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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246174

RESUMO

On-treatment steroids for countering immune checkpoint inhibitor-induced inflammatory responses (irAEs) are a hallmark of cancer immunotherapy. However, the suppressive nature of steroids has raised questions regarding their ability to compromise the function of the 'proliferative burst' of effector T cells induced by immune checkpoint antibodies. We investigated the effector functions and the co-inhibitory receptor profile of stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) pre-treated with prednisone and dexamethasone alone or in the presence of anti-PD-1/CTLA-4 antibodies. Also, clinical analysis of a patient who exhibited irAEs following combination (anti-PD-1/CTLA-4) in the presence of glucocorticoids was done. We found that prednisone in contrast to dexamethasone did not compromise T cell cytokine production (IL-2, IFN-γ and TNF-α) and proliferation in the absence or presence of anti-PD-1/CTLA-4 antibodies, when a physiological concentration was used. Neither single prednisone treatment nor co-treatment with checkpoint inhibitors impacted the expression of co-inhibitory receptors PD-1, CTLA-4, TIM-3 and LAG-3. In contrast, dexamethasone treatment promoted downregulation of LAG-3 expression by T cells. In addition, co-treatment of PD-1 + Jurkat cells with prednisone and/or dexamethasone with anti-PD-1 before stimulation significantly reduced SHP-2 phosphorylation, indicative of increased T cell function. Our findings hereby demonstrate a differential steroid effect on T cell function, which should be taken into consideration for patients undergoing immunotherapy. Also, the clinical analysis of a patient who exhibited irAEs following combination (anti-PD-1/CTLA-4) therapy indicated complete metabolic response in the presence of glucocorticoids. Therefore, concomitant use of prednisone does not appear to interfere with the function of immune checkpoint blockade.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199033

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study was to compare the prevalence of stoma-related complications and stoma reversal perioperative complications of patients with low-lying rectal cancer who received preventative loop ileostomy and those who underwent loop transverse colostomy. METHODS: This retrospective single-center study analyzed the clinicopathologic and surgical data of 288 patients with pathologically proven primary rectal cancer who underwent anterior resection with either preventative loop ileostomy (n = 82) or loop transverse colostomy. To achieve comparability of a propensity score matching method was used to match patients from each group in a 1:2 ratio. Determinants of stoma-related complications were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Forty-nine (74.3%) patients in the loop ileostomy group experienced stoma-related complications versus 48.7% in the loop transverse colostomy group (P < 0.01). Irritant dermatitis was the most frequent complication in both groups. The loop ileostomy group had a significantly higher rate (24.24%) of stoma reversal perioperative complications than the loop transverse colostomy group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that ileostomy versus loop transverse colostomy was a significant independent risk for stoma-related complications and stoma reversal perioperative complications. Furthermore, by Clavien-Dindo classification, patients receiving loop ileostomy had an overall higher rate of complications and stoma reversal perioperative complications versus those undergoing loop transverse colostomy (P < 0.01). The rate of grade II complications was significantly higher in the loop ileostomy group (43.9%) than that of loop transverse colostomy group (13.5%, P < 0.01), whereas the rate of grade I, and grade IIIa and IIIb complications and stoma reversal perioperative complications was comparable between the two groups. CONCLUSION: The study has demonstrated that loop transverse colostomy is associated with significantly lower rates of stoma-related complications and stoma reversal perioperative complications compared to loop transverse colostomy.

3.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 2020 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219642

