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2.
Cancer Res ; 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193291

RESUMO

Long noncoding RNAs (LncRNA) play important roles in maintaining morphology and function of tissues, and their regulatory effectiveness is closely associated with spatial expression. To provide a comprehensive spatial atlas of expression for lncRNA, we propose LncSpA (http://bio-bigdata.hrbmu.edu.cn/LncSpA) to explore tissue-elevated (TE) lncRNA across human normal and adult and pediatric cancer tissues. In total, 71,131 and 12,007 TE lncRNA and 634 clinical-related TE lncRNA were identified across 38 normal and 33 adult cancer tissues. Moreover, 4,688 TE and 413 clinical-related lncRNA were identified in pediatric cancer. By quick searching or query options, users can obtain eight major types of detailed information for lncRNA via various visualization techniques, including qualitative and quantitative spatial expression in different resources, co-expressed mRNA, predicted function, known disease association, and the potential to serve as diagnostic or prognostic markers. LncSpA will be a valuable resource to understand lncRNA functions across tissues and cancers, leading to enhanced therapeutic strategies in precision oncology.

3.
Gut ; 2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213556

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The SARS-CoV-2-infected disease (COVID-19) outbreak is a major threat to human beings. Previous studies mainly focused on Wuhan and typical symptoms. We analysed 74 confirmed COVID-19 cases with GI symptoms in the Zhejiang province to determine epidemiological, clinical and virological characteristics. DESIGN: COVID-19 hospital patients were admitted in the Zhejiang province from 17 January 2020 to 8 February 2020. Epidemiological, demographic, clinical, laboratory, management and outcome data of patients with GI symptoms were analysed using multivariate analysis for risk of severe/critical type. Bioinformatics were used to analyse features of SARS-CoV-2 from Zhejiang province. RESULTS: Among enrolled 651 patients, 74 (11.4%) presented with at least one GI symptom (nausea, vomiting or diarrhoea), average age of 46.14 years, 4-day incubation period and 10.8% had pre-existing liver disease. Of patients with COVID-19 with GI symptoms, 17 (22.97%) and 23 (31.08%) had severe/critical types and family clustering, respectively, significantly higher than those without GI symptoms, 47 (8.14%) and 118 (20.45%). Of patients with COVID-19 with GI symptoms, 29 (39.19%), 23 (31.08%), 8 (10.81%) and 16 (21.62%) had significantly higher rates of fever >38.5°C, fatigue, shortness of breath and headache, respectively. Low-dose glucocorticoids and antibiotics were administered to 14.86% and 41.89% of patients, respectively. Sputum production and increased lactate dehydrogenase/glucose levels were risk factors for severe/critical type. Bioinformatics showed sequence mutation of SARS-CoV-2 with m6A methylation and changed binding capacity with ACE2. CONCLUSION: We report COVID-19 cases with GI symptoms with novel features outside Wuhan. Attention to patients with COVID-19 with non-classic symptoms should increase to protect health providers.

4.
BMC Neurol ; 20(1): 92, 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate predictors of postoperative acute intracranial hemorrhage (AIH) and recurrence of chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) after burr hole drainage. METHODS: A multicenter retrospective study of patients who underwent burr hole drainage for CSDH between January 2013 and March 2019. RESULTS: A total of 448 CSDH patients were enrolled in the study. CSDH recurrence occurred in 60 patients, with a recurrence rate of 13.4%. The mean time interval between initial burr hole drainage and recurrence was 40.8 ± 28.3 days. Postoperative AIH developed in 23 patients, with an incidence of 5.1%. The mean time interval between initial burr hole drainage and postoperative AIH was 4.7 ± 2.9 days. Bilateral hematoma, hyperdense hematoma and anticoagulant drug use were independent predictors of recurrence in the multiple logistic regression analyses. Preoperative headache was an independent risk factor of postoperative AIH in the multiple logistic regression analyses, however, intraoperative irrigation reduced the incidence of postoperative AIH. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that bilateral hematoma, hyperdense hematoma and anticoagulant drug use were independently associated with CSDH recurrence. Clinical presentation of headache was the strongest predictor of postoperative AIH, and intraoperative irrigation decreased the incidence of postoperative AIH.

