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1.
Internet Interv ; 26: 100461, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34631432

RESUMO

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a detrimental effect on the mental health of older adults living in nursing homes. Very few studies have examined the effects of Internet-based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (ICBT) on older adults living in nursing homes during the pandemic. We conducted a feasibility study using a single-group design, to explore the effectiveness of ICBT on psychological distress in 137 older adults (without cognitive impairment) from 8 nursing homes in 4 southeast cities in China, between January and March 2020. Methods: Symptoms of depression, anxiety, general psychological distress, and functional disability were measured at baseline, post-treatment (5 weeks) and at a 1-month follow-up. Mixed-effects model was used to assess the effects of ICBT. Results: Statistically significant changes with large effect sizes were observed from pre- to post-treatment on the PHQ-9 (p < .001, Cohen's d = 1.74), GAD-7 (p < .001, d = 1.71), GDS (p < .001, d = 1.30), K-10 (p < .001, d = 1.93), and SDS (p < .001, d = 2.03). Furthermore, improvements in treatment outcomes were sustained at 1-month follow-up, and high levels of adherence and satisfaction were indicated. Conclusion: ICBT was effective in reducing psychological distress in older adults without cognitive impairments living in nursing homes during the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, it could be applied in improving the mental health of this vulnerable group during the pandemic.

2.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(10)2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34685790

RESUMO

Soil flooding severely impairs agricultural crop production. Plants can cope with flooding conditions by embracing an orchestrated set of morphological adaptations and physiological adjustments that are regulated by the elaborated hormonal signaling network. The most prominent of these hormones is ethylene, which has been firmly established as a critical signal in flooding tolerance. ABA (abscisic acid) is also known as a "stress hormone" that modulates various responses to abiotic stresses; however, its role in flooding tolerance remains much less established. Here, we discuss the progress made in the elucidation of morphological adaptations regulated by ABA and its crosstalk with other phytohormones under flooding conditions in model plants and agriculturally important crops.

3.
Cell Rep Med ; 2(10): 100421, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604819

RESUMO

Understanding viral tropism is an essential step toward reducing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission, decreasing mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and limiting opportunities for mutant strains to arise. Currently, little is known about the extent to which distinct tissue sites in the human head and neck region and proximal respiratory tract selectively permit SARS-CoV-2 infection and replication. In this translational study, we discover key variabilities in expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), essential SARS-CoV-2 entry factors, among the mucosal tissues of the human proximal airways. We show that SARS-CoV-2 infection is present in all examined head and neck tissues, with a notable tropism for the nasal cavity and tracheal mucosa. Finally, we uncover an association between smoking and higher SARS-CoV-2 viral infection in the human proximal airway, which may explain the increased susceptibility of smokers to developing severe COVID-19. This is at least partially explained by differences in interferon (IFN)-ß1 levels between smokers and non-smokers.

4.
Urol Oncol ; 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600802

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In tumor immune microenvironment, the functions of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), including phagocytosis and immunomodulatory, have attracted increasing attention recently. With the discovery of CD47-signal regulatory protein-α (SIRPα) as "don't eat me" signaling pathway, the role of novel subpopulation of TAMs expressing SIRPα has not been fully elucidated in a wide spectrum of solid tumors including bladder cancer. In this study, we investigated the prognostic and predictive implication of SIRPα+ TAMs regarding clinical outcomes and adjuvant chemotherapeutic benefit in muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC), and preliminarily characterized the phenotypic features of SIRPα+ TAMs and its relationship with immune contexture. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 141 histochemical MIBC samples from Zhongshan Hospital (ZS), 45 fresh tissue samples, and 391 MIBC patients from TCGA database were enrolled in this study. SIRPα+ TAMs was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining of CD68 and SIRPα, and flow cytometry fluorescence staining. RESULTS: Our results illustrated that SIRPα+ TAMs were enriched in MIBC specimens. Patients with high SIRPα+ TAMs infiltration suffered significant poor overall survival and recurrence-free survival (P = 0.0030 and P = 0.0282). SIRPα+ TAMs infiltration was an independent prognosticator in multivariate Cox model. Moreover, adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) application showed significantly survival benefit in patients with low SIRPα+ TAMs infiltration (P = 0.0135). SIRPα+ TAMs with suppressive phenotype exhibited a positive correlation with immune tolerance and dysfunctional CD8+ T cells in MIBC. CONCLUSIONS: SIRPα+ TAMs infiltration indicated poor prognosis and ACT resistance in MIBC. Immunosuppressive SIRPα+ TAMs is closely related to immune evasion with exhausted T cells states, suggesting the prospect of SIRPα+ TAMs as a potential therapeutic target in MIBC.