RESUMO

Several studies have indicated an association between dietary copper and zinc intake and hypertension, but mainly limited to adult studies. Few studies have examined the associations between copper and zinc and high blood pressure (BP) in children. This study aims to evaluate the associations of zinc and copper with the risk of high BP in children and adolescents aged 8-17 years using the 2007-2016 National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys (NHANES). A total of 7749 participants (3912 males and 3837 females) were included in the analyses. High BP was defined as (1) the participant (age ≥ 16 years) or the participant's parent/guardian (age < 16 years) reported that the participant had a diagnosis of hypertension irrespective of the BP value; or (2) the participant (age ≥ 16 years) or the participant's parent/guardian (age < 16 years) reported that the participant was currently taking an antihypertensive medication irrespective of the BP value; or (3) a participant classified as having elevated BP /hypertension according to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) new guidelines. Zinc and copper intakes from diet and supplements were assessed with 24-h dietary recall. Positive correlation was found between copper intake and high BP for females, and the ORs (95% CI) across quartiles 2 to 4 compared with quartile 1 were 1.28 (0.81-2.03), 2.06 (1.26-3.36), and 2.69 (1.45-4.98) after adjusting age, gender, race/ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), serum cotinine levels, annual family income, total daily energy intake, and intakes of calcium, sodium, and potassium. Negative correlation was found for males, and the multivariate-adjusted ORs (95% CI) across quartiles 2 to 4 compared with quartile 1 were 0.81 (0.57-1.14), 0.63 (0.42-0.92), and 0.60 (0.37-1.00), respectively. A statistically significantly OR (95% CI) [1.70 (1.08-2.67)] between zinc intake and high BP was observed for participants with normal weight comparing quartiles 3 to quartile 1 of dietary zinc intake. This study suggests that dietary copper and zinc intake may affect BP in children and adolescents. Further longitudinal studies should be warranted to confirm these findings.

4.
J Immunol ; 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32205423

RESUMO

We report significant upregulation of Galectin-9 (Gal-9) and VISTA on both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in HIV-infected human patients. Gal-9 and VISTA expression was associated with impaired T cells effector functions. Although Gal-9 was coexpressed with other coinhibitory receptors such as TIGIT, CD160, CD39, and VISTA, it was simultaneously coexpressed with PD-1. Coexpression of Gal-9 with PD-1 was associated with a more terminally exhausted T cell phenotype in HIV-1 patients. This was marked by higher expression of EOMES, blimp1, and Glut1 in Gal-9+ versus Gal-9- T cells, which is consistent with an exhausted T cell phenotype. Gal-9+ T cells exhibited the phenotype characteristics of effector T cells (CD45RA+, CD45RO-/lo, CD62L-, CD27lo) with higher T-bet expression. A positive correlation between the plasma viral load with the plasma Gal-9 levels in treatment-naive HIV patients and an inverse correlation between CD4 count with the frequency of CD4+Gal-9+ T cells were observed. Increased percentages of Gal-9+ T cells was evident in HIV-treated patients. Enhanced expression of Gal-9 on T cells following PMA stimulation via protein kinase C suggests persistent TCR stimulation as a potential contributing factor in Gal-9 upregulation in HIV patients. This was supported by the constant degranulation of Gal-9+ T cells. Moreover, CD44 clustering by Gal-9 may influence cytoskeleton rearrangement and coclustering of CD3, which likely impact initiation of signal transduction via TCR. Our preliminary data also confirm upregulation of Gal-9 on T cells in hepatitis B virus and HPV infections. These results demonstrate a novel role for Gal-9 and VISTA in HIV pathogenesis.

5.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(7): 2541-2549, 2020 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163707

RESUMO

Recently, the reduction of CO2 to fuels has been the subject of numerous studies, but the selectivity and activity remain inadequate. Progress has been made on single-site two-dimensional catalysts based on graphene coupled to a metal and nitrogen for the CO2 reduction reaction (CO2RR); however, the product is usually CO, and the metal-N environment remains ambiguous. We report a novel two-dimensional graphene nitrene heterostructure (grafiN6) providing well-defined active sites (N6) that can bind one to three metals for the CO2RR. We find that homobimetallic FeFe-grafiN6 could reduce CO2 to CH4 at -0.61 V and to CH3CH2OH at -0.68 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode, with high product selectivity. Moreover, the heteronuclear FeCu-grafiN6 system may be significantly less affected by hydrogen evolution reaction, while maintaining a low limiting potential (-0.68 V) for C1 and C2 mechanisms. Binding metals to one N6 site but not the other could promote efficient electron transport facilitating some reaction steps. This framework for single or multiple metal sites might also provide unique catalytic sites for other catalytic processes.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NACRT) and total mesorectal excision (TME) are standard treatments of stage II/III locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC), currently. Here, we evaluated the oncological outcomes in LARC patients treated with NACRT compared to TME alone, and determined whether tumor regression grade (TRG) and pathologic response after NACRT was related to prognosis. METHODS: This is a retrospective comparison of 358 LARC patients treated with either TME alone (non-NACRT group, n = 173) or NACRT plus TME (NACRT group, n = 185) during 2003-2013. Perioperative and oncologic outcomes, like overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS) and recurrence were compared using 1:1 propensity score matching analysis. RESULTS: A total of 133 patients were matched for the analysis. After a median follow-up of 45 months (8-97 months), the 5-year OS (NACRT vs non-NACRT: 75.42% vs 72.76%; P = 0.594) and 5-year DFS (NACRT vs non-NACRT: 74.25% vs 70.13%; P = 0.224) were comparable between NACRT and non-NACRT, whereas the 5-year DFS rate was higher in the NACRT group when only stage IIIb/IIIc patients were considered (NACRT vs. non-NACRT: 74.79% vs. 62.29%; P = 0.056). In the NACRT group of 185 patients, those with pCR/stage I (vs stage II/stage III disease) or TRG3/TRG4 disease (vs TRG0/TRG1/TRG2) had significantly better prognosis. CONCLUSION: NACRT might provide survival benefit in patients with stage IIIb/IIIc locally advanced rectal cancer.