5.
Phytother Res ; 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32189385

RESUMO

The osteogenic differentiation of human aortic valve interstitial cells (hVICs) is the key cellular mechanism of calcified aortic valve disease (CAVD). This study aimed to explore how curcumin (CCM) inhibits the osteogenic differentiation of hVICs and elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved. In this study, CCM inhibited the osteogenic differentiation of hVICs under osteogenic medium (OM) conditions by reversing the OM-induced increase in calcified nodule formation and osteogenesis-specific markers (ALP and Runx2). RNA sequencing identified 475 common differentially expressed genes with Venn diagrams of the different groups. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment revealed that the CCM inhibition of hVIC osteogenic differentiation was enriched in the NF-κB, PI3K-AKT, TNF, Jak-STAT, and MAPK signaling pathways. In addition, CCM suppressed the phosphorylation of ERK, IκBα, AKT, and interfered with the translocation of P65 into the cell nucleus in hVICs under OM culture conditions. In conclusion, CCM inhibited the osteogenic differentiation of hVICs via interfering with the activation of NF-κB/AKT/ERK signaling pathways. Our findings provide novel insights into a critical role for CCM in CAVD progression and shed new light on CCM-directed therapeutics for CAVD.

6.
Food Chem ; 317: 126387, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32086121

RESUMO

The outstanding amount of phenolics and pectins of okra seeds and seedless pods, respectively, is well-known. However, their impact on bread nutritional quality, and particularly on slowing down α-amylase activity during crumb digestion, has never been studied. In this work, the phenolic and carbohydrate fractions of developed fine and coarse flours from okra seeds (OS) and seedless pods (OP) were investigated as well as their impact on wheat bread physical and nutritional quality. The use of okra flours dramatically increased the amount of extractable (EPP) and non-extractable hydrolyzable phenolics (HPP) of wheat breads, attaining up to 210.8 and 2944.8 mg/100 g of EPP and HPP, respectively, with only a 5% replacement with OS. Interestingly, breads made with fine OS and OP exhibited a second digestion rate upon 50 min of digestion, indicating a time-dependence hypoglycemic effect of okra constituents whereby OS-breads presented the slowest digestion rate and extension among all breads.

7.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(5): 2287-2302, 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002550

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that transcriptional regulation is affected by DNA methylation. Understanding the perturbation of DNA methylation-mediated regulation between transcriptional factors (TFs) and targets is crucial for human diseases. However, the global landscape of DNA methylation-mediated transcriptional dysregulation (DMTD) across cancers has not been portrayed. Here, we systematically identified DMTD by integrative analysis of transcriptome, methylome and regulatome across 22 human cancer types. Our results revealed that transcriptional regulation was affected by DNA methylation, involving hundreds of methylation-sensitive TFs (MethTFs). In addition, pan-cancer MethTFs, the regulatory activity of which is generally affected by DNA methylation across cancers, exhibit dominant functional characteristics and regulate several cancer hallmarks. Moreover, pan-cancer MethTFs were found to be affected by DNA methylation in a complex pattern. Finally, we investigated the cooperation among MethTFs and identified a network module that consisted of 43 MethTFs with prognostic potential. In summary, we systematically dissected the transcriptional dysregulation mediated by DNA methylation across cancer types, and our results provide a valuable resource for both epigenetic and transcriptional regulation communities.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040291