5.
Mol Biol Evol ; 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515790

RESUMO

Miniaturization has occurred in many animal lineages, including insects and vertebrates, as a widespread trend during animal evolution. Among Hymenoptera, miniaturization has taken place in some parasitoid wasp lineages independently, and may have contributed to the diversity of species. However, the genomic basis of miniaturization is little understood. Diverged approximately 200 million years ago, Telenomus wasps (Platygastridae) and Trichogramma wasps (Chalcidoidea) have both evolved to a highly reduced body size independently, representing a paradigmatic example of convergent evolution. Here we report a high-quality chromosomal genome of Telenomus remus, a promising candidate for controlling Spodoptera frugiperda, a notorious pest that has recently caused severe crop damage. The T. remus genome (129 megabases) is characterized by a low density of repetitive sequence and a reduction of intron length, resulting in the shrinkage of genome size. We show that hundreds of genes evolved faster in two miniaturized parasitoids Trichogramma pretiosum and T. remus. Among them, 38 genes exhibit extremely accelerated evolutionary rates in these miniaturized wasps, possessing diverse functions in eye and wing development as well as cell size control. These genes also highlight potential roles in body size regulation. In sum, our analyses uncover a set of genes with accelerated evolutionary rates in T. pretiosum and T. remus, which might be responsible for their convergent adaptations to miniaturization, and thus expand our understanding on the evolutionary basis of miniaturization. Additionally, the genome of T. remus represents the first genome resource of superfamily Platygastroidea, and will facilitate future studies of Hymenoptera evolution and pest control.

6.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 43(4): 642-648, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494538

RESUMO

Arterial spin labeling is a noninvasive,quantitative method for perfusion imaging,which does not need any contrast media.This technique has been used in the renal perfusion analysis.In this article,we briefly introduced this technique and summarized its application in healthy volunteers,acute kidney injury,chronic kidney diseases,renovascular diseases,renal tumors,and renal transplantation.


Assuntos
Rim , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Humanos , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Perfusão , Imagem de Perfusão , Marcadores de Spin
7.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abnormal morphology and function of neurons in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are associated with cognitive deficits in rodent models of Alzheimer's disease (AD), particularly in cortical layer-5 pyramidal neurons that integrate inputs from different sources and project outputs to cortical or subcortical structures. Pyramidal neurons in layer-5 of the PFC can be classified as two subtypes depending on the inducibility of prominent hyperpolarization-activated cation currents (h-current). However, the differences in the neurophysiological alterations between these two subtypes in rodent models of AD remain poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the neurophysiological alterations between two subtypes of pyramidal neurons in hAPP-J20 mice, a transgenic model for early onset AD. METHODS: The synaptic transmission and intrinsic excitability of pyramidal neurons were investigated using whole-cell patch recordings. The morphological complexity of pyramidal neurons was detected by biocytin labelling and subsequent Sholl analysis. RESULTS: We found reduced synaptic transmission and intrinsic excitability of the prominent h-current (PH) cells but not the non-PH cells in hAPP-J20 mice. Furthermore, the function of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels which mediated h-current was disrupted in the PH cells of hAPP-J20 mice. Sholl analysis revealed that PH cells had less dendritic intersections in hAPP-J20 mice comparing to control mice, implying that a lower morphological complexity might contribute to the reduced neuronal activity. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the PH cells in the medial PFC may be more vulnerable to degeneration in hAPP-J20 mice and play a sustainable role in frontal dysfunction in AD.