7.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(3): 869-876, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927930

RESUMO

Two-dimensional van der Waals heterostructure materials, particularly transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDC), have proved to be excellent photoabsorbers for solar radiation, but performance for such electrocatalysis processes as water splitting to form H2 and O2 is not adequate. We propose that dramatically improved performance may be achieved by combining two independent TMDC while optimizing such descriptors as rotational angle, bond length, distance between layers, and the ratio of the bandgaps of two component materials. In this paper we apply the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) process of artificial intelligence incorporating these descriptors together with quantum mechanics (density functional theory) to predict novel structures with predicted superior performance. Our predicted best system is MoTe2/WTe2 with a rotation of 300°, which is predicted to have an overpotential of 0.03 V for HER and 0.17 V for OER, dramatically improved over current electrocatalysts for water splitting.

8.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(2): 962-972, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852179

RESUMO

The pursuit of efficient hydrogenation nanocatalysts with a desirable selectivity toward intricate substrates is state-of-the-art research but remains a formidable challenge. Herein, we report a series of novel PdCdx nanocubes (NCs) for ultraselective hydrogenation reactions with flexible tuning features. Obtaining a desirable conversion level of the substrates (e.g., 4-nitrophenylacetylene (NPA), 4-nitrobenzaldehyde (NBAD), and 4-nitrostyrene (NS)) and competitive selectivity for all potential hydrogenation products have been achieved one by one under optimized hydrogenation conditions. The performance of these PdCdx NCs displays an evident dependence on both the composition and the use of Cd and a need for a distinct hydrogen source (H2 or HCOONH4). Additionally, for the selectivity of hydrogen to be suitably high, the morphology of the NCs has a very well-defined effect. Density functional theory calculations confirmed the variation of adsorption energy for the substrate and hydrogenation products by carefully controlled introduction of Cd, leading to a desirable level of selectivity for all potential hydrogenation products. The PdCdx NCs also exhibit excellent reusability with negligible activity/selectivity decay and structural/composition changes after consecutive reactions. The present study provides an advanced strategy for the rational design of superior hydrogenation nanocatalysts to achieve a practical application for desirable and selective hydrogenation reaction efficiency.

9.
mBio ; 10(6)2019 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31772057