RESUMO

Electrolytes in modern Li-ion batteries (LIBs) rely on additives of various structures to generate key interphasial chemistries needed for desired performances, although how these additives operate in battery environments remains little understood. Meanwhile, these traditional additives face increasing challenges from emerging battery chemistries, especially those based on high nickel cathode (Ni ≥ 50%) or the metallic lithium anode. In this work, we report a new additive structure with the highest unsaturation degree known so far, along with in-depth understanding of its breakdown mechanism on those aggressive electrode surfaces. Tripropargyl phosphate (TPP) containing three carbon-carbon triple bonds was found to form dense and protective interphases on both NMC532 cathode as well as graphitic and metallic lithium anodes, leading to significant improvements in performances of both LIBs and lithium metal batteries (LMBs). Comprehensive characterizations together with calculations reveal how the unsaturation functionalities of TPP interact with these electrode chemistries and establish interphases that inhibit gas generation, suppress lithium dendrite growth, prevent transition metal ion dissolution and deposition on the anode surface. The correlation established among the additive structure, interphasial chemistries and cell performance will doubtlessly guide us in designing the electrolytes with atomistic precision for future battery chemistries.

9.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 125: 109985, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066043

RESUMO

Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is caused by valve interstitial cells (VICs) initiating the thickening and calcification of valve leaflets. The present study aimed to investigate whether andrographolide (AGP) could attenuate the calcification of human valve interstitial cells (hVICs). hVICs stimulated by osteoblastic medium (OM) were treated with or without AGP. RNA sequencing was utilized to investigate changes in gene expression. Cell growth and calcification of hVICs were assessed using a CCK8 assay and Alizarin Red S staining, respectively. The expression of the two calcification-related markers, RUNX2 and ALP, were quantified by qRT-PCR, Western blotting, and immunofluorescent staining. The results indicate that hVICs treated with OM plus AGP exhibited decreased Alizarin Red S staining compared with cells treated with OM only in addition to down-regulation of ALP and RUNX2. Mappings of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in different groups using Venn diagrams during analysis of gene expression profiles, 653 common DEGs were identified that displayed different biological functions and signaling pathways after treatment with AGP. RELA, a core factor of the NF-κB pathway was inhibited by AGP in addition to phosphorylation of AKT and ERK1/2. Thus, AGP attenuated calcification of hVICs. These results demonstrate that AGP, a promising natural product, can attenuate the process of CAVD.

10.
Chem Rev ; 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022546

RESUMO

Over the past decades, Li-ion battery (LIB) has turned into one of the most important advances in the history of technology due to its extensive and in-depth impact on our life. Its omnipresence in all electric vehicles, consumer electronics and electric grids relies on the precisely tuned electrochemical dynamics and interactions among the electrolytes and the diversified anode and cathode chemistries therein. With consumers' demand for battery performance ever increasing, more and more stringent requirements are being imposed upon the established equilibria among these LIB components, and it became clear that the state-of-the-art electrolyte systems could no longer sustain the desired technological trajectory. Driven by such gap, researchers started to explore more unconventional electrolyte systems. From superconcentrated solvent-in-salt electrolytes to solid-state electrolytes, the current research realm of novel electrolyte systems has grown to unprecedented levels. In this review, we will avoid discussions on current state-of-the-art electrolytes but instead focus exclusively on unconventional electrolyte systems that represent new concepts.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919931

RESUMO

This study was conducted to detect the potential relationship between changed plasma metabolites, intestinal microbiota and the weaning-to-oestrous interval in multiparous sows after weaning. Multiparous sows were allocated to two groups after weaning: the oestrous group (n = 15) with a weaning-to-oestrous interval ≤7 days or the anoestrous group (n = 15) with a weaning-to-oestrous interval >14 days. The levels of plasma reproductive hormones: oestradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone, plasma total protein; blood urea nitrogen; cholesterol; high-density lipoprotein; and ammonia (NH3 ) were significantly lower in the anoestrous sows compared with the oestrous sows (p < .05). The plasma metabolomics analysis identified 14 metabolites (lactose, l-cysteine, cytosine, hydantoin, palmitoleic acid, arachidic acid, linoleic acid methyl ester, α-ketoglutaric acid, N(ε)-trimethyllysine, threo-ß-hydroxyaspartate, 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl) propionic acid and others) with lower concentrations and 12 metabolites (noradrenaline, 5-dihydrocortisone, p-cresol, 1,4-cyclohexanedione, 2,3-dimethylsuccinic acid and others) with higher concentrations in the anoestrous group compared with the oestrous group (p < .05). The 16S rRNA pyrosequencing analysis showed the relative increase in abundance of the Prevotella and the Bacteroides at the genus level in the anoestrous group (p < .05). At the phylum level, lower proportions of Firmicutes and Lentisphaerae were observed in the anoestrous group (p < .05). This study provided a comprehensive assessment of metabolic differences in the blood and differences in the gut microbiome composition between anoestrous and oestrous sows. And suggesting that this profiling approach may offer new insights into explaining the alteration of the gut microbiota and blood metabolomics are correlated with sex hormone secretion and the weaning-to-oestrous interval of sows after weaning.