8.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(10): 1964-1980, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547244

RESUMO

Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a severe congenital anomaly that is often accompanied by other anomalies. Although the role of genetics in the pathogenesis of CDH has been established, only a small number of disease-associated genes have been identified. To further investigate the genetics of CDH, we analyzed de novo coding variants in 827 proband-parent trios and confirmed an overall significant enrichment of damaging de novo variants, especially in constrained genes. We identified LONP1 (lon peptidase 1, mitochondrial) and ALYREF (Aly/REF export factor) as candidate CDH-associated genes on the basis of de novo variants at a false discovery rate below 0.05. We also performed ultra-rare variant association analyses in 748 affected individuals and 11,220 ancestry-matched population control individuals and identified LONP1 as a risk gene contributing to CDH through both de novo and ultra-rare inherited largely heterozygous variants clustered in the core of the domains and segregating with CDH in affected familial individuals. Approximately 3% of our CDH cohort who are heterozygous with ultra-rare predicted damaging variants in LONP1 have a range of clinical phenotypes, including other anomalies in some individuals and higher mortality and requirement for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Mice with lung epithelium-specific deletion of Lonp1 die immediately after birth, most likely because of the observed severe reduction of lung growth, a known contributor to the high mortality in humans. Our findings of both de novo and inherited rare variants in the same gene may have implications in the design and analysis for other genetic studies of congenital anomalies.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34476690

RESUMO

Identifying an energy-efficient system with low energy use, low global warming potential (GWP), and high profitability is essential for ensuring the sustainability of the agro-environment. Given the global importance of China's rice production, this study determines energy, environmental, and economic performances of transplanted (TPR) and direct-seeded rice system (DSR) in central China. The results showed that total energy inputs for TPR and DSR were 31.5 and 22.8 GJ ha-1 across two growing seasons, respectively. Higher energy input for TPR primarily resulted from extra energy use of the nursery beds and transplanting. Higher energy output of DSR (202.5 GJ ha-1) over that of TPR (187.7 GJ ha-1) was due to a slightly higher yield from DSR. Therefore, DSR exhibited significantly higher energy use efficiency than that of TPR. Lower specific energy for DSR (2.78 MJ kg-1) relative to TPR (4.02 MJ kg-1) indicated that the energy used to produce per unit of rice grain could be reduced by 30.8% by adopting DSR. On average, GWP of DSR was reduced by 5.6% compared with TPR. Moreover, DSR had a 55.8% higher gross return and a 25.7% lower production cost than those of TPR. Overall, compared with TPR, DSR has the potential to increase gross economic return and energy output with reduced energy input and emissions. Therefore, this study suggests that DSR is an environmentally-sound and economically-viable production system. As such, DSR is noted as an energy-efficient and climate-smart production system that could be used by policymakers and farmers to achieve not only improvements in the environment but also financial benefits.

10.
Sci Adv ; 7(34)2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407940

RESUMO

Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity is highly variable, with pediatric patients typically experiencing less severe infection than adults and especially the elderly. The basis for this difference is unclear. We find that mRNA and protein expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the cell entry receptor for the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes COVID-19, increases with advancing age in distal lung epithelial cells. However, in humans, ACE2 expression exhibits high levels of intra- and interindividual heterogeneity. Further, cells infected with SARS-CoV-2 experience endoplasmic reticulum stress, triggering an unfolded protein response and caspase-mediated apoptosis, a natural host defense system that halts virion production. Apoptosis of infected cells can be selectively induced by treatment with apoptosis-modulating BH3 mimetic drugs. Notably, epithelial cells within young lungs and airways are more primed to undergo apoptosis than those in adults, which may naturally hinder virion production and support milder COVID-19 severity.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Apoptose/genética , COVID-19/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Animais , COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/virologia , Células Cultivadas , Chlorocebus aethiops , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Pulmão/citologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/virologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Células Vero , Internalização do Vírus
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 799: 149246, 2021 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358744

