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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560828

RESUMO

Enzymatic esterification of resveratrol is crucial for its potential application in lipophilic foods and drugs. However, the poor activity of the free enzyme hinders the reaction. In this work, the highly efficient enzymatic synthesis of resveratrol ester derivatives was achieved by immobilized lipase on hydrophobic modified hollow mesoporous silicon spheres (HMSS-C8). We preliminarily explored the use of Candida sp. 99-125 lipase (CSL) for the acylation of resveratrol, with a regioselectivity toward 3-OH- over 4'-OH-acylation. HMSS-C8 provided ideal accommodation for CSL with a loading capacity of up to 652 mg/g. The catalytic efficiency of CSL@HMSS-C8 was 15 times higher than that of free CSL, and the conversion of resveratrol reached 98.7% within only 2 h, which is the fastest value recorded in the current literature. After 10 cycles, the conversion remained up to 86.3%. Benefiting from better lipid solubility, the relative oxidation stability index values of oil containing monoester derivatives were 43.1%-68.8% and 23.9%-33.2% higher than that of refined oil and oil containing resveratrol, respectively. This research provides a new pathway for efficient enzymatic synthesis of resveratrol ester derivatives and demonstrates the potential application of resveratrol monoester derivatives as a group of excellent lipid-soluble antioxidants.

2.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 8(2): 448-455, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33449454

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the associations between serum creatinine and creatine kinase (CK) levels with survival in male and female ALS patients. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was carried out including 346 ALS patients with repeated serum creatinine and CK measurements. Kaplan Meier analysis and multivariable Cox regression were used to perform survival analysis. RESULTS: There were 218 male and 128 female patients, and the males had significantly higher baseline serum creatinine and CK levels than females. After multivariable Cox regression analysis, lower baseline serum creatinine levels were associated with a short survival in both male (≤61 µmol/L, HR: 1.629; 95%CI: 1.168-2.273) and female ALS patients (≤52 µmol/L, HR: 1.677; 95%CI: 1.042-2.699), whereas, the serum CK levels were not correlated with survival. Besides, creatinine levels were positively associated with ALSFRS-R scores, and inversely with the decline rate of ALSFRS-R per month. During follow-up, serum creatinine levels tended to be decreased along with the disease progression, and the higher decline rate of creatinine per month (>1.5) showed significantly shorter survival, compared to the lower group (≤1.5) (30.0 months vs. 65.0 months, Chi square = 28.25, P < 0.0001). INTERPRETATION: Serum creatinine could be a reliable and easily accessible prognostic chemical marker for ALS, and decreased baseline creatinine levels could predict a poor prognosis and a short survival in both male and female ALS patients.

3.
Genome Biol ; 22(1): 9, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-read sequencing of full-length cDNAs enables the detection of structures of aberrant splicing isoforms in cancer cells. These isoforms are occasionally translated, presented by HLA molecules, and recognized as neoantigens. This study used a long-read sequencer (MinION) to construct a comprehensive catalog of aberrant splicing isoforms in non-small-cell lung cancers, by which novel isoforms and potential neoantigens are identified. RESULTS: Full-length cDNA sequencing is performed using 22 cell lines, and a total of 2021 novel splicing isoforms are identified. The protein expression of some of these isoforms is then validated by proteome analysis. Ablations of a nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) factor, UPF1, and a splicing factor, SF3B1, are found to increase the proportion of aberrant transcripts. NetMHC evaluation of the binding affinities to each type of HLA molecule reveals that some of the isoforms potentially generate neoantigen candidates. We also identify aberrant splicing isoforms in seven non-small-cell lung cancer specimens. An enzyme-linked immune absorbent spot assay indicates that approximately half the peptide candidates have the potential to activate T cell responses through their interaction with HLA molecules. Finally, we estimate the number of isoforms in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) datasets by referring to the constructed catalog and found that disruption of NMD factors is significantly correlated with the number of splicing isoforms found in the TCGA-Lung Adenocarcinoma data collection. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that long-read sequencing of full-length cDNAs is essential for the precise identification of aberrant transcript structures in cancer cells.