12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 93, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900398

RESUMO

Lithium metal anodes have attracted extensive attention owing to their high theoretical specific capacity. However, the notorious reactivity of lithium prevents their practical applications, as evidenced by the undesired lithium dendrite growth and unstable solid electrolyte interphase formation. Here, we develop a facile, cost-effective and one-step approach to create an artificial lithium metal/electrolyte interphase by treating the lithium anode with a tin-containing electrolyte. As a result, an artificial solid electrolyte interphase composed of lithium fluoride, tin, and the tin-lithium alloy is formed, which not only ensures fast lithium-ion diffusion and suppresses lithium dendrite growth but also brings a synergistic effect of storing lithium via a reversible tin-lithium alloy formation and enabling lithium plating underneath it. With such an artificial solid electrolyte interphase, lithium symmetrical cells show outstanding plating/stripping cycles, and the full cell exhibits remarkably better cycling stability and capacity retention as well as capacity utilization at high rates compared to bare lithium.

13.
Aging Cell ; 19(3): e13104, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967391

RESUMO

Mammalian sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) is involved in the regulation of many essential processes, especially metabolic homeostasis. SIRT6 knockout mice undergo premature aging and die at age ~4 weeks. Severe glycometabolic disorders have been found in SIRT6 knockout mice, and whether a dietary intervention can rescue SIRT6 knockout mice remains unknown. In our study, we found that at the same calorie intake, a high-fat diet dramatically increased the lifespan of SIRT6 knockout mice to 26 weeks (males) and 37 weeks (females), reversed multi-organ atrophy, and reduced body weight, hypoglycemia, and premature aging. Furthermore, the high-fat diet partially but significantly normalized the global gene expression profile in SIRT6 knockout mice. Regarding the mechanism, excessive glucose uptake and glycolysis induced by the SIRT6 deficiency were attenuated in skeletal muscle through inhibition of insulin and IGF1 signaling by the high-fat diet. Similarly, fatty acids but not ketone bodies inhibited glucose uptake, glycolysis, and senescence in SIRT6 knockout fibroblasts, whereas PI3K inhibition antagonized the effects of a high-fatty-acid medium in vitro. Overall, the high-fat diet dramatically reverses numerous consequences of SIRT6 deficiency through modulation of insulin and IGF1 signaling, providing a new basis for elucidation of SIRT6 and fatty-acid functions and supporting novel therapeutic approaches against metabolic disorders and aging-related diseases.