RESUMO

Rice production in China is constrained by excessive water consumption, labor shortage, large environmental footprint, and low economic profit. Rice ratooning is a promising practice to increase famers' profit with higher resource use efficiency and less environmental impact compared with other rice cropping systems. However, there is limited information on the differences in energy use efficiency, water and labor productivity, environmental footprint, and economic return between main crop (MC) and ratoon crop (RC) in this cropping system. This study was conducted to compare the system performance between the two crops of ratoon rice using on-farm survey data. Average grain yield was 8.40 and 4.55 t ha-1 for MC and RC, respectively. Although RC produced 45.9% lower grain yield, it had 57.3% less total energy input and 71.0% lower total production cost than MC, which resulted in a significantly higher energy use efficiency, net energy ratio, net economic return and benefit-to-cost ratio. Lower total energy input and production cost of RC was mainly attributed to the reduction in fertilizer application and labor input, respectively compared with MC. In addition, both labor and water productivity of RC was significantly higher than those of MC. Furthermore, the global warming potential (GWP) and yield-scaled GWP of RC was 59.3% and 23.4% lower than those of MC, respectively, due to lower agronomic inputs and GHGs emissions. Overall, our results suggested that RC had higher resource use efficiency, better economic performance, and less environment impact compared with MC.


Assuntos
Oryza , Agricultura , China , Produtos Agrícolas , Fertilizantes/análise , Solo
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 791: 148097, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412405

RESUMO

The Bohai Sea has recently suffered several seasonal oxygen-deficiency, even hypoxia events during the summer. To better understand effects of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration on the bacterial composition in particle attached (PA) and free living (FL) fractions during the transition from oxic water to low oxygen conditions, the bacterial communities under three different oxygen levels, i.e., high oxygen (HO, close to 100% O2 saturation), medium oxygen (MO, close to 75% O2 saturation), and low oxygen (LO, close to 50% O2 saturation) in the Bohai Sea were investigated using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Fourteen water samples from 5 stations were collected during a cruise from August to September in 2018. The results showed that the sequences of Proteobacteria and Actinobacteriota jointly accounted for up to 74% across all 14 samples. The Shannon index in HO samples were significantly higher than in LO samples (P < 0.05), especially in PA communities. The composition of bacterial communities varied by oxygen concentration in all samples, and the effect was more pronounced in the PA fraction, which indicates that the PA fraction was more sensitive to the change in oxygen concentration, possibly due to the tighter interactions in this community than in the FL fraction. This study provides novel insights into the distribution of bacterial communities, and clues for understanding the responses of bacterial communities in the Bohai Sea during the transition from the oxic to oxygen-deficient zones.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Água do Mar , Bactérias/genética , Humanos , Hipóxia , Oxigênio , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
13.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256523, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415937

RESUMO

In the case of a fire, the choice of exit in the highway tunnel is strictly limited by fire location, which seriously affects the evacuation time. A spontaneous or disorderly exit choice might result in a decreased evacuation efficiency and utilization rate of exits. In this paper, we propose a strategy to obtain the optimal exit choice based on fire location during highway tunnel evacuations. In our strategy, first, the vehicle distributions and locations of evacuating occupants are determined in the traffic simulation program VISSIM. The evacuation simulation software BuildingEXODUS is employed to obtain the corresponding parameters of the evacuation process and analyze the impacts of different fire locations on the evacuation time. During the analysis, the optimal productivity statistics (OPS) is selected as the evaluation index. Then, the feature points of the crowding occupants are captured by the fuzzy c-means (FCM) cluster algorithm. Next, based on the feature points, the relationship between the location of the fire and boundary of the optimal exit choice under the optimal OPS is obtained through the polynomial regression model. It is found that the R-squared(R2) and sum of squares for error (SSE) of the polynomial regression model, reflecting the accuracy estimation, are 98.02% and 2.79×10-4, respectively. Moreover, different fire locations impact the evacuation time of tunnel entrance and evacuation passageway. This paper shows that the location of the fire and boundary of optimal exit choice have a negative linear correlation. Taking the fire 110 m away from the evacuation passageway as an example, the OPS of our strategy can be decreased by 35.6% when compared with no strategies. Our proposed strategy could be applied to determine the location of variable evacuation signs to help evacuating occupants make optimal exit choices.

14.
Phytopathology ; 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445896

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a group of covalently closed RNAs, and their biological function is largely unknown. In this study, we focused on circRNAs that are generated from exon back-splicing (exonic circRNAs). The linear RNA counterparts encode functional proteins, that we can compare and investigate the relationship between circular and linear RNAs. We compared circRNA expression profiles between untreated and Pseudomonas syringae-infected Arabidopsis, and identified and experimentally validated differentially expressed exonic circRNAs by multiple approaches. We found that exonic circRNAs are preferentially enriched in biological processes that associate with biotic and abiotic stress responses. We discovered that circR194 and circR4022 are involved in plant response against P. syringae infection, while circR11208 is involved in response against Botrytis cinerea infection. Intriguingly, our results indicate that these exonic circRNAs function synergistically with their corresponding linear RNAs. Furthermore, circR4022 and circR11208 also play substantial roles in Arabidopsis tolerance to salt stress. This study extends our understanding of the molecular functions of plant circRNAs.

