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1.
Chin Med ; 13: 33, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29946351

RESUMO

In recent years, studies of traditional medicinal plants have gradually increased worldwide because the natural sources and variety of such plants allow them to complement modern pharmacological approaches. As computer technology has developed, in silico approaches such as virtual screening and network analysis have been widely utilized in efforts to elucidate the pharmacological basis of the functions of traditional medicinal plants. In the process of new drug discovery, the application of virtual screening and network pharmacology can enrich active compounds among the candidates and adequately indicate the mechanism of action of medicinal plants, reducing the cost and increasing the efficiency of the whole procedure. In this review, we first provide a detailed research routine for examining traditional medicinal plants by in silico techniques and elaborate on their theoretical principles. We also survey common databases, software programs and website tools that can be used for virtual screening and pharmacological network construction. Furthermore, we conclude with a simple example that illustrates the whole methodology, and we present perspectives on the development and application of this in silico methodology to reveal the pharmacological basis of the effects of traditional medicinal plants.

2.
Chem Rev ; 118(10): 4946-4980, 2018 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29638112

RESUMO

Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) inherits the rich chemical fingerprint information on Raman spectroscopy and gains sensitivity by plasmon-enhanced excitation and scattering. In particular, most Raman peaks have a narrow width suitable for multiplex analysis, and the measurements can be conveniently made under ambient and aqueous conditions. These merits make SERS a very promising technique for studying complex biological systems, and SERS has attracted increasing interest in biorelated analysis. However, there are still great challenges that need to be addressed until it can be widely accepted by the biorelated communities, answer interesting biological questions, and solve fatal clinical problems. SERS applications in bioanalysis involve the complex interactions of plasmonic nanomaterials with biological systems and their environments. The reliability becomes the key issue of bioanalytical SERS in order to extract meaningful information from SERS data. This review provides a comprehensive overview of bioanalytical SERS with the main focus on the reliability issue. We first introduce the mechanism of SERS to guide the design of reliable SERS experiments with high detection sensitivity. We then introduce the current understanding of the interaction of nanomaterials with biological systems, mainly living cells, to guide the design of functionalized SERS nanoparticles for target detection. We further introduce the current status of label-free (direct) and labeled (indirect) SERS detections, for systems from biomolecules, to pathogens, to living cells, and we discuss the potential interferences from experimental design, measurement conditions, and data analysis. In the end, we give an outlook of the key challenges in bioanalytical SERS, including reproducibility, sensitivity, and spatial and time resolution.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/análise , DNA/análise , Nanoestruturas/análise , Proteínas/análise , Análise Espectral Raman/normas , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Humanos , Propriedades de Superfície
3.
Chin Med ; 11: 1, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26759603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cycloartane triterpenoids exhibited anticancer effects. This study aims to identify any potential novel anticancer cycloartane triterpenoids from Cimicifuga foetida L. rhizome (Sheng ma) and the mode of actions. METHODS: Cycloartane triterpenoids were isolated from the C. foetida rhizome by a series of column chromatography and identified by IR, MS and NMR. Their anticancer effects on several human cancer cell lines, MCF-7, HepG2, HepG2/ADM, HeLa, and PC3, and normal human mammary epithelial cells MCF10A were investigated by colony formation and MTT assays. Morphological analysis of apoptosis induction was performed by acridine orange/ethidium bromide dual-staining and Hoechst 33258 nuclear staining. The cell-cycle profile and annexin V staining were evaluated by flow cytometry. Apoptosis were investigated by measuring changes in mitochondrial membrane potential and analyzing expression of cell cycle- and apoptosis-related proteins in MCF-7 cells by Western blotting. RESULTS: A novel cycloartane triterpenoid, 25-O-acetyl-7,8-didehydrocimigenol-3-O-ß-d-(2-acetyl)xylopyranoside (ADHC-AXpn), together with the known 7,8-didehydrocimigenol-3-O-ß-d-xylopyranoside (DHC-Xpn) were isolated. MCF-7 growth was significantly inhibited by ADHC-AXpn in a dose- and time-dependent manner (IC50: 27.81 µM at 48 h; P = 0.004 vs. control at 25 µM for 48 h treatment), and ADHC-AXpn was selectively cytotoxic for cancerous cells (MCF-7, HepG2/ADM, HepG2 and HELA cells) based on its higher IC50 values for normal cells MCF10A (IC50: 78.63 µM at 48 h) than for tumor cells. In MCF-7 cells, ADHC-AXpn induced G2/M cell cycle arrest by mediating cyclin-B1, and CDK1 and its phosphorylation; and induced apoptosis through the mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic pathway, with inhibition of Akt activation. As ADHC-AXpn suppressed phosphorylation of ERK1/2, Raf and Akt proteins in MCF-7 cells, its apoptotic effect might be associated with Raf/MEK/ERK signaling and Akt activation. CONCLUSIONS: ADHC-AXpn significantly suppressed the growth of MCF-7 cells, induced mitochondrial apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest, and inhibited Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway and Akt phosphorylation.