4.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 8(1): 266-270, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314640

RESUMO

Biallelic mutations in the sorbitol dehydrogenase (SORD) encoding gene were recently identified as a common genetic cause in autosomal-recessive CMT patients. Here, we investigated the clinical, genetic, and electrophysiological characteristics of three CMT patients with biallelic SORD mutations from a Chinese cohort. Two patients harbored c.757delG (p.A253Qfs*27) homozygous mutations, and one patient carried both c.757delG (p.A253Qfs*27) and c.625C>T (p.R209X) compound heterozygous mutations. Interestingly, the two patients homozygous for the c.757delG mutation exhibited positive responses for pinprick test. In conclusion, we confirmed SORD mutations as causative for CMT and further expanded the mutational and phenotypic spectrum of SORD-related CMT.

5.
Psychol Med ; : 1-10, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33298220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore the impacts of COVID-19 outbreak on mental health status in general population in different affected areas in China. METHODS: This was a comparative study including two groups of participants: (1) general population in an online survey in Ya'an and Jingzhou cities during the COVID-19 outbreak from 10-20 February 2020; and (2) matching general population selected from the mental health survey in Ya'an in 2019 (from January to May 2019). General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) were used. RESULTS: There were 1775 participants (Ya'an in 2019 and 2020: 537 respectively; Jingzhou in 2020: 701). Participants in Ya'an had a significantly higher rate of general health problems (GHQ scores ⩾3) in 2020 (14.7%) than in 2019 (5.2%) (p < 0.001). Compared with Ya'an (8.0%), participants in Jingzhou in 2020 had a significantly higher rate of anxiety (SAS scores ⩾50, 24.1%) (p < 0.001). Participants in Ya'an in 2020 had a significantly higher rate of depression (SDS scores ⩾53, 55.3%) than in Jingzhou (16.3%) (p < 0.001). The risk factors of anxiety symptoms included female, number of family members (⩾6 persons), and frequent outdoor activities. The risk factors of depression symptoms included participants in Ya'an and uptake self-protective measures. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of psychological symptoms has increased sharply in general population during the COVID-19 outbreak. People in COVID-19 severely affected areas may have higher scores of GHQ and anxiety symptoms. Culture-specific and individual-based psychosocial interventions should be developed for those in need during the COVID-19 outbreak.

6.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 133(23): 2808-2815, 2020 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33273329

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lipid abnormalities are prevalent among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (PLWH) and contribute to increasing risk of cardiovascular events. This study aims to investigate the incidence of dyslipidemia and its risk factors in PLWH after receiving different first-line free antiretroviral regimens. METHODS: PLWH who sought care at the Third People's Hospital of Shenzhen from January 2014 to December 2018 were included, and the baseline characteristics and clinical data during the follow-up were collected, including total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). The risk factors of dyslipidemia after antiretroviral therapy were analyzed with the generalized estimating equation model. RESULTS: Among the 7623 PLWH included, the mean levels of TC, HDL-C and LDL-C were 4.23 ±â€Š0.85 mmol/L, 1.27 ±â€Š0.29 mmol/L and 2.54 ±â€Š0.65 mmol/L, respectively, and the median TG was 1.17 (IQR: 0.85-1.68) mmol/L. Compared with that in PLWH receiving tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) + lamivudine (3TC) + ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r), zidovudine (AZT) + 3TC + efavirenz (EFV), and AZT + 3TC + LPV/r, the incidence of dyslipidemia was lower in PLWH receiving TDF + 3TC + EFV. In multivariate analysis, we found that the risks of elevations of TG, TC, and LDL-C were higher with TDF + 3TC + LPV/r (TG: odds ratio [OR] = 2.82, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.55-3.11, P < 0.001; TC: OR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.14-1.35, P < 0.001; LDL: OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.00-1.12, P = 0.041), AZT + 3TC + EFV (TG: OR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.28-1.55, P < 0.001; TC: OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.31-1.56, P < 0.001; LDL: OR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.12-1.25, P < 0.001), and AZT + 3TC + LPV/r (TG: OR = 3.08, 95% CI: 2.65-3.59, P < 0.001; TC: OR = 2.40, 95% CI: 1.96-2.94, P < 0.001; LDL: OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.37-1.69, P < 0.001) than with TDF + 3TC + EFV, while treatment with TDF + 3TC + LPV/r was less likely to restore HDL-C levels compared with TDF + 3TC + EFV (OR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.92-0.97, P < 0.001). In addition to antiretroviral regimens, antiretroviral therapy duration, older age, overweight, obesity and other traditional factors were also important risk factors for dyslipidemia. CONCLUSION: The incidence of dyslipidemia varies with different antiretroviral regimens, with TDF + 3TC + EFV having lower risk for dyslipidemia than the other first-line free antiretroviral regimens in China.

