengue in 2020 was lower than that in 2017-2019. The reported incidence of malaria in the 20-60-year age group was lower than that in the previous 4 years; the reported incidence of dengue in the 40-60-year age group was lower than that in 2016-2018. The reported cases of malaria in both urban and rural areas were lower than in the previous 4 years. The DID of brucellosis and SFTS in 2020 was shorter than that in 2015-2018; the DID of tsutsugamushi in 2020 was shorter than that in the previous 4 years. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions for COVID-19 may help control the epidemics of natural focal diseases in Jiangsu Province. The reported incidence of natural focal diseases, especially malaria and dengue, decreased during the outbreak of COVID-19 in 2020. COVID-19 prevention and control measures had the greatest impact on the reported incidence of natural focal diseases in males and people in the 20-60-year age group.


Assuntos
Brucelose/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Dengue/epidemiologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distanciamento Físico , Febre Grave com Síndrome de Trombocitopenia/epidemiologia , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 683720, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414203

RESUMO

Despite the adoption of a national immunization program in China, the incidence of mumps remains high. This study aimed to describe the epidemiological characteristics, including the time, region, occupation, and age, of mumps in Wuhan from 2005 to 2018 and to evaluate its transmissibility. In this study, the susceptible-exposed-infectious-asymptomatic-recovered (SEIAR) model fitted the actual incidence data of mumps. The effective reproduction number (R t ) was used to evaluate and compare the transmission capacity in different areas. From 2005 to 2018, there were 36,415 cases. The incidence of mumps was highest among people aged 5-10 years (460.02 per 100,000). The SEIAR model fitted the reported mumps data well (P < 0.01). The median transmissibility (R t ) was 1.04 (range = 0-2.50). There were two peak spreads every year (from March to May and from October to December). The R t peak always appeared in the first 2 months of the peak incidence rate. The peak time of the epidemic spread of mumps was 1-2 months earlier than the peak incidence rate. The prevention and control measures of vaccination for children aged 5-10 years should be taken before the peak transmission capacity each year, 2 months before the peak of the outbreak, to reduce the spread of mumps.

15.
Foods ; 10(8)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34441697

RESUMO

Sorghum grain (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is a staple food grown across the globe, and is mainly cultivated in the semi-arid regions of Africa and Asia. Recently, sorghum grain is increasingly utilized for human consumption, due to the gluten-free nature and potential phenolic-induced health benefits. Sorghum grain is rich in bioactive phenolic compounds, such as ferulic acid, gallic acid, vanillic acid, luteolin, and apigenin, 3-deoxyanthocyanidins (3-DXA), which are known to provide many health benefits, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, anti-diabetic, and anti-atherogenic activities. Given an increasing trend of sorghum consumption for humans, this article reviews the content and profile of phenolics in sorghum. It covers aspects of their health benefits and explores their mechanisms of action. The impact of thermal processing, such as boiling, steaming, roasting, and extrusion on sorghum phenolics is also discussed. Compelling data suggest the biological functions of sorghum phenolics, however, further investigations appear warrant to clarify the gap in the current research, and identify promising research topics in future.

16.
J Viral Hepat ; 28(10): 1464-1473, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314082

RESUMO

Yichang is a city in central China in the Hubei Province. This study aimed to estimate the dynamics of the transmissibility of hepatitis C using a mathematical model and predict the transmissibility of hepatitis C in 2030. Data of hepatitis C cases from 13 counties or districts (cities) in Yichang from 2008 to 2016 were collected. A susceptible-infectious-chronic-recovered (SICR) model was developed to fit the data. The transmissibility of hepatitis C at the counties or districts was calculated based on new infections (including infected or chronically infected cases) reported monthly in the city caused by one infectious individual (MNI). The trend of the MNI was fitted and predicted using 11 models, with the coefficient of determination (R2 ) was being used to test the goodness of fit of these models. A total of 3065 cases of hepatitis C were reported in Yichang from 2008 to 2016. The median MNI of Yichang was 0.0768. According to the fitting results and analysis, the trend of transmissibility of hepatitis C in Yichang City conforms with the logarithmic (R2  = 0.918, p < 0.001):MNI = 0.265-0.108 log(t) and exponential (R2  = 0.939, p < 0.001): MNI = 0.344e(-0.278 t ) models. Hence, the transmission of hepatitis C virus at the county level has a downward trend. In conclusion, the transmissibility of hepatitis C in Yichang has a downward trend. With the current preventive and control measures in place, the spread of hepatitis C can be controlled.


Assuntos
Hepacivirus , Hepatite C , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos
17.
Epilepsia ; 62(8): 1960-1970, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34240747

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Impairment in consciousness is a debilitating symptom during and after seizures; however, its mechanism remains unclear. Limbic seizures have been shown to spread to arousal circuitry to result in a "network inhibition" phenomenon. However, prior animal model studies did not relate physiological network changes to behavioral responses during or following seizures. METHODS: Focal onset limbic seizures were induced while rats were performing an operant conditioned behavioral task requiring response to an auditory stimulus to quantify how and when impairment of behavioral response occurs. Correct responses were rewarded with sucrose. Cortical and hippocampal electrophysiology measured by local field potential recordings was analyzed for changes in low- and high-frequency power in relation to behavioral responsiveness during seizures. RESULTS: As seen in patients with seizures, ictal (p < .0001) and postictal (p = .0015) responsiveness was variably impaired. Analysis of cortical and hippocampal electrophysiology revealed that ictal (p = .002) and postictal (p = .009) frontal cortical low-frequency 3-6-Hz power was associated with poor behavioral performance. In contrast, the hippocampus showed increased power over a wide frequency range during seizures, and suppression postictally, neither of which were related to behavioral impairment. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings support prior human studies of temporal lobe epilepsy as well as anesthetized animal models suggesting that focal limbic seizures depress consciousness through remote network effects on the cortex, rather than through local hippocampal involvement. By identifying the cortical physiological changes associated with impaired arousal and responsiveness in focal seizures, these results may help guide future therapies to restore ictal and postictal consciousness, improving quality of life for people with epilepsy.