14.
J Cell Physiol ; 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31975410

RESUMO

An imbalance between matrix synthesis and degradation is the hallmark of intervertebral disc degeneration while inflammatory cytokines contribute to the imbalance. Bromodomain and extra-terminal domain (BET) family is associated with the pathogenesis of inflammation, and inhibition of BRD4, a vital member of BET family, plays an anti-inflammatory role in many diseases. However, it remains elusive whether BRD4 plays a similar role in nucleus pulposus (NP) cells and participates in the pathogenesis of intervertebral disc degeneration. The present study aims to observe whether BRD4 inhibition regulates matrix metabolism by controlling autophagy and NLRP3 inflammasome activity. Besides, the relationship was investigated among nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling, autophagy and NLRP3 inflammasome in NP cells. Here, real-time polymerase chain reaction, western blot analysis and adenoviral GFP-LC3 vector transduction in vitro were used, and it was revealed that BRD4 inhibition alleviated the matrix degradation and increased autophagy in the presence or absence of tumor necrosis factor α. Moreover, p65 knockdown or treatment with JQ1 and Bay11-7082 demonstrated that BRD4 inhibition attenuated NLRP3 inflammasome activity through NF-κB signaling, while autophagy inhibition by bafilomycin A1 promoted matrix degradation and NLRP3 inflammasome activity in NP cells. In addition, analysis of BRD4 messenger RNA expression in human NP tissues further verified the destructive function of BRD4. Simply, BRD4 inhibition alleviates matrix degradation by enhancing autophagy and suppressing NLRP3 inflammasome activity through NF-κB signaling in NP cells.

15.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31988500

RESUMO

The solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) dictates the performance of most batteries, but the understanding of its chemistry and structure is limited by the lack of in situ experimental tools. In this work, we present a dynamic picture of the SEI formation in lithium-ion batteries using in operando liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry in combination with molecular dynamics simulations. We find that before any interphasial chemistry occurs (during the initial charging), an electric double layer forms at the electrode/electrolyte interface due to the self-assembly of solvent molecules. The formation of the double layer is directed by Li+ and the electrode surface potential. The structure of this double layer predicts the eventual interphasial chemistry; in particular, the negatively charged electrode surface repels salt anions from the inner layer and results in an inner SEI that is thin, dense and inorganic in nature. It is this dense layer that is responsible for conducting Li+ and insulating electrons, the main functions of the SEI. An electrolyte-permeable and organic-rich outer layer appears after the formation of the inner layer. In the presence of a highly concentrated, fluoride-rich electrolyte, the inner SEI layer has an elevated concentration of LiF due to the presence of anions in the double layer. These real-time nanoscale observations will be helpful in engineering better interphases for future batteries.

16.
J Nat Prod ; 83(2): 216-222, 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994397

RESUMO

Palhinosides A-H (1-8), new flavone glucosidic truxinate esters, including ß-truxinate and µ-truxinate forms, were isolated from Palhinhaea cernua. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods and chemical analyses. The flavone glucoside cyclodimers possess a unique cyclobutane ring in their carbon scaffolds. Compounds 2-7 represent three pairs of stereoisomers (2/3, 4/5, 6/7). The protective effects of 1-8 against the damage of HT-22 cells induced by l-glutamate were evaluated, and compounds 4 and 5 showed better neuroprotective effects than the positive control, Trolox.

17.
Adv Mater ; 32(2): e1904427, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782981

RESUMO

Water-in-salt (WiS) electrolytes provide a new pathway to widen the electrochemical window of aqueous electrolytes. However, their formulation strongly depends on the solubility of the chosen salts, imposing a stringent restriction on the number of possible WiS systems. This issue becomes more severe for aqueous Na-ion batteries (ANIBs) owing to the relatively lower solubility of sodium salts compared to its alkaline cousins (Li, K, and Cs). A new class of the inert-cation-assisted WiS (IC-WiS) electrolytes containing the tetraethylammonium (TEA+ ) inert cation is reported. The Na IC-WiS electrolyte at a superhigh concentration of 31 mol kg-1 exhibits a wide electrochemical window of 3.3 V, suppresses transition metal dissolution from the cathode, and ensures singular intercalation of Na into both cathode and anode electrodes during cycling, which is often problematic in mixed alkali cation systems such as K-Na and Li-Na. Owing to these unique advantages of the IC-WiS electrolyte, the NaTiOPO4 anode and Prussian blue analog Na1.88 Mn[Fe(CN)6 ]0.97 ·1.35H2 O cathode can be coupled to construct a full ANIB, delivering an average voltage of 1.74 V and a high energy density of 71 Wh kg-1 with a capacity retention of 90% after 200 cycles at 0.25C and of 76% over 800 cycles at 1C.