RESUMO

CD71+ erythroid cells (CECs) have a wide range of immunomodulatory properties. Here, we show that CECs are expanded in the peripheral blood of HIV patients, with a positive correlation between their frequency and the plasma viral load. CECs from HIV patients and human cord blood/placenta exacerbate HIV-1 infection/replication when cocultured with CD4+ T cells, and that preexposure of CD4+ T cells to CECs enhances their permissibility to HIV infection. However, mature red blood cells (RBCs) do not enhance HIV replication when cocultured with CD4+ T cells. We also found CECs express substantial levels of the NOX2 gene and via a mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent mechanism possibly upregulate NF-κB in CD4+ T cells once cocultured, which affects the cell cycle machinery to facilitate HIV-1 replication. The complement receptor-1 (CD35) and the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) as potential HIV target molecules are expressed significantly higher on CECs compared to mature red blood cells. Blocking CD35 or DARC substantially abolishes HIV-1 transmission by RBCs to uninfected CD4+ T cells but not by CECs. In contrast, we observed CECs bind to HIV-1 via CD235a and subsequently transfer the virus to uninfected CD4+ T cells, which can be partially blocked by the anti-CD235a antibody. More importantly, we found that CECs from HIV-infected individuals in the presence of antiretroviral therapy harbor infective viral particles, which mediate HIV-1 trans-infection of CD4+ T cells. Therefore, our findings provide a novel insight into the role of CECs in HIV pathogenesis as potential contributing cells in viral persistence and transmission.IMPORTANCE Immature red blood cells (erythroid precursors or CD71+ erythroid cells) have a wide range of immunomodulatory properties. In this study, we found that these erythroid precursors are abundant in the human cord blood/placental tissues, in the blood of HIV-infected and anemic individuals. We observed that these cells exacerbate HIV-1 replication/infection in target cells and even make HIV target cells more permissible to HIV infection. In addition, we found that HIV gets a free ride by binding on the surface of these cells and thus can travel to different parts of the body. In agreement, we noticed a positive correlation between the plasma viral load and the frequency of these cells in HIV patients. More importantly, we observed that infective HIV particles reside inside these erythroid precursors but not mature red blood cells. Therefore, these cells by harboring HIV can play an important role in HIV pathogenesis.

10.
Immunohorizons ; 3(11): 531-546, 2019 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732662

RESUMO

NK cell functions are tightly regulated by the balance between the inhibitory and stimulatory surface receptors. We investigated the surface expression of galectin-9 (Gal-9) and its function in NK cells from HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy, long-term nonprogressors, and progressors compared with healthy controls. We also measured the expression of TIGIT and TIM-3 on different NK cell subpopulations and compared their functionality to Gal-9 + NK cells. Our data demonstrated significant upregulation of Gal-9 on NK cells in HIV-infected groups versus healthy controls. Gal-9 expression was associated with impaired expression of cytotoxic effector molecules granzyme B, perforin, and granulysin. In contrast, Gal-9 expression significantly enhanced IFN-γ expression in NK cells of HIV-1-infected individuals. We also found an expansion of TIGIT + NK cells in HIV-infected individuals; however, dichotomous to Gal-9 + NK cells, TIGIT + NK cells expressed significantly higher amounts of cytotoxic molecules but lower IFN-γ. Moreover, lower expression of cytotoxic effector molecules in Gal-9+ NK cells was associated with higher CD107a expression, which suggests indiscriminate degranulation. Importantly, a positive correlation between the plasma viral load and Gal-9+ NK cells was observed in progressors. Finally, we found that a cytokine mixture (IL-12, IL-15, and IL-18) can improve effector functions of Gal-9+ NK cells in HIV-infected individuals, although, such an effect was observed for Gal-9- NK cells, as well. Overall, our data highlight the important role of Gal-9 in dysfunctional NK cells and, more importantly, a dichotomy for the role of Gal-9 versus TIGIT and suggest a potential new avenue for the development of therapeutic approaches.

11.
EBioMedicine ; 50: 211-223, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, the distinction between left- and right-sided colon cancer (LCC and RCC) has been brought into focus. RCC is associated with an inferior overall survival and progression-free survival. We aimed to perform a detailed analysis of the diversity of extracellular vesicles (EV) between LCC and RCC using quantitative proteomics and to identify for new diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. METHODS: We isolated EVs from patients with LCC, RCC and healthy volunteers, and treated colorectal cancer cell line with serum-derived EVs. We then performed a quantitative proteomics analysis of the serum-derived EVs and cell line treated with EVs. Proteomic data are available via ProteomeXchange with the identifiers PXD012283 and PXD012304. In addition, we assessed the performance of EV SPARC and LRG1 as diagnosis and prognosis biomarkers in colon cancer. FINDINGS: The expression profile of the serum EV proteome in patients with RCC was different from that of patients with LCC. Serum-derived EVs in RCC promoted cellular mobility more significantly than EVs derived from LCC. EV SPARC and LRG1 expression levels demonstrated area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve values of 0.95 and 0.93 for discriminating patients with colon cancer from healthy controls. Moreover, the expression levels of SPARC and LRG1 correlated with tumour sidedness and were predictive of tumour recurrence. INTERPRETATION: We identified differences in EV protein profiles between LCC and RCC. Serum-derived EVs of RCC may promote metastasis via upregulation of extracellular matrix (ECM)-related proteins, especially SPARC and LRG1, which may serve as diagnosis and prognosis biomarkers in colon cancer.

