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1.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 90(9): 094704, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575239

RESUMO

A three-layer aperture coupled microstrip antenna array (ACMA) is designed and fabricated for wideband high-power microwave (HPM) application, which has not been reported in the field of HPM. In this paper, the proposed antenna array overcomes the disadvantage of low power capacity of traditional microstrip antenna arrays. Moreover, based on the H-shaped aperture coupled structure, it enhances the relative bandwidth up to more than 50%. Compared with traditional HPM antennas, it has advantages of being low-profile (less than 0.2λ), wideband, lightweight, and easy to manufacture. The proposed antenna array consists of 60 elements; each element has four aperture coupled patch antennas fed by a four-way microstrip line power divider. In order to realize the modular design, the antenna array is divided into 10 identical modules; benefiting from this design, machining and assembling become easier. Additionally, cold tests and high-power tests are carried out, and the experimental results show that the ACMA achieves a relative bandwidth of 51.2% for voltage standing-wave ratio < 2 from 1.52 to 2.57 GHz. Consistent with simulation results, the measured gain is more than 28.8 dB in the whole bandwidth and it reaches a maximum of 32.1 dB. Finally, the high-power tests show that the power capacity of the proposed ACMA is greater than 140 MW, which proves the feasibility of the design in wideband HPM application.

2.
EBioMedicine ; 47: 284-292, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early detection of influenza activity followed by timely response is a critical component of preparedness for seasonal influenza epidemic and influenza pandemic. However, most relevant studies were conducted at the regional or national level with regular seasonal influenza trends. There are few feasible strategies to forecast influenza activity at the local level with irregular trends. METHODS: Multi-source electronic data, including historical percentage of influenza-like illness (ILI%), weather data, Baidu search index and Sina Weibo data of Chongqing, China, were collected and integrated into an innovative Self-adaptive AI Model (SAAIM), which was constructed by integrating Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average model and XGBoost model using a self-adaptive weight adjustment mechanism. SAAIM was applied to ILI% forecast in Chongqing from 2017 to 2018, of which the performance was compared with three previously available models on forecasting. FINDINGS: ILI% showed an irregular seasonal trend from 2012 to 2018 in Chongqing. Compared with three reference models, SAAIM achieved the best performance on forecasting ILI% of Chongqing with the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of 11·9%, 7·5%, and 11·9% during the periods of the year 2014-2016, 2017, and 2018 respectively. Among the three categories of source data, historical influenza activity contributed the most to the forecast accuracy by decreasing the MAPE by 19·6%, 43·1%, and 11·1%, followed by weather information (MAPE reduced by 3·3%, 17·1%, and 2·2%), and Internet-related public sentiment data (MAPE reduced by 1·1%, 0·9%, and 1·3%). INTERPRETATION: Accurate influenza forecast in areas with irregular seasonal influenza trends can be made by SAAIM with multi-source electronic data.

3.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(19): 5836-5840, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525868

RESUMO

The rich chemistry of metal halide perovskites has enabled various methods of band structure control and surface passivation. Here we report a highly facile and efficient post-treatment approach for precise color tuning of cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) with enhanced stability. By utilizing a special multifunctional organic ligand, triphenyl(9-phenyl-9H-carbazol-3-yl)phosphonium bromide (TPP-Carz), carbon-halide bond cleavage can be achieved to release halide ions from halogenated solvents in a controlled manner for color tuning of perovskite NCs via ion exchange. Besides controlled release of halide ions for anion exchange, TPP-Carz can effectively passivate the surfaces of perovskite NCs simultaneously. As a result, perovskite NCs prepared by this post-treatment method with tunable colors over the entire visible spectrum have shown significantly improved luminescence and stability in comparison to the ones prepared using reactive anion precursors without surface passivation by TPP-Carz.