7.
Front Neurol ; 11: 570227, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193014

RESUMO

Objective: This study aims to explore the association between median nerve-neurophysiological index (NI) and survival of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Methods: A retrospective case series with a prospective follow-up study was performed in 238 patients with ALS. Their clinical profiles and NI were recorded. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression were adopted to perform survival analysis. Results: The median survival time of all ALS cases was 33.0 months. Multivariate analysis showed that older age of onset, shorter diagnostic delay, higher ΔALSFRS-R, and faster progression {NI ≤ 2.15; hazard ratio [HR] = 1.543 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.136-2.094]} were associated with short survival. NI was correlated with ALSFRS-R at baseline (r s = 0.3153; p < 0.0001) and ALSFRS-R at different time points of follow-up (r s = 0.5127; p < 0.0001). The higher NI slope of decline (> 0.25) showed shorter survival compared with the lower group (≤ 0.25; 34.0 vs. 52.0 months; p = 0.0003). A predictive model was constructed based on the age of onset, diagnostic delay, median nerve NI, and ΔALSFRS-R. The higher predictive score (> 14) showed significantly shorter survival compared with the lower group (≤ 14; HR = 3.907, 95% CI, 2.857-5.342). Conclusion: Median nerve NI and its slope of decline were predictive of survival of ALS.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146858

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to (1) explore the prevalence and relevant influencing factors of different mental disorders 5 years after the Lushan earthquake in Ya'an, China. METHODS: An epidemiological mental health survey was conducted to identify the prevalence of mental disorders in general population in Ya'an. A multi-stage, group-matching random sampling method was adopted. Face-to-face interviews were done with a two-stage design by trained interviewers and psychiatrists. The 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) was used for the diagnosis. RESULTS: There were 8876 participants who were interviewed in this study. The total 12-month and lifetime prevalence of all mental disorders were 12.5% and 14.7%, respectively. There was a significant difference between males and females in the prevalence patterns of several mental disorders. Han ethnic group had higher prevalence of anxiety disorders (2.7%), and the Tibetan group had higher prevalence of alcohol-related disorders (5.0%). Logistic regression analysis showed that the areas severely affected by the earthquake had significantly higher prevalence of depressive disorders, and the extremely severe affected areas had significantly higher prevalence of trauma- and stressor-related disorders. CONCLUSION: Our findings show that the prevalence of a range of mental disorders 5 years after the earthquake in Ya'an are high, and the prevalence of depressive and trauma- and stressor-related disorders may be influenced differently by the various severity of earthquake impact. This study may be crucial for the health policy-making, cultural-specific mental health services and long-term mental recovery after the earthquake.

9.
Int J Biol Sci ; 16(15): 2951-2963, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33061808

RESUMO

Previous studies have demonstrated that the antitumor potential of IU1 (a pharmacological compound), which was mediated by selective inhibition of proteasome-associated deubiquitinase ubiquitin-specific protease 14 (USP14). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. It has been well established that mdm2 (Murine double minute 2) gene was amplified and/or overexpressed in a variety of human neoplasms, including cervical cancer. Furthermore, MDM2 is critical to cervical cancer development and progression. Relatively studies have reported that USP15 and USP7 stabilized MDM2 protein levels by removing its ubiquitin chain. In the current study, we studied the cell proliferation status after IU1 treatment and the USP14-MDM2 protein interaction in cervical cancer cells. This study experimentally revealed that IU1 treatment reduced MDM2 protein expression in HeLa cervical cancer cells, along with the activation of autophagy-lysosomal protein degradation and promotion of ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) function, thereby blocked G0/G1 to S phase transition, decreased cell growth and triggered cell apoptosis. Thus, these results indicate that IU1 treatment simultaneously targets two major intracellular protein degradation systems, ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy-lysosome systems, which leads to MDM2 degradation and contributes to the antitumor effect of IU1.

10.
Genome Res ; 30(9): 1243-1257, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887687

RESUMO

Here, we report the application of a long-read sequencer, PromethION, for analyzing human cancer genomes. We first conducted whole-genome sequencing on lung cancer cell lines. We found that it is possible to genotype known cancerous mutations, such as point mutations. We also found that long-read sequencing is particularly useful for precisely identifying and characterizing structural aberrations, such as large deletions, gene fusions, and other chromosomal rearrangements. In addition, we identified several medium-sized structural aberrations consisting of complex combinations of local duplications, inversions, and microdeletions. These complex mutations occurred even in key cancer-related genes, such as STK11, NF1, SMARCA4, and PTEN The biological relevance of those mutations was further revealed by epigenome, transcriptome, and protein analyses of the affected signaling pathways. Such structural aberrations were also found in clinical lung adenocarcinoma specimens. Those structural aberrations were unlikely to be reliably detected by conventional short-read sequencing. Therefore, long-read sequencing may contribute to understanding the molecular etiology of patients for whom causative cancerous mutations remain unknown and therapeutic strategies are elusive.