4.
Front Pharmacol ; 7: 531, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28119608

RESUMO

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), including thrombosis, which is induced by platelet aggregation, are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. The P2Y1 receptor (P2Y1R) facilitates platelet aggregation and is thus an important potential anti-thrombotic drug target. The P2Y1R protein structure contains a binding site for receptor antagonist MRS2500 within its seven-transmembrane bundle, which also provides suitable pockets for numerous other ligands to act as nucleotide antagonists of P2Y1R. The Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP) comprises 499 Chinese Pharmacopoeia-registered herbs and the structure information for 29,384 ingredients. In silico docking of these compounds into the P2Y1R protein structure within the MRS2500 pocket can identify potential antithrombotic drugs from natural medicinal plants. Docking studies were performed and scored to evaluate ligand-binding affinities. In this study, a total of 8987 compounds from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) were filtered by Lipinski's rule of five, and their ideal oral-intake properties were evaluated. Of these, 1656 compounds distributed in 443 herbs docked into the P2Y1R-MRS2500 structure in 16,317 poses. A total of 38 compounds were ranked with a DockScore above 70, and these may have significant potential for development into anti-thrombosis drugs. These computational results suggested that licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch), cimicifugae (Cimicifuga foetida L.), and ganoderma (Ganoderma lucidum Karst) and their chemical constituents, which have not previously been widely used for anti-thrombosis, may have unexpected effects on platelet aggregation. Moreover, two types of triterpene scaffolds summarized from 10 compounds were distributed in these three herbs and also docked into P2Y1R. These scaffold structures may be utilized for the development of drugs to inhibit platelet aggregation.

5.
J Am Chem Soc ; 137(15): 5149-54, 2015 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25835155

RESUMO

Direct, label-free detection of unmodified DNA is a great challenge for DNA analyses. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a promising tool for DNA analyses by providing intrinsic chemical information with a high sensitivity. To address the irreproducibility in SERS analysis that hampers reliable DNA detection, we used iodide-modified Ag nanoparticles to obtain highly reproducible SERS signals of single- and double-strand DNA in aqueous solutions close to physiological conditions. The phosphate backbone signal was used as an internal standard to calibrate the absolute signal of each base for a more reliable determination of the DNA structure, which has not been achieved before. Clear identification of DNA with single-base sensitivity and the observation of a hybridization event have been demonstrated.


Assuntos
DNA/análise , DNA/química , Análise Espectral Raman , Propriedades de Superfície
6.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 4(2): 359-72, 2015 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26783710

RESUMO

An integrated approach including chemical and biological assessments was developed to investigate the differences between Apocynum venetum L. (AV) and its adulterant, Apocynum pictum Schrenk (AP). Ten flavonoids were tentatively identified by ultra-visible and mass spectra data. The chemical component, hyperoside, was identified as a critical parameter for discrimination of two species from the results of principal component analysis (PCA) and quantitative analysis. The anti-oxidative power of the herbal extracts were determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) hydrazyl (DPPH) assay and H2O2-induced cell damage on LO2 cells. The results of the biological assays suggested that the chemical differences between AV and AP do lead to difference in activity and AV is demonstrated to have higher anti-oxidant activity.