12.
BMC Med Genet ; 20(1): 138, 2019 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reference genes are often interchangeably called housekeeping genes due to 1) the essential cellular functions their proteins provide and 2) their constitutive expression across a range of normal and pathophysiological conditions. However, given the proliferative drive of malignant cells, many reference genes such as beta-actin (ACTB) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase (GAPDH) which play critical roles in cell membrane organization and glycolysis, may be dysregulated in tumors versus their corresponding normal controls METHODS: Because Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology has several advantages over hybridization-based technologies, such as independent detection and quantitation of transcription levels, greater sensitivity, and increased dynamic range, we evaluated colorectal cancers (CRC) and their histologically normal tissue counterparts by NGS to evaluate the expression of 21 "classical" reference genes used as normalization standards for PCR based methods. Seventy-nine paired tissue samples of CRC and their patient matched healthy colonic tissues were subjected to NGS analysis of their mRNAs. RESULTS: We affirmed that 17 out of 21 classical reference genes had upregulated expression in tumors compared to normal colonic epithelial tissue and dramatically so in some cases. Indeed, tumors were distinguished from normal controls in both unsupervised hierarchical clustering analyses (HCA) and principal component analyses (PCA). We then identified 42 novel potential reference genes with minimal coefficients of variation (CV) across 79 CRC tumor pairs. Though largely consistently expressed across tumors and normal control tissues, a subset of high stage tumors (HSTs) as well as some normal tissue samples (HSNs) located adjacent to these HSTs demonstrated dysregulated expression, thus identifying a subset of tumors with a potentially distinct and aggressive biological profile. CONCLUSION: While classical CRC reference genes were found to be differentially expressed between tumors and normal controls, novel reference genes, identified via NGS, were more consistently expressed across malignant and normal colonic tissues. Nonetheless, a subset of HST had profound dysregulation of such genes as did many of the histologically normal tissues adjacent to such HSTs, indicating that the HSTs so distinguished may have unique biological properties and that their histologically normal tissues likely harbor a small population of microscopically undetected but metabolically active tumors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Actinas/genética , Actinas/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Colo/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes Essenciais/genética , Gliceraldeído-3-Fosfato Desidrogenases/genética , Gliceraldeído-3-Fosfato Desidrogenases/metabolismo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , RNA Mensageiro , Análise de Sequência de RNA
13.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12392, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455818

RESUMO

Blockade of the programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) interaction has emerged as a powerful strategy in cancer immunotherapy. Recently, there have been enormous efforts to develop potent PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors. In particular, Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS) and Aurigene Discovery Technologies have individually disclosed several promising PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors, whose detailed experimental data are not publicly disclosed. In this work, we report the rigorous and systematic in vitro characterization of a selected set of potent PD-1/PD-L1 macrocyclic peptide (BMSpep-57) and small-molecule inhibitors (BMS-103, BMS-142) from BMS and a peptidomimetic small-molecule inhibitor from Aurigene (Aurigene-1) using a series of biochemical and cell-based assays. Our results confirm that BMS-103 and BMS-142 are strongly active in biochemical assays; however, their acute cytotoxicity greatly compromised their immunological activity. On the other hand, Aurigene-1 did not show any activity in both biochemical and immunological assays. Furthermore, we also report the discovery of a small-molecule immune modulator, whose mode-of-action is not clear; however, it exhibits favorable drug-like properties and strong immunological activity. We hope that the results presented here will be useful in guiding the development of next-generation PD-1/PD-L1 small molecule inhibitors.