11.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 117: 111261, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919628

RESUMO

Peptide-drug conjugate (PDC) is a promising prodrug in drug delivery systems. To fabricate nanostructures with proper molecular design which can self-assemble to spherical morphologies is very important for PDC chemotherapy. In this study, a novel PDC (PDC-DOX2), in which two doxorubicin (DOX) molecules are conjugated onto a short peptide (KIGLFRWR) with self-assembly function, was designed and synthesized. PDC-DOX2 with self-assembly properties forms a spherical structure under hydrophobic interaction in water. Hyaluronic acid (HA) was then coated on PDC-DOX2 micelles to form a HA-shelled, peptide-doxorubicin conjugate-cored nanomedicine (HA@PDC-DOX2). The amount of HA can regulate the particle size and stabilization of HA@PDC-DOX2. In addition, HA can actively enhance the targeting effects of PDC-DOX2 micelles since it can interact with overexpressed receptors in cancer cells. The core-shell structured HA@PDC-DOX2 nanomedicine showed significantly enhanced potency against hepatocellular carcinoma compared to PDC-DOX2 micelles as well as free DOX. In this work, a novel PDC which can self-assemble to spherical morphologies and a core-shell structure HA@PDC-DOX2 nanomedicine are designed and prepared. It provides a convenient strategy for the size control of PDC assemblies and constructs effective PDC-based drug delivery systems for cancer treatment.

12.
Front Neurosci ; 14: 723, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32742256

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most prevalent and life-threatening neurodegenerative disease and mainly characterized by lack of sufficient dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). Although current treatments help to alleviate clinical symptoms, effective therapies preventing neuronal loss remain scarce. Tovophyllin A (TA), one of the xanthones extracted from Garcinia mangostana L. (GM), has recently been reported to play a beneficial role in the therapy of neurodegenerative diseases. In our research, we explored whether TA has protective effects on dopaminergic neurons in PD models. We found that TA significantly reduced apoptotic cell death in primary cortical neurons treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl pyridinium (MPP+) or paraquat (PQ) in the in vitro PD model. In an in vivo acute PD model induced by 1-methyl4-phenyl-1,2,3,5-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) treatment, TA also attenuated the resulting behavioral dysfunctions and dopaminergic neuron loss. In the collected brain tissues, TA increased the phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3ß, which may be related to TA-mediated dopaminergic neuronal protective effects. In summary, our results illustrated that TA is a powerful cytoprotective agent for dopaminergic neurons in the MPTP-induced PD model, suggesting TA as a possible therapeutic candidate for PD.

13.
Acta Diabetol ; 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816106

RESUMO

AIMS: Glomerular mesangial cell (MC) proliferation is one of the main pathological changes in diabetic nephropathy (DN), but its mechanism needs further elaboration. The Hippo and PI3K/Akt signalling pathways are involved in the regulation of MC proliferation, but their relationship in hyperglycaemia-induced MC proliferation has not been reported. METHODS: We used db/db mice and high-glucose-cultured mesangial cells to generate a diabetic nephropathy model. An MST1-knockdown plasmid was used to identify whether the PI3K/Akt pathway is linked to the Hippo pathway through MST1. LY294002 and SC79 were used to verify the role of the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway in MC cells. RNA silencing and overexpression were performed by using YAP and PTEN-expression/knockdown plasmids to investigate the function of YAP and PTEN, respectively, in the Hippo and PI3K/Akt signalling pathways. RESULTS: By examining a potential feedback loop, we found decreased phosphorylation of MST1 and Lats1 and increased PI3K/Akt activation in db/db mice and high glucose-treated MCs, along with increased MC proliferation. The results of our gene silencing experiment proved PI3K/Akt-mediated intervention in the Hippo pathway and the regulatory effect of YAP on PI3K/Akt through PTEN. CONCLUSIONS: The Hippo pathway is inhibited under diabetic conditions, leading to YAP activation and promoting MC proliferation. The PI3K/Akt pathway is activated through the inhibitory effect of YAP on its repressor, PTEN. Finally, activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway inhibits the Hippo pathway, resulting in nuclear YAP accumulation and accelerating MC proliferation and DN formation.