7.
Brain Res ; 1586: 1-11, 2014 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25195972

RESUMO

6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is a neurotoxin that is commonly employed to induce lesions of the dopaminergic pathways to generating experimental models of Parkinson's disease (PD) in rodents. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory therapy approaches have been the focus of attention in the treatment of neurodegenerative. PD and Alzheimer's diseases, and oxidative stress have been implicated in these diseases. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of minocycline and the signalling pathway that is possibly involved in a PC12 cell model of PD. The results indicated that 6-OHDA cytotoxicity was accompanied by an increment in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, an increase in caspase-3 protein activity, an increase in ROS generation, MDA content and decrease in the SOD, CAT activities and cell viability. Moreover, treatment with 6-OHDA alone for 24h resulted in ICAD degradation, increased nuclear translocation of NF-κB, and increased p53 expression. However, pretreatment with minocycline (5, 10, 20 µM) for 24h significantly reduced LDH release, reduced caspase-3 protein production, reduced ROS production, MDA content and attenuated the decrease in SOD, CAT activities and cell viability. Additionally, minocycline (20 µM) markedly decreased the levels of cleaved ICAD protein, down-regulated p53 activity and inhibited the nuclear translocation of NF-κB. The neuroprotective effects of minocycline were attributable to its potent antioxidant activities, which prevented the nuclear translocation of NF-κB and the subsequent promotion of cell death. Therefore, the present study supports the notion that minocycline may be a promising neuroprotective agent for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.


Assuntos
Adrenérgicos/farmacologia , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Minociclina/farmacologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Oxidopamina/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Interações de Medicamentos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Marcação In Situ das Extremidades Cortadas , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Células PC12 , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Tiazolidinedionas , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
8.
Anal Chem ; 86(4): 2238-45, 2014 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24460183

RESUMO

Proteins perform vital functional and structural duties in living systems, and the in-depth investigation of protein in its native state is one of the most important challenges in the postgenomic era. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) can provide the intrinsic fingerprint information of samples with ultrahigh sensitivity but suffers from the reproducibility and reliability issues. In this paper, we proposed an iodide-modified Ag nanoparticles method (Ag IMNPs) for label-free detection of proteins. The silver nanoparticles provide the huge enhancement to boost the Raman signal of proteins, and the coated iodide layer offers a barrier to prevent the direct interaction between the proteins and the metal surface, helping to keep the native structures of proteins. With this method, highly reproducible and high-quality SERS signals of five typical proteins (lysozyme, avidin, bovine serum albumin, cytochrome c, and hemoglobin) have been obtained, and the SERS features of the proteins without chromophore were almost identical to the respective normal Raman spectra. This unique feature allows the qualitative identification of them by simply taking the intensity ratio of the Raman peaks of tryptophan to phenylalanine residues. We further demonstrated that the method can also be used for label-free multiplex analysis of protein mixture as well as to study the dynamic process of protein damage stimulated by hydrogen peroxide. This method proves to be very promising for further applications in proteomics and biomedical research.


Assuntos
Iodetos/química , Nanopartículas/química , Proteínas/análise , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Animais , Bovinos , Galinhas , Hemoglobinas/análise , Muramidase/análise , Soroalbumina Bovina/análise
10.
Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet ; 39(3): 165-71, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24014108

RESUMO

This paper aims to investigate the portal-vein absorption kinetics of berberine in rat, and the influence of P-gp inhibitors such as verapamil and borneol, to its absorption ability. In the paper, a validated UHPLC method was established to determine the berberine in plasma, and the portal-vein absorption model was applied to conduct the pharmacokinetic study. Animals were divided into four groups as follow: group berberine group (BG); group verapamil + berberine group (VBG); group borneol + berberine group (BBG) and group long-term use of borneol + berberine group (LBBG). Plasma samples were obtained at regular time intervals after administration and separated on Agilent 1290 Infinity UHPLC instrument. The method showed good linearity (r = 0.9988) over wide dynamic ranges (4.08-163.20 ng/mL). Variations within- and between-batch never exceeded 7.58 and 2.21 %, respectively. The extraction recovery rates ranged from 85.34 to 111.62 %. We discovered that the AUC of four group exhibited no significant differences (P > 0.05), and co-administration of berberine with borneol of group BBG and group LBBG in advance could both reduce the T max and C max as compared to group BG (P < 0.05), while co-administration of verapamil seems to have had little influence to berberine's absorption ability.