18.
Foods ; 10(5)2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062914

RESUMO

Phenolic compounds in some specialty sorghums have been associated with cancer prevention. However, direct evidence and the underlying mechanisms for this are mostly unknown. In this study, phenolics were extracted from 13 selected sorghum accessions with black pericarp while F10000 hybrid with white pericarp was used as a control, and cell growth inhibition was studied in hepatocarcinoma HepG2 and colorectal adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells. Total phenolic contents of the 13 high phenolic grains, as determined by Folin-Ciocalteu, were 30-64 mg GAE/g DW in the phenolic extracts of various accessions compared with the control F10000 at 2 mg GAE/g DW. Treatment of HepG2 with the extracted phenolics at 0-200 µM GAE up to 72 h resulted in a dose- and time-dependent reduction in cell numbers. The values of IC50 varied from 85 to 221 mg DW/mL while the control of F10000 was 1275 mg DW/mL. The underlying mechanisms were further examined using the highest phenolic content of PI329694 and the lowest IC50 of PI570481, resulting in a non-cytotoxic decrease in cell number that was significantly correlated with increased cell cycle arrest at G2/M and apoptotic cells in both HepG2 and Caco-2 cells. Taken together, these results indicated, for the first time, that inhibition of either HepG2 or Caco-2 cell growth by phenolic extracts from 13 selected sorghum accessions was due to cytostatic and apoptotic but not cytotoxic mechanisms, suggesting some specialty sorghums are a valuable, functional food, providing sustainable phenolics for potential cancer prevention.

19.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 278: 114323, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116191

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tupistra chinensis Baker (syn. Rohdea chinensis), an antitumor folk herb mainly distributed in China, its rhizome has been historically used to treat gastric cancer. Studies showed that the steroidal saponins were the main bioactive components in the rhizome of T. chinensis. Our previous studies have confirmed that the steroidal saponins have a variety of anti-tumor activities. However, the underlying anti-tumor mechanism of the total steroidal saponins of T. chinensis (TCS) remains to be revealed. AIM OF THE STUDY: In the present study, we studied the potential anti-proliferative activity and anti-tumor mechanism of TCS on gastric cancer in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: In vitro, 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to detect the proliferation ability of TCS on SGC-7901 cells and AGS cells. Flow cytometry were performed to analyze cell apoptosis, cell cycle, mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species expression level. Western blotting was performed to validate the expression of proteins in related pathways. In vivo, a xenograft model was established by injecting SGC-7901 cells into nude mice. RESULTS: In vitro, TCS inhibited the proliferation of gastric cancer cells. TCS effectively induced apoptosis by PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in SGC-7901 cells, and promoted apoptosis via p53-mediated pathway in AGS cells. TCS also exhibited inhibitory activity in blocking the migration of gastric cancer cells. In vivo, TCS significantly inhibited the growth of xenograft tumor. CONCLUSION: These results indicated that TCS exhibited significant anti-gastric cancer effects in vitro and in vivo.

20.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 91, 2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E, an acute zoonotic disease caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV), has a relatively high burden in developing countries. The current research model on hepatitis E mainly uses experimental animal models (such as pigs, chickens, and rabbits) to explain the transmission of HEV. Few studies have developed a multi-host and multi-route transmission dynamic model (MHMRTDM) to explore the transmission feature of HEV. Hence, this study aimed to explore its transmission and evaluate the effectiveness of intervention using the dataset of Jiangsu Province. METHODS: We developed a dataset comprising all reported HEV cases in Jiangsu Province from 2005 to 2018. The MHMRTDM was developed according to the natural history of HEV cases among humans and pigs and the multi-transmission routes such as person-to-person, pig-to-person, and environment-to-person. We estimated the key parameter of the transmission using the principle of least root mean square to fit the curve of the MHMRTDM to the reported data. We developed models with single or combined countermeasures to assess the effectiveness of interventions, which include vaccination, shortening the infectious period, and cutting transmission routes. The indicator, total attack rate (TAR), was adopted to assess the effectiveness. RESULTS: From 2005 to 2018, 44 923 hepatitis E cases were reported in Jiangsu Province. The model fits the data well (R2 = 0.655, P < 0.001). The incidence of the disease in Jiangsu Province and its cities peaks are around March; however, transmissibility of the disease peaks in December and January. The model showed that the most effective intervention was interrupting the pig-to-person route during the incidence trough of September, thereby reducing the TAR by 98.11%, followed by vaccination (reducing the TAR by 76.25% when the vaccination coefficient is 100%) and shortening the infectious period (reducing the TAR by 50.05% when the infectious period is shortened to 15 days). CONCLUSIONS: HEV could be controlled by interrupting the pig-to-person route, shortening the infectious period, and vaccination. Among these interventions, the most effective was interrupting the pig-to-person route.


Assuntos
Hepatite E/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Estudos de Viabilidade , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Hepatite E/transmissão , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Suínos , Vacinação
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...