14.
Preprint | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-267526

RESUMO

Serological and plasmablast responses and plasmablast-derived IgG monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have been analysed in three COVID-19 patients with different clinical severities. Potent humoral responses were detected within 3 weeks of onset of illness in all patients and the serological titre was elicited soon after or concomitantly with peripheral plasmablast response. An average of 13.7% and 13.0% of plasmablast-derived MAbs were reactive with virus spike glycoprotein or nucleocapsid, respectively. A subset of anti-spike (10 of 32) and over half of anti-nucleocapsid (19 of 35) antibodies cross-reacted with other betacoronaviruses tested and harboured extensive somatic mutations, indicative of an expansion of memory B cells upon SARS-CoV-2 infection. Fourteen of 32 anti-spike MAbs, including five anti-RBD, three anti-non-RBD S1 and six anti-S2, neutralised wild-type SARS-CoV-2 in independent assays. Anti-RBD MAbs were further grouped into four cross-inhibiting clusters, of which six antibodies from three separate clusters blocked the binding of RBD to ACE2 and five were neutralising. All ACE2-blocking anti-RBD antibodies were isolated from two patients with prolonged fever, which is compatible with substantial ACE2-blocking response in their sera. At last, the identification of non-competing pairs of neutralising antibodies would offer potential templates for the development of prophylactic and therapeutic agents against SARS-CoV-2.

15.
Theranostics ; 10(18): 8162-8178, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32724464

RESUMO

Rationale: Both spatial accuracy and temporal persistence are crucial in drug delivery, especially for anti-tumor intravenous nanomedicines, which have limited persistence due to their small particle sizes and easy removal from tumors. The present study takes advantage of morphological transformation strategy to regulate intravenous nanomedicines to display different sizes in different areas, achieving high efficient enrichment and long retention in lesions. Methods: We designed and synthesized functional doxorubicin-peptide conjugate nanoparticles (FDPC-NPs) consisting of self-assembled doxorubicin-peptide conjugates (DPCs) and an acidic-responsive shielding layer named the functional polylysine graft (FPG), which can regulate the assembly morphology of the DPCs from spherical DPC nanoparticles (DPC-NPs) to DPC-nanofibers (DPC-NFs) by preventing the assembly force from π-π stacking and hydrogen bond between the DPC-NPs. The morphology transformation and particle changes of FDPC-NPs in different environments were determined with DLS, TEM and SEM. We used FRET to explore the enhanced retention effect of FDPC-NPs in tumor site in vivo. HPLC-MS/MS analytical method was established to analyze the biodistribution of FDPC-NPs in H22 hepatoma xenograft mouse model. Finally, the antitumor effect and safety of FDPC-NPs was evaluated. Results: The FDPC-NPs were stable in blood circulation and responsively self-assembled into DPC-NFs when the FDPC-NPs underwent the acid-sensitive separation of the shielding layer in a mildly acidic microenvironment. The FDPC-NPs maintained a uniform spherical size of 80 nm and exhibited good morphological stability in neutral aqueous solution (pH 7.4) but aggregated into a long necklace-like chain structure or a crosslinked fiber structure over time in a weakly acidic solution (pH 6.5). These acidity-triggered transformable FDPC-NPs prolonged the accumulation in tumor tissue for more than 5 days after a single injection and improved the relative uptake rate of doxorubicin in tumors 31-fold. As a result, FDPC-NPs exhibited a preferable anti-tumor efficacy and a reduced side effect in vivo compared with free DOX solution and DOX liposomes. Conclusions: Morphology-transformable FDPC-NPs represent a promising therapeutic approach for prolonging the residence time of drugs at the target site to reduce side effect and enhance therapeutic efficacy. Our studies provide a new and simple idea for the design of long-term delivery systems for intravenous chemotherapeutic drugs.

16.
Pest Manag Sci ; 76(12): 3905-3910, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506552

RESUMO

Most gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) are cryptic agricultural pests. These tiny insects are prone to lurk in cargoes and spread over long distances. Their larvae feed in plant tissues, so their infestations are imperceptible until crop damage and economic loss appear. The application of sex pheromones is an efficient method with which to monitor and manage gall midges. The present review focuses on recent advances in the accurate identification of gall midge sex pheromones based on rapidly evolving analytical techniques and their use in field trials in integrated pest management. To date, sex pheromones from 19 species of gall midges have been identified and reported, and sex pheromone-based monitoring systems have been developed and commercialized for at least ten gall midge species. All monitoring systems were tested in various experiments with a modicum of success. In addition to further studies of sex pheromones, identification of plant-derived volatiles may offer potentials for the manipulation of behavioral response of gall midges, which can be used in dispensers for surveillance and control purposes. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.