Assuntos
Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/antagonistas & inibidores , Berberina/farmacocinética , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Absorção Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Veia Porta , Verapamil/farmacologia , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Administração Oral , Animais , Área Sob a Curva , Berberina/administração & dosagem , Berberina/sangue , Disponibilidade Biológica , Calibragem , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/normas , Interações de Medicamentos , Feminino , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Padrões de Referência
11.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 38(15): 2434-7, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24228530

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) fingerprints of Rheum species and their anti-HIV 1 activities. METHOD: Twenty two samples of 16 species belonging to genus Rheum from various sources were collected and analyzed in this study. Firstly they were assayed for the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) associated ribonuclease H (RNase H) activity. Secondly the fingerprints were established by an optimized UPLC method. Sample was analyzed by UPLC-TOF-MS/MS to identify major peaks. The possible relationship between UPLC fingerprints and anti-HIV 1 activities of Rheum species were deduced by mathematical statistics method. RESULT: Samples of R. austral, R. austral, R. hotaoense exhibited good anti-HIV 1 activities with IC50 < or = 0.2 mg x L(-1). The correlation of anti-HIV 1 activities and fingerprints showed that three compounds were the main bioactive components, and their retention times were 4.74, 7.99, 21.18 min, respectively. CONCLUSION: Compounds in Rheum species with possible anti-HIV 1 activities were deduced by spectrum-effect relationship study. This study supported for study of medicinal plants in Rheum.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/química , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Rheum/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/metabolismo , HIV-1/enzimologia , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Ribonuclease H do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
12.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; 15(10): 1094-9, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23869536

RESUMO

Two new diarylheptanoids, 1-(3',5'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyphenyl)-7-phenyl-3-heptanone (1) and 1-(2',4'-dihydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-7-(4″-methoxyphenyl)-3-heptanone (2), along with known diarylheptanoid yakuchinone A (3), and five flavanoids, tectochrysin (4), chrysin (5), izalpinin (6), kaempferol 7, 4'-dimethyl ether (7), and kaempferide (8) were isolated from the fruits of Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. Their structures were determined by means of spectroscopic methods. Antioxidant activities of all the isolated compounds were evaluated using a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Compounds 1-3 and 6-8 exhibited potent antioxidant activities in the DPPH assay.


Assuntos
Alpinia/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Diarileptanoides/isolamento & purificação , Diarileptanoides/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/isolamento & purificação , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Diarileptanoides/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Flavonoides/química , Frutas/química , Guaiacol/análogos & derivados , Guaiacol/química , Guaiacol/isolamento & purificação , Quempferóis/isolamento & purificação , Quempferóis/farmacologia , Estrutura Molecular , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Picratos/farmacologia
13.
Nat Prod Commun ; 7(6): 785-7, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22816308

RESUMO

From the seeds of Alisma orientale, cis-aconitic anhydride ethyl ester and cis-2,4,5-trihydroxycinnamic acid were isolated, together with nine known phenolic compounds and a megastigmane sesquiterpene. All compounds are reported for the first time from Alisma species.