4.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(19): 5923-5928, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529944

RESUMO

Organometal halide perovskite materials, in particular colloidal perovskite nanocrystals (NCs), have been investigated extensively as next-generation light-emitting materials. However, producing highly efficient and stable perovskite thin films from colloidal NCs is not trivial, as dissociation of surfactants often occurs during the thin-film formation. Here, we demonstrate a facile solution-processing approach to prepare perovskite nanocomposite thin films by using phosphonium as the capping ligand for methylammonium lead bromide (MAPbBr3) NCs. The photoluminescence and stability of thin films containing in situ formed perovskite NCs were greatly enhanced after phosphonium passivation, with the photoluminescence quantum efficiency reaching 78% and only 5% decrease of the intensity after one month's exposure in ambient conditions. Electrically driven light-emitting diodes (LEDs) based on pristine perovskite neat thin films and organic-perovskite nanocomposite thin films were fabricated, and we observed a 10-fold improvement in the external quantum efficiency of these LEDs (from 0.6% to 6.3%) resulting from the in situ formation of perovskite NCs with phosphonium passivation.

5.
Zhongguo Gu Shang ; 32(8): 742-745, 2019 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533387

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore clinical effect of VSD technology, coverage of artificial dermis and autograft for the treatment of limb skin soft tissue defect combined with bone or tendon exposed wound. METHODS: Eighteen patients suffered from limb skin soft tissue defect combined with bone or tendon exposed wound treated by three-step sequential method from January 2013 to June 2015. Among them, including 13 males and 5 females aged from 23 to 72 years old with an average of 34.6 years old; the time from injury to operation ranged from 1.5 to 5.0 hours with an average of 2.5 h. The area of skin and soft tissue injury ranged from 4.2 cm×3.1 cm to 7.4 cm×5.2 cm. Wound recovery and taken skin wound recovery were observed to evaluate clinical results. RESULTS: All patients were followed up from 5 to 16 months, with an average of 7.6 months. Deep bone tendon tissue of wounds were effectively recovered, artificial dermis survived, and quality of healed wound was tough and shape was good. Wound transplant flap was survived, no obvious scar tissue formation, appearance was flat, skin color was a little deeper than normal skin, the overall effect was satisfactory. CONCLUSIONS: Three-step sequential method has good curative effect for patients suffered from limb skin soft tissue defect with bone or tendon exposed wound and refused to repair the flap, and has advantage of simple operation, operation risk, less invasive.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Lesões dos Tecidos Moles , Tendões , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transplante de Pele , Retalhos Cirúrgicos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
6.
Appl Opt ; 58(26): 7121-7126, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31503983

RESUMO

This work explores the variable curvature mirror's (VCM) elastic bending rules through modeling it as a thin elastic plate with an exponential thickness distribution actuated with a uniform pressure under simply supported boundary conditions. By using the small-parameter method, the general analytical expression of a plate's deflection is worked out. The results calculated by the analytical solution are compared to the finite element analysis of a VCM model with the same specific parameters. We demonstrate that the two have a good correlation with the each other. This analytical solution is an effective way to predict a VCM's deflection.

7.
Chin J Nat Med ; 17(7): 506-516, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514982

RESUMO

MSC transplantation has been explored as a new clinical approach to stem cell-based therapies for bone diseases in regenerative medicine due to their osteogenic capability. However, only a small population of implanted MSC could successfully reach the injured areas. Therefore, enhancing MSC migration could be a beneficial strategy to improve the therapeutic potential of cell transplantation. Catharmus tinctorius volatile oil (CTVO) was found to facilitate MSC migration. Further exploration of the underlying molecular mechanism participating in the pro-migratory ability may provide a novel strategy to improve MSC transplantation efficacy. This study indicated that CTVO promotes MSC migration through enhancing ROCK2 mRNA and protein expressions. MSC migration induced by CTVO was blunted by ROCK2 inhibitor, which also decreased myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation. Meanwhile, the siRNA for ROCK2 inhibited the effect of CTVO on MSC migration ability and attenuated MLC phosphorylation, suggesting that CTVO may promote BMSC migration via the ROCK2/MLC signaling. Taken together, this study indicates that C. tinctorius volatile oil could enhance MSC migration via ROCK2/MLC signaling in vitro. C. tinctorius volatile oil-targeted therapy could be a beneficial strategy to improve the therapeutic potential of cell transplantation for bone diseases in regenerative medicine.