14.
Front Physiol ; 10: 665, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31293430

RESUMO

Skeletal muscle atrophy is associated with pro-inflammatory cytokines. Salidroside is a biologically active ingredient of Rhodiola rosea, which exhibits anti-inflammatory property. However, there is little known about the effect of salidroside on denervation-induced muscle atrophy. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine whether salidroside could protect against denervation-induced muscle atrophy and to clarify potential molecular mechanisms. Denervation caused progressive accumulation of inflammatory factors in skeletal muscle, especially interleukin 6 (IL6) and its receptor, and recombinant murine IL6 (rmIL6) local infusion could induce target muscle atrophy, suggesting that denervation induced inflammation in target muscles and the inflammation may trigger muscle wasting. Salidroside alleviated denervation-induced muscle atrophy and inhibited the production of IL6. Furthermore, the inhibition of phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), and the decreased levels of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS3), muscle RING finger protein-1 (MuRF1), atrophy F-box (atrogin-1), microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 beta (LC3B) and PTEN-induced putative kinase (PINK1) were observed in denervated muscles that were treated with salidroside. Finally, all of these responses to salidroside were replicated in neutralizing antibody against IL6. Taken together, these results suggest that salidroside alleviates denervation-induced inflammation response, thereby inhibits muscle proteolysis and muscle atrophy. Therefore, it was assumed that salidroside might be a potential therapeutic candidate to prevent muscle wasting.

15.
Nano Lett ; 19(8): 5577-5586, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291113

RESUMO

Na-ion batteries are viewed as the alternative to Li-ion batteries for similar electrochemical properties, while they always suffer from a low capacity. Na-O2 batteries are important due to their high energy density; however, they are usually limited by high overpotential. In this manuscript, 16 different heterostructures of TMDs with MXenes (bare and O-terminated case) are constructed and their potential in the application of sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) and Na-O2 batteries is explored. Among these structures, it is proved that only the heterostructures of VS2 with O-terminated MXenes could load five layers of Na+ ions, while the others will have a distortion when Na+ ions intercalate or diffuse in the interlayer or the second adsorption layer. The ultrasmall diffusion barrier of Na+ ion denotes that these structures have a fast charge/discharge speed, and the ultrasmall open circuit voltages (OCVs) of 0.18 and 0.21 V prove that they are promising candidates for SIBs. The ultralow overpotential 0.55 V/0.20 V for the ηORR/ηOER means that the O facet of the VS2/Ti2CO2 heterostructure also has a great potential in the application of Na-O2 batteries. These simulations prove that the heterostructures constructed by TMDs with MXenes have great potential in SIBs and Na-O2 batteries and are important for future battery design.

16.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218285, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220152

RESUMO

Motivated by the concepts of quantum mechanics and particle swarm optimization (PSO), quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO) was developed to achieve better global search ability. This paper proposes a new method to improve the global search ability of QPSO with fractional calculus (FC). Based on one of the most frequently used fractional differential definitions, the Grünwald-Letnikov definition, we introduce its discrete expression into the position updating of QPSO. Extensive experiments on well-known benchmark functions were performed to evaluate the performance of the proposed fractional-order quantum particle swarm optimization (FQPSO). The experimental results demonstrate its superior ability in achieving optimal solutions for several different optimizations.


Assuntos
Teoria Quântica , Algoritmos
17.
Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi ; 43(3): 192-196, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184077

RESUMO

In order to strengthen the integration of reform system and build a comprehensive integration of openness and innovation, the medical device registrar system has become the institutional choice to promote the reform of the medical approval system and the innovation and development of the industry. The system allows scientific researchers, R&D institutions and enterprises to become applicants for medical device registration and to consign the production of samples and products, thus realizing the separation of market license and production license, and breaking the binding relationship between registration and production in current regulations. The medical device registrar system has laid a theoretical foundation for remolding the management system of medical devices, and has also made practical exploration for improving the reform of the medical devices supervision system, so it has important theoretical and practical significance.