Assuntos
Ácido Aconítico/análogos & derivados , Alisma/química , Fenóis/química , Sementes/química , Ácido Aconítico/química , Cicloexanonas/química , Glucosídeos/química , Norisoprenoides/química
14.
Sci China Life Sci ; 55(5): 452-66, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22645089

RESUMO

Various active components have been extracted from the root of Polygonum cuspidatum. However, the genetic basis for their activity is virtually unknown. In this study, 25600002 short reads (2.3 Gb) of P. cuspidatum root transcriptome were obtained via Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing. A total of 86418 unigenes were assembled de novo and annotated. Twelve, 18, 60 and 54 unigenes were respectively mapped to the mevalonic acid (MVA), methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP), shikimate and resveratrol biosynthesis pathways, suggesting that they are involved in the biosynthesis of pharmaceutically important anthraquinone and resveratrol. Eighteen potential UDP-glycosyltransferase unigenes were identified as the candidates most likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of glycosides of secondary metabolites. Identification of relevant genes could be important in eventually increasing the yields of the medicinally useful constituents of the P. cuspidatum root. From the previously published transcriptome data of 19 non-model plant taxa, 1127 shared orthologs were identified and characterized. This information will be very useful for future functional, phylogenetic and evolutionary studies of these plants.


Assuntos
Fallopia japonica/genética , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Raízes de Plantas , Transcriptoma , Cromatografia Líquida
16.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 47(20): 5738-40, 2011 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21503323

RESUMO

Iodide adsorption and electrochemical negative potential desorption were proposed and compared to obtain clean SERS substrates. The two methods can effectively eliminate the interference of surface impurities in the SERS detection. SERS signals of membranes of living cells with a good reproducibility have been obtained.


Assuntos
Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Adsorção , Ouro/química , Iodetos/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Propilaminas/química , Silanos/química , Especificidade por Substrato , Propriedades de Superfície , Compostos de Estanho/química
17.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 58(10): 1395-8, 2010 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20930411

RESUMO

Chemical study of the whole plants of Sarcandra hainanensis yielded two new biflavonoids with a flavan-flavanone skeleton, sarcandrone C (1), D (2) and 6 known compounds (3-8). Structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR spectroscopic methods.


Assuntos
Flavanonas/química , Magnoliopsida/química , Flavanonas/isolamento & purificação , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Conformação Molecular
18.
Chem Biodivers ; 7(9): 2289-95, 2010 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20860030

RESUMO

A phytochemical study of Kadsura heteroclita led to the isolation of eight triterpenoids, including two new compounds, named kadheterilactone A (1) and kadheterilactone B (2), as well as six known compounds, longipedlactone H (3), longipedlactone A (4), longipedlactone F (5), kadsuranic acid A (6), nigranoic acid (7), and schisandronic acid (8). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods, including 2D NMR techniques. The cytotoxic activities of 1-8 were tested against several tumor cell lines by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium hydrobromide (MTT) assay in vitro. As a result, 4 and 5 turned out to be significantly cytotoxic against Hep-G2 and Bel-7402 tumor cell lines. All compounds were also tested for inhibition on HIV-1 protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT). Compounds 6 and 7 showed strong inhibition on HIV-1 PR, while 8 exhibited moderate activity, others were only weakly active. No compounds were active against HIV-1 RT.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/isolamento & purificação , Kadsura/química , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/química , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/farmacologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/enzimologia , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/farmacologia
19.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 58(6): 843-7, 2010 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20522997

RESUMO

Three new oligostilbenes, trans-suffruticosol D (1), cis-suffruticosol D (2), and cis-gnetin H (7), were isolated along with the eight known stilbenes, trans-resveratrol (3), trans-epsilon-viniferin (4), cis-epsilon-viniferin (5), gnetin H (6), suffruticosol A (8), suffruticosol B (9), suffruticosol C (10), and cis-ampelopsin E (11) from the seeds of Paeonia suffruticosa. Compounds 3-6 were isolated for the first time from this plant species, and compound 11 was isolated for the first time from the genus Paeonia. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated based on spectral analyses, including 1D and 2D NMR experiments. The absolute configuration of compound 1 was determined by quantum chemical calculation of the electronic circular dichroism and comparison with the experimental circular dichroism spectrum.


Assuntos
Paeonia/química , Sementes/química , Estilbenos/química , Isomerismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular , Estilbenos/isolamento & purificação
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