15.
Neurochem Res ; 46(11): 2897-2908, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34228232

RESUMO

FK1706 is a novel non-immunosuppressive immunophilin ligand with neurotrophic activity and exerts its neurotrophic effect through NGF. The present study aimed to elaborate on the neurotrophic activity and the mechanism of action of FK1706 in end-to-side neurorrhaphy rats and SH-SY5Y cells. In the regenerating nerves of neurorrhaphy rats, FK1706 increased the thickness of myelin sheath and the level of nerve regeneration-related proteins. The mechanism of action of FK1706 on neurite regrowth was elucidated in vitro by incubating SH-SY5Y cells in different conditions (Control, NGF, FK1706, NGF + FK1706, NGF + FK1706 + geldanamycin). Under the conditions where NGF was used, the phosphorylation level of major proteins (Raf-1 and ERK) in the Ras/Raf/MAPK/ERK signaling pathway related to SH-SY5Y cell proliferation was significantly enhanced following the application of FK1706. The number of viable cells, cell viability and neurite length of SH-SY5Y cells was maximal when NGF and FK1706 were used simultaneously. The binding level of HSP90 and Raf-1 in FK1706 group was the highest. These results indicated that FK1706 could significantly promote nerve regeneration after neurorrhaphy. The putative mechanism of action stated that FK1706 could promote the binding of HSP90 and Raf-1, make Raf-1 continue to be activated, thereby affecting key proteins in the Ras/Raf/MAPK/ERK signaling pathway related to the neurotrophic effects of NGF to promote the proliferation and neurite regrowth of nerve cells.

16.
BMC Biol ; 19(1): 145, 2021 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hymenoptera comprise extremely diverse insect species with extensive variation in their life histories. The Dryinidae, a family of solitary wasps of Hymenoptera, have evolved innovations that allow them to hunt using venom and a pair of chelae developed from the fore legs that can grasp prey. Dryinidae larvae are also parasitoids of Auchenorrhyncha, a group including common pests such as planthoppers and leafhoppers. Both of these traits make them effective and valuable for pest control, but little is yet known about the genetic basis of its dual adaptation to parasitism and predation. RESULTS: We sequenced and assembled a high-quality genome of the dryinid wasp Gonatopus flavifemur, which at 636.5 Mb is larger than most hymenopterans. The expansion of transposable elements, especially DNA transposons, is a major contributor to the genome size enlargement. Our genome-wide screens reveal a number of positively selected genes and rapidly evolving proteins involved in energy production and motor activity, which may contribute to the predatory adaptation of dryinid wasp. We further show that three female-biased, reproductive-associated yellow genes, in response to the prey feeding behavior, are significantly elevated in adult females, which may facilitate the egg production. Venom is a powerful weapon for dryinid wasp during parasitism and predation. We therefore analyze the transcriptomes of venom glands and describe specific expansions in venom Idgf-like genes and neprilysin-like genes. Furthermore, we find the LWS2-opsin gene is exclusively expressed in male G. flavifemur, which may contribute to partner searching and mating. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide new insights into the genome evolution, predatory adaptation, venom evolution, and sex-biased genes in G. flavifemur, and present genomic resources for future in-depth comparative analyses of hymenopterans that may benefit pest control.

17.
Insects ; 12(6)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199436

RESUMO

The peritrophic matrix (PM) secreted by the midgut cells of insects is formed by the binding of PM proteins to chitin fibrils. The PM envelops the food bolus, serving as a barrier between the content of the midgut lumen and its epithelium, and plays a protective role for epithelial cells against mechanical damage, pathogens, toxins, and other harmful substances. However, few studies have investigated the characteristics and synthesis factors of the PM in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Here, we examined the characteristics of the PM in the silkworms. The PM thickness of the silkworms increased gradually during growth, while there was no significant difference in thickness along the entire PM region. Permeability of the PM decreased gradually from the anterior to posterior PM. We also found that PM synthesis was affected by food ingestion and the gut microbiota. Our results are beneficial for future studies regarding the function of the PM in silkworms.