8.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 146(2): 1335, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472546

RESUMO

Transient nearfield acoustic holography based on the time domain equivalent source method suffers from the instability that is caused by the use of the time marching scheme. In this paper, the time marching scheme is reformulated to a large iterative scheme. By conducting the eigenanalysis of this large iterative scheme, a necessary condition for stability, i.e., the maximum magnitude of eigenvalues should not be larger than one, can be obtained. Moreover, the causes of instability are analyzed according to the eigenvalues distribution. By virtue of the eigenanalysis, the mechanisms and drawbacks of three previous stabilization methods based on the Tikhonov regularization, the truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD), and the multistep approach are analyzed. To overcome their drawbacks, the classical golden section method is applied to search the regularization parameters and filter parameters based on the necessary condition for stability. Furthermore, the time averaging technique is introduced into the stabilization methods based on the Tikhonov regularization and the TSVD to eliminate the high-frequency oscillation and release the difficulty of searching the filter parameter, respectively. Numerical simulation results indicate that all the improved methods can realize the stabilization of solutions.

9.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 90(8): 084703, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472644

RESUMO

A novel compact E-shaped wideband planar antenna array (CEWPA) is designed and fabricated for high-power microwave (HPM) application. The CEWPA is a kind of planar antenna and it has a lot of advantages such as low profile, wideband, high efficiency, easy to manufacture, and light weight. Compared with traditional planar antenna arrays, it overcomes the disadvantage of low power capacity through special metal structure designs. The CEWPA consists of 60 antenna elements and achieved miniaturization by an innovative array layout. In addition, it has reached a relative bandwidth of 33% (VSWR < 2) at a center frequency of 2.1 GHz in simulation and over 20% in experiment. On the other hand, the measured gain at the cold test is greater than 20 dB in the whole bandwidth while the radiation patterns are in agreement with the simulation. In addition, excited by nanosecond level pulses, the power capacity of the whole system is more than 140 MW in a high-power test.

10.
Gynecol Obstet Invest ; : 1-12, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487736

RESUMO

AIMS: Recent studies indicate that in addition to the construction of nuclear pore complex, nucleoporin (NUP)107 is actively involved in the pathogenesis of numerous cancer types, but the role of NUP107 in cervical carcinoma cells remains unknown. METHODS: We examined the expression of NUP107 in 30 cases of cervical carcinoma using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunoblots. NUP107 stably overexpressing cell line was established to examine the function of NUP107 in cell viability, TUNEL assay, wound healing assay, 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation, and oxidative stress. RESULTS: NUP107 expression was significantly increased in the cervical carcinoma tissues, compared with their corresponding adjacent normal tissues. Overexpression of NUP107 conferred the cervical cancer cells with significant resistance to oxidative insult, but it had no effects on the migration and proliferation. This pro-survival function of NUP107 was associated with the elevated expression of Bcl-2, the activation of Akt signaling, and increased expression of nucleocytoplasmic transport factors. Silencing of NUP107 increased the sensitivity of cervical cancer cells to oxidative challenge, thereby inducing the apoptosis of cervical cancer cells. CONCLUSION: NUP107 is significantly increased in cervical tissues and confers the cervical cancer cells with resistance to oxidative damage. These results provide an important role for specific NUP in mediating cervical cancer.

11.
Cell Prolif ; : e12667, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373101

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Interstitial fluid in extracellular matrices may not be totally fixed but partially flow through long-distance oriented fibrous connective tissues via physical mechanisms. We hypothesized there is a long-distance interstitial fluid transport network beyond vascular circulations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We first used 20 volunteers to determine hypodermic entrant points to visualize long-distance extravascular pathway by MRI. We then investigated the extravascular pathways initiating from the point of thumb in cadavers by chest compressor. The distributions and structures of long-distance pathways from extremity ending to associated visceral structures were identified. RESULTS: Using fluorescent tracer, the pathways from right thumb to right atrium wall near chest were visualized in seven of 10 subjects. The cutaneous pathways were found in dermic, hypodermic and fascial tissues of hand and forearm. The perivascular pathways were along the veins of arm, axillary sheath, superior vena cava and into the superficial tissues on right atrium. Histological and micro-CT data showed these pathways were neither blood nor lymphatic vessels but long-distance oriented fibrous matrices, which contained the longitudinally assembled micro-scale fibres consistently from thumb to superficial tissues on right atrium. CONCLUSIONS: These data revealed the structural framework of the fibrous extracellular matrices in oriented fibrous connective tissues was of the long-distance assembled fibres throughout human body. Along fibres, interstitial fluid can systemically transport by certain driving-transfer mechanisms beyond vascular circulations.