18.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 180: 113045, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887668

RESUMO

Nintedanib is a promising tyrosine kinase inhibitor for clinically treating idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Some clinical cases reported that nintedanib treatment can cause hepatotoxicity and myocardial toxicity. U. S. FDA warns the potential drug-drug interaction when it is co-administrated with other drugs. In order to understand the potential toxicity of nintedanib and avoid drug-drug interaction, the metabolism of nintedanib was systematically investigated in human liver microsomes and mice using metabolomics approach, and the toxicity of metabolites was predicted by ADMET lab. Nineteen metabolites were detected in vivo and in vitro metabolism, and 8 of them were undescribed. Calculated partition coefficients (Clog P) were used to distinguish the isomers of nintedanib metabolites in this study. The major metabolic pathways of nintedanib majorly included hydroxylation, demethylation, glucuronidation, and acetylation reactions. The ADMET prediction indicated that nintedanib was a substrate of the cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp). And nintedanib and most of its metabolites might possess potential hepatotoxicity and cardiotoxicity. This study provided a global view of nintedanib metabolism, which could be used to understand the mechanism of adverse effects related to nintedanib and its potential drug-drug interaction.

19.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 102: 103475, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437525

RESUMO

In mammals, interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) can be activated by tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6). Upon activation, IRF5 translocates into the nucleus, where it binds to IFN promoter and up-regulates IFN expression. However, there are few reports on the molecular mechanism by which TRAF6 up-regulates IFN expression in fish. In this study, we explored how Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) TRAF6 initiated innate immunity by activating IRF5. We found that CiTRAF6, CiIRF5 and CiIFN1 were all significantly up-regulated in LPS-stimulated CIK cells and the expression of CiTRAF6 was earlier than the expressions of CiIRF5 and CiIFN1. These findings suggested that CiIFN1 expression might be induced by CiTRAF6 in fish. CiIFN1 expression, CiIFN1 promoter activity and CO cells viability were all significantly up-regulated in the overexpression experiments, but they were significantly down-regulated in the gene silencing experiments. This indicated that CiTRAF6, along with CiIRF5, regulated CiIFN1 expression. The localization analysis found that both CiTRAF6 and CiIRF5 located in the cytoplasm. Following LPS stimulation, CiIRF5 was observed to translocate to the nucleus. GST-pull down and co-IP experiments revealed that CiTRAF6 interacted with CiIRF5. The colocalization analysis also showed that CiTRAF6 bound with CiIRF5 in the cytoplasm. Overexpression of CiTRAF6 increased the endogenous CiIRF5, promoted its ubiquitination and nuclear translocation. In conclusion, CiTRAF6 bound to CiIRF5 in the cytoplasm, and then activated CiIRF5, resulting in up-regulating the expression of CiIFN1.

20.
Small ; 16(3): e1906462, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867886

RESUMO

Lithium primary batteries are still widely used in military, aerospace, medical, and civilian applications despite the omnipresence of rechargeable Li-ion batteries. However, these current primary chemistries are exclusively based on inorganic materials with high cost, low energy density or severe safety concerns. Here, a novel lithium-organic primary battery chemistry that operates through a synergetic reduction of 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) and fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) is reported. In FEC-presence, the equilibrium between the carbonyl and enol structures is disabled, and replaced by an irreversible process that corresponds to a large capacity along with methylene and inorganic salts (such as LiF, Li2 CO3 ) generated as products. This irreversible chemistry of AQ yields a high energy density of 1300 Wh/(kg of AQ) at a stable discharge voltage platform of 2.4 V as well as high rate capability (up to 313 mAh g-1 at a current density of 1000 mA g-1 ), wide temperature range of operation (-40 to 40 °C) and low self-discharge rate. Combined with the advantages of low toxicity, facile and diverse synthesis methods, and easy accessibility of AQ, Li-organic primary battery chemistry promises a new battery candidate for applications that requires low cost, high environmental friendliness, and high energy density.

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