18.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34228883

RESUMO

The rice leaffolder Cnaphalocrocis exigua (Crambidae, Lepidoptera) is an important agricultural pest that damages rice crops and other members of related grass families. C. exigua exhibits a very similar morphological phenotype and feeding behaviour to C. medinalis, another species of rice leaffolder whose genome was recently reported. However, genomic information for C. exigua remains extremely limited. Here, we used a hybrid strategy combining different sequencing technologies, including Illumina, PacBio, 10× Genomics, and Hi-C scaffolding, to generate a high-quality chromosome-level genome assembly of C. exigua. We initially obtained a 798.8 Mb assembly with a contig N50 size of 2.9 Mb, and the N50 size was subsequently increased to 25.7 Mb using Hi-C technology to anchor 1413 scaffolds to 32 chromosomes. We detected a total of 97.7% Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Orthologues (BUSCO) in the genome assembly, which was comprised of ~52% repetitive sequence and annotated 14,922 protein-coding genes. Of note, the Z and W sex chromosomes were assembled and identified. A comparative genomic analysis demonstrated that despite the high synteny observed between the two rice leaffolders, the species have distinct genomic features associated with expansion and contraction of gene families and selection pressure. In summary, our chromosome-level genome assembly and comparative genomic analysis of C. exigua provide novel insights into the evolution and ecology of this rice insect pests and offer useful information for pest control.

19.
Front Genet ; 12: 670746, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34306014

RESUMO

The tumor microenvironment (TME) has a crucial role in tumor development, progression, and treatment response. Yet, the exact interaction between cancer biology and the TME is not fully understood. The following study analyzed the correlation between immune/stromal/estimate scores and survival prognosis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSC) using a bioinformatic method. As a result, a predictive biomarker, UDP-glucose-specific G(i) protein-coupled P2Y receptor (P2RY14), was discovered. The potential role of P2RY14-driven signaling pathways in the immune-remodeling of TME was then investigated. Briefly, low immune scores were associated with unfavorable prognosis and clinical-stage, larger tumor size, and the down-regulation of P2RY14 in HNSC patients. In addition, the survival analysis showed that HNSC patients with high expression had longer survival than patients with low expression from both TCGA databases and our own patients. We further discovered that P2RY14 is involved in the immune activity in the TME of HNSC; a downregulation of P2RY14 resulted in being an indicator for the conversion of TME status (from immune-dominant to metabolic-dominant status). The intersection analysis of genes co-expressed with P2RY14 indicated that the T-cell receptor signaling pathway and PD-L1 expression and PD-1 checkpoint pathway were candidate signaling pathways driven by the P2RY14 gene in HNSC. Further investigation of immune-associated signaling pathways regulated by P2RY14 may help HNSC patients gain higher immunotherapy benefits.

20.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(20): 5621-5630, 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34307617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium mucogenicum (M. mucogenicum) belongs to the group of rapidly growing Nontuberculous mycobacteria. This microorganism is associated with a wide spectrum of infectious diseases. Due to a low detection rate or the time required for conventional culture methodology, a rapid and broad-spectrum method is necessary to identify rare pathogens. CASE SUMMARY: A 12-year-old immunocompetent girl presented with painful masses for five months. The first mass was found in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen, and was about 1 cm × 1.5 cm in size, tough but pliable in texture, with an irregular margin and tenderness. An abscess gradually formed and ulcerated with suppuration of the mass. Three new masses appeared on the back one by one. Chest computed tomography showed patchy and streaky cloudy opacities in both lungs. Needle aspiration of the abscess was performed, but the smear and conventional culture were negative, and the pathological examination showed no pathogens. We then performed next-generation sequencing using a formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimen to identify the pathogen. A significantly high abundance of M. mucogenicum was detected. The patient's abscesses gradually decreased in size, while inflammation in both lungs improved following 12-wk of treatment. No recurrence was observed four months after the end of the one-year treatment period. CONCLUSION: Next-generation sequencing is a promising tool for the rapid and accurate diagnosis of rare pathogens, even when using a formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimen.

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