12.
J Mater Chem B ; 7(31): 4751-4757, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389969

RESUMO

We developed a novel evaluation method for tumor-targeting characteristics of nanomedicines, average tumor-targeting index (average TTI) and "area under the tumor-targeting index-time curve" (AUTC) were established as the indicators for tumor targeting of nanomedicines based on NIR fluorescence imaging, which helps real-time monitoring of targeting ability and tumor changes in vivo without culling animals.

13.
Transplant Proc ; 51(6): 1913-1919, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399175

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the impact of circadian rhythms on the outcomes of liver transplantation on patients suffering from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed data of patients who underwent liver transplantation from 2012 to 2017 in our center. Based on the begin time of transplantation, these patients were separated into 2 groups: day group and night group. The intraoperative and postoperative clinical variables were analyzed to find out the impact of the circadian rhythms. Multivariate analysis was performed to examine strength associations between the begin time of operation and surgical outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 147 patients were included in this study: 102 patients in the day group and 45 patients in the night group. Compared with the day group, patients in the night group had higher incidence of intraoperative massive hemorrhage (11.1% vs 2.0%, P = .048), more intraoperative blood loss (2168.00 ± 2324.20 mL vs 1405.88 ± 1037.69 mL, P = .040), and more requirement of red blood cells (RBC) suspension (8.59 ± 7.11 u vs 6.37 ± 5.78 u, P = .048). In addition, total operation time in the night group was longer than that in the day group (8.90 ± 1.65 hours vs 8.26 ± 1.69 hours, P = .034), as well as the cold ischemia time (9.35 ± 5.03 hours vs 7.21 ± 3.93 hours, P = .014). Furthermore, the night group had higher incidence of other intraoperative complications (13.3% vs 2.9%, P = .038), postoperative abdominal infection (20.0% vs 6.9%, P = .038), and more hospital cost (37,357.96 ± 6779.96 dollars vs 33,551.75 ± 11,683.38 dollars, P = .045). Moreover, patients in the night group needed longer time to restore hepatic function to normal (21.77 ± 10.91 days vs 17.54 ± 10.80 days, P = .033). Multivariate analysis showed that begin time of operation was the independent risk factor of longer operation time, more blood loss during operation, higher incidence of massive hemorrhage and other intraoperative complications, longer time for restoration of hepatic function to normal, higher incidence of abdominal infection at the early stage after transplantation, and more hospital cost (all P value ≤ .05). CONCLUSION: Liver transplantation performed at night was associated with higher incidence of intraoperative and early postoperative complications, as well as higher hospital cost. And these worsened outcomes all could be explained by the influence that circadian rhythms had on patients or medical workers.

14.
Gene ; 718: 144048, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421189

RESUMO

Main conclusion Among 247 RsAP2/ERF identified, the majority of the 21 representatives were preferably expressed under drought and heat while suppressed under heavy metals, indicating their potential roles in abiotic stress responses and tolerance. APETALA2/Ethylene-Responsive factor (AP2/ERF) transcription factor (TF) is one of the largest gene families in plants that play a fundamental role in growth and development as well as biotic and/or abiotic stresses responses. Although AP2/ERFs have been extensively characterized in many plant species, little is known about this family in radish, which is an important root vegetable with various medicinal properties. The available genome provides valuable opportunity to identify and characterize the global information on AP2/ERF TFs in radish. In this study, a total of 247 ERF family genes were identified from the radish genome, and sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses classified the AP2/ERF superfamily into five groups (AP2, ERF, DREB, RAV and soloist). Motif analysis showed that other than AP2/ERF domains, other conserved regions were selectively distributed among different clades in the phylogenetic tree. Chromosome location analysis showed that tandem duplication may result in the expansion of RsAP2/ERF gene family. The RT-qPCR analysis confirmed that a proportion of AP2/ERF genes were preferably expressed under drought and heat stresses, whereas they were suppressed under the ABA and heavy metal stresses. These results provided valuable information for further evolutionary and functional characterization of RsAP2/ERF genes, and contributed to genetic improvement of stress tolerances in radish and other root vegetable crops.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Proteínas de Homeodomínio , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Família Multigênica , Proteínas Nucleares , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas , Raphanus , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raphanus/genética , Raphanus/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
15.
J Vet Pharmacol Ther ; 42(5): 556-563, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424100