Assuntos
Aprovação de Equipamentos , Indústrias , Sistema de Registros , Licenciamento
18.
Cancer Cell Int ; 19: 148, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164794

RESUMO

Background: It is becoming increasingly clear that cancers can rarely be ascribed to just one or a few genomic variations. Genes generally do not function alone, but in groups that function as "networks". This study aimed to develop a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network to elucidate the role of long non-coding RNA H19 in colorectal cancer. Methods: Large-scale RNA-seq data was obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas database. Differentially expressed RNAs were identified by bioinformatics analysis, and a competing endogenous RNA network was constructed. Functional enrichment analysis and correlation analysis between competing endogenous RNAs and clinical features were performed to reveal their roles in the tumorigenesis of colorectal cancer. To verify the conclusions derived from bioinformatics analysis, we investigated the effect of lncRNA H19 knockdown in human colorectal cancer cell lines HT-29 and HCT116. Results: The present study successfully identify various cancer-specific lncRNAs and pseudogenes in CRC. The lncRNA/pseudogene-miRNA-mRNA ceRNA network was constructed using 10 lncRNAs, 5 pseudogenes, 122 mRNAs and 39 miRNAs. In the ceRNA network of CRC, H19 up-regulates various cancer-related mRNA by competitively sponging various miRNA, and participates in PI3K-Akt signaling pathway in this manner. Cox regression and correlation analysis showed that H19 and some other competing endogenous RNAs in the network are associated with poor prognosis and clinical parameters such as tumor grade and metastasis. Knockdown of H19 reduces the protein level of MET, ZEB1, and COL1A1 in vitro. Conclusions: H19 regulates PI3K-Akt signal pathway through a competing endogenous RNA network and predicts poor prognosis in colorectal cancer. The pseudogene RPLP0P2 may be an important oncogene like H19 and needs to be studied further.

19.
Curr Nutr Rep ; 8(3): 212-221, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175583

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, yet conclusive evidence of the effects of dietary modification in breast cancer survivors is lacking. Here, we summarize the literature and highlight important data regarding the association between dietary interventions and breast cancer outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Long-term follow-up and secondary analysis of the Women's Health Initiative study demonstrated a significant improvement in overall survival for women who were randomized to the low-fat diet pattern compared with those in the usual-diet group. Dietary quality as measured by Healthy Eating Index score was also associated with both a decrease in cancer-specific mortality and overall mortality. Despite current evidence on the role of diet and nutrition in breast cancer outcomes, conclusive data to translate current findings to clinical practice is lacking and requires multidisciplinary prospective research to advance the field.

20.
J BUON ; 24(1): 123-129, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30941960

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the prevalence of stoma-related complications and stoma reversal perioperative complications of patients with low-lying rectal cancer who received preventative loop ileostomy and those who underwent loop transverse colostomy. METHODS: This retrospective single-center study analyzed the clinicopathologic and surgical data of 288 patients with pathologically proven primary rectal cancer who underwent anterior resection of rectal cancer with preventative loop ileostomy or loop transverse colostomy between January 2012 and July 2017 at the Department of General Surgery, Peking Union College Hospital. The patients were allocated to the ileostomy group (n=82) and the loop transverse colostomy group (n=206). To achieve comparability of the ileostomy group and the loop transverse colostomy group with regard to potential confounding variables, a propensity score-matching method was used to match patients from each group in a 1:2 ratio. Determinants of stoma-related complications were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The propensity score-matched loop ileostomy group (n=66) and the loop transverse colostomy group (n=111) were comparable in patient demographic and baseline characteristics. Forty-nine (74.3%) patients in the loop ileostomy group experienced stoma-related complications vs 48.7% in the loop transverse colostomy group (p<0.001). Irritant dermatitis was the most frequent complication in both groups. The loop ileostomy group had a significantly higher rate (24.24%) of stoma reversal perioperative complications than the loop transverse colostomy group (9.01%, p=0.008). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that ileostomy vs loop transverse colostomy was a significant independent risk for stoma-related complications (Odds ratio/OR 3.495; 95%CI 1.741, 7.018; p<0.001) and stoma reversal perioperative complications (OR 2.124; 95%CI 1.010, 4.512; p< 0.05). CONCLUSION: This study has demonstrated that loop transverse colostomy is associated with significantly lower rates of stoma-related complications and stoma reversal perioperative complications compared to loop transverse colostomy. Prospective controlled studies with a larger patient population are warranted to examine the efficacy and safety of loop ileostomy and loop transverse colostomy.


Assuntos
Colostomia/métodos , Ileostomia/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Estomas Cirúrgicos , Anastomose Cirúrgica , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Pontuação de Propensão , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
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