17.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2020 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555442

RESUMO

Silent information regulator 1 (Sirt1) is a deacetylase, which plays an important role in the occurrence and development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Our previous study shows that Yin yang 1 (YY1), a widely expressed zinc finger DNA/RNA-binding transcription factor, is a novel regulator of renal fibrosis in diabetic nephropathy. Since the activity of YY1 is regulated via acetylation and deacetylation modification, this study aimed to explore whether Sirt1-induced deacetylation of YY1 mediated high glucose (HG)-induced renal tubular epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and renal fibrosis in vivo and in vitro. We first confirmed that Sirt1 expression level was significantly decreased in the kidney of db/db mice and in HG-treated HK-2 cells. Diabetes-induced Sirt1 reduction enhanced the level of YY1 acetylation and renal tubular EMT. Then, we manipulated Sirt1 expression in vivo and in vitro by injecting resveratrol (50 mg·kg-1·d-1. ip) to db/db mice for 2 weeks or application of SRT1720 (2.5 µM) in HG-treated HK-2 cells, we found that activation of Sirt1 reversed the renal tubular EMT and YY1 acetylation induced by HG condition. On the contrary, Sirt1 was knocked down in db/m mice or EX527 (1 µM) was added in HK-2 cells, we found that inhibition of Sirt1 exacerbated renal fibrosis in diabetic mice and enhanced level of YY1 acetylation in HK-2 cells. Furthermore, knockdown of YY1 inhibited the ameliorating effect of resveratrol on renal tubular EMT and renal fibrosis in db/db mice. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that Sirt1 plays an important role in renal tubular EMT of DN through mediating deacetylation of YY1.

18.
Preprint | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20105486

RESUMO

BackgroundLaboratory diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection (the cause of COVID-19) uses PCR to detect viral RNA (vRNA) in respiratory samples. SARS-CoV-2 RNA has also been detected in other sample types, but there is limited understanding of the clinical or laboratory significance of its detection in blood. MethodsWe undertook a systematic literature review to assimilate the evidence for the frequency of vRNA in blood, and to identify associated clinical characteristics. We performed RT-PCR in serum samples from a UK clinical cohort of acute and convalescent COVID-19 cases (n=212), together with convalescent plasma samples collected by NHS Blood and Transplant (NHSBT) (n=111 additional samples). To determine whether PCR-positive blood samples could pose an infection risk, we attempted virus isolation from a subset of RNA-positive samples. ResultsWe identified 28 relevant studies, reporting SARS-CoV-2 RNA in 0-76% of blood samples; pooled estimate 10% (95%CI 5-18%). Among serum samples from our clinical cohort, 27/212 (12.7%) had SARS-CoV-2 RNA detected by RT-PCR. RNA detection occurred in samples up to day 20 post symptom onset, and was associated with more severe disease (multivariable odds ratio 7.5). Across all samples collected [≥]28 days post symptom onset, 0/143 (0%, 95%CI 0.0-2.5%) had vRNA detected. Among our PCR-positive samples, cycle threshold (ct) values were high (range 33.5-44.8), suggesting low vRNA copy numbers. PCR-positive sera inoculated into cell culture did not produce any cytopathic effect or yield an increase in detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA. ConclusionsvRNA was detectable at low viral loads in a minority of serum samples collected in acute infection, but was not associated with infectious SARS-CoV-2 (within the limitations of the assays used). This work helps to inform biosafety precautions for handling blood products from patients with current or previous COVID-19.

19.
Thorac Cancer ; 11(6): 1741-1745, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32347015

RESUMO

Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) is a rare vascular tumor composed of dendritic and endothelial cells, and accounts for less than 1% of all vascular tumors. The tumor may arise from any location in the body, but it has a predilection for veins of the extremities, the liver, bone, and skin. Herein, we report a case of a 43-year-old man who presented with a chest mass accompanied by chest pain. Computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest showed a 3 cm × 2 cm sternal mass in the chest wall. We performed tumor resection and reconstruction of the chest wall. EHE was confirmed via postoperative pathology. The patient underwent postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy, and no evidence of tumor recurrence was discovered during the one-year follow up.

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