RESUMO

Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli could cause localized and systemic infection in the poultry, and danofloxacin is usually used to treat avian colibacillosis through oral administration. To promote prudent use of danofloxacin and reduce the emergence of drug-resistant E. coli strains, it is necessary to understand the population pharmacokinetics (PopPK) of danofloxacin in chicken intestines. In this study, reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection was used to detect the concentrations of danofloxacin in the contents of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of the healthy and infected chickens after single oral administration (5 mg/kg body weight). Then, the PopPK of danofloxacin in intestines were analyzed using NONMEM software. As a result, a two-compartment PK model best described the time-concentration profile of duodenal, jejunal, and ileal contents. Interestingly, absorption rate (Ka ), distribution volume (V), and clearance (CL) for danofloxacin from duodenal, jejunal to ileal contents were sequentially decreased in the healthy chickens. However, the trend of Ka , V, and CL of danofloxacin was changed dramatically in the intestine of infected chickens. Ka and V of danofloxacin in the jejunum were higher than in the ileum and duodenum. Compared with healthy chickens, Ka and V of danofloxacin in the duodenum decreased significantly, while increased in jejunum, respectively. It has been noted that Ka decreased and V increased in the ileum of infected chickens. Besides, CL in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of infected chickens was, respectively, lower than those of healthy chickens. Interestingly, the relative bioavailability (F) of danofloxacin in the ileum was relatively higher in both healthy and infected chickens. In addition, F in the duodenal, jejunal, and ileal contents of infected chickens was respectively higher than healthy chickens. In summary, the PopPK for danofloxacin in infected chicken intestines was quite different from healthy chickens. The absorption, distribution, and clearance of danofloxacin in healthy chickens decreased from duodenum to jejunum and to ileum. Moreover, the pharmacokinetic characteristics in the intestine of infected chickens changed significantly, and the pharmacokinetic characteristics in the ileum can be used as a representative of all intestinal segments.

16.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; : e1900602, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408586

RESUMO

SCOPE: Adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) recruitment and polarization are pivotal in the development of insulin resistance. However, treatment modalities targeting ATMs remain limited. The effects of lycopene, an antioxidant carotenoid compound, on adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance in high fat (HF)-diet-induced obese mice are examined. METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL/6J mice are fed an HF diet or an HF diet containing lycopene (HF+LY) for 8 weeks. Lycopene attenuates HF-diet-induced glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinemia. Compared with HF mice, HF+LY mice exhibit attenuated adipocyte hypertrophy and macrophage infiltration in epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) and hepatic steatosis and inflammation. Flow cytometry analysis of ATMs demonstrates that lycopene attenuated the increased number of ATMs in HF diet-fed mice. In addition, HF+LY mice have 23% fewer M1-polarized ATMs and 60% more M2-polarized ATMs than HF mice, resulting in the predominance of M2 over M1 in the ATM population. M2-dominant polarization is also seen in hepatic macrophages in HF+LY mice. Moreover, lycopene promotes IL-4-induced M2 polarization by increasing the phosphorylation levels of STAT6 and Akt in Raw 264.7 macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: Lycopene facilitates M2-dominant polarization in ATM, thereby attenuating HF diet-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in eWAT and the liver.

17.
Mol Cancer Res ; 17(10): 2029-2041, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383722

RESUMO

Mutation or promoter hypermethylation of CDKN2A is found in over 90% of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC) and leads to loss of function of cell-cycle inhibitors p16 (INK4A) and p14 (ARF) resulting in unchecked proliferation. The CDK4/6 inhibitor, abemaciclib, has nanomolar IC50s in PDAC cell lines and decreases growth through inhibition of phospho-Rb (pRb), G1 cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis, and the senescent phenotype detected with ß-galactosidase staining and relevant mRNA elevations. Daily abemaciclib treatments in mouse PDAC xenograft studies were safe and demonstrated a 3.2-fold decrease in tumor volume compared with no treatment (P < 0.0001) accompanying a decrease in both pRb and Ki67. We determined that inhibitors of HuR (ELAVL1), a prosurvival mRNA stability factor that regulates cyclin D1, and an inhibitor of Yes-Associated Protein 1 (YAP1), a pro-oncogenic, transcriptional coactivator important for CDK6 and cyclin D1, were both synergistic with abemaciclib. Accordingly, siRNA oligonucleotides targeted against HuR, YAP1, and their common target cyclin D1, validated the synergy studies. In addition, we have seen increased sensitivity to abemaciclib in a PDAC cell line that harbors a loss of the ELAVL1 gene via CRISP-Cas9 technology. As an in vitro model for resistance, we investigated the effects of long-term abemaciclib exposure. PDAC cells chronically cultured with abemaciclib displayed a reduction in cellular growth rates (GR) and coresistance to gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), but not to HuR or YAP1 inhibitors as compared with no treatment controls. We believe that our data provide compelling preclinical evidence for an abemaciclib combination-based clinical trial in patients with PDAC. IMPLICATIONS: Our data suggest that abemaciclib may be therapeutically relevant for the treatment in PDAC, especially as part of a combination regimen inhibiting YAP1 or HuR.

18.
Molecules ; 24(17)2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461964

RESUMO

It is always difficult to assign the peaks of a vibrational spectrum in the far-infrared region. The two distinct peaks seen in many ice phases are still a mystery to date. The normal modes of ice XV were calculated using the CASTEP code based on first-principles density functional theory. On the basis of vibrational modes analysis, we divided the translational modes into three categories: four-bond vibrations, which have the highest energy levels; two-bond vibrations, which have medium levels of energy; and relative vibrations between two sublattices, which have the lowest energy. Whale et al. found that some intramolecular stretching modes include the isolated vibration of only one O-H bond, whereas the others do not vibrate in ice XV. We verified this phenomenon in this study and attributed it to local tetrahedral deformation. Analysis of normal modes, especially in the translation and stretching band of ice XV, clarified the physical insights of the vibrational spectrum and can be used with other ice phases.

19.
Molecules ; 24(17)2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466370

RESUMO

The vibrational spectrum of ice II was investigated using the CASTEP code based on first-principles density functional theory (DFT). Based on good agreement with inelastic neutron scattering (INS), infrared (IR), and Raman experimental data, we discuss the translation, libration, bending, and stretching band using normal modes analysis method. In the translation band, we found that the four-bond and two-bond molecular vibration modes constitute three main peaks in accordance with INS ranging from 117 to 318 cm-1. We also discovered that the lower frequencies are cluster vibrations that may overlap with acoustic phonons. Whale et al. found in ice XV that some intramolecular vibrational modes include many isolated-molecule stretches of only one O-H bond, whereas the other O-H bond does not vibrate. This phenomenon is very common in ice II, and we attribute it to local tetrahedral deformation. The pathway of combining normal mode analysis with experimental spectra leads to scientific assignments.

20.
Traffic Inj Prev ; 20(7): 759-763, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381427

RESUMO

Objective: Speed limits for motorized vehicles are widely used to reduce noise and promote road safety. Unfortunately, there is little research on speed limits for bicycles, especially for electric bicycles. This article aims to analyze the speeding behavior and propose the suggested speed limit values for electric bicycles. Methods: Field speed data were collected from 11 segments of separated bicycle lanes in Hangzhou, China. The speeding behavior of different types of bicycles was analyzed under different speed limits. Mixed logistic models are proposed to model speeding behavior and its influencing factors. Eighty-fifth percentile speeds under different conditions were calculated as speed limits. Stepwise regression models are proposed to model the relationships between the 85th percentile speeds and their influencing factors, and speed limits for different types of bicycles were determined. Results: It is recommended that the speed limits for pure electric bicycle traffic be set as 25-30 km/h and 30-35 km/h for bicycle lanes with widths less than 3 m and greater than 3 m, respectively. The recommended speed limit for heterogeneous bicycle flows is 25 km/h. Conclusions: The suggested speed limit values for different bicycle traffic flow can help to improve speed limit laws and policies for bicycle traffic.

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