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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196509

RESUMO

: Glanzmann thrombasthenia is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disease characterized by platelet aggregation dysfunction caused by a congenital defect of platelet membrane glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (integrin αIIbß3). Integrin αIIbß3, a calcium-dependent heterodimer, plays a critical role in platelet aggregation. We described a boy who was hospitalized with serious epistaxis at 10 months of age who had a history of repeated petechiae and spontaneous epistaxis since birth. Flow cytometry showed normal surface expression of platelet antigens. Genetic analysis and sequencing revealed the novel missense mutation c.G1252>T (p.Gly418Cys) in ITGA2B. This heterozygous amino acid mutation flanked the fourth calcium-binding domain and may interfere with integrin biogenesis via mechanisms other than merely altering cell surface expression. We discuss the heterogeneity of the genotype and phenotype with this atypical case and review the relevant literature on mutations adjacent to or within the calcium-binding domains in Glanzmann thrombasthenia.

2.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227105

RESUMO

A series of ZnO-based complex architectures including Mn-doped ZnO, Ag/ZnO and Ag-decorated Mn:ZnO nanocomposites were fabricated by a facile polymer network gel method. The photocatalytic performance of the as-synthesized products was evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue (MB), methyl orange (MO) and rhodamine B (RhB) under simulated sunlight irradiation. The Mn:ZnO/Ag photocatalyst achieves the superior photodegradation efficiency, which is three times higher than that of pure ZnO and two times that of the Ag/ZnO composite. Our results demonstrate that the significantly enhanced photocatalytic properties of Mn:ZnO/Ag are due to the synergetic effects of both Mn doping and Ag decoration. The possible photocatalytic mechanism of Mn:ZnO/Ag for degradation of organic dyes is proposed. The transformation from Mn3+ to Mn2+, the increase of surface defects, and the improvement of the crystal quality are the crucial factors for the enhancement of the photocatalytic properties. This study provides an effective approach to overcome the response limitation of ZnO-based photocatalysts in the visible region and realize efficient photogenerated carrier separation.

3.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(11): 958, 2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161415

RESUMO

Acute sympathetic stress quickly induces cardiac inflammation and injury, suggesting that pathogenic signals rapidly spread among cardiac cells and that cell-to-cell communication may play an important role in the subsequent cardiac injury. However, the underlying mechanism of this response is unknown. Our previous study demonstrated that acute ß-adrenergic receptor (ß-AR) signaling activates inflammasomes in the heart, which triggers the inflammatory cascade. In the present study, ß-AR overactivation induced inflammasome activation in both the cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) of mice hearts following a subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol (ISO, 5 mg/kg body weight), a selective agonist of ß-AR. In isolated cardiac cells, ISO treatment only activated the inflammasomes in the cardiomyocytes but not the CFs. These results demonstrated that inflammasome activation was propagated from cardiomyocytes to CFs in the mice hearts. Further investigation revealed that the inflammasomes were activated in the cocultured CFs that connected with cardiomyocytes via membrane nanotubes (MNTs), a novel membrane structure that mediates distant intercellular connections and communication. Disruption of the MNTs with the microfilament polymerization inhibitor cytochalasin D (Cyto D) attenuated the inflammasome activation in the cocultured CFs. In addition, the MNT-mediated inflammasome activation in the CFs was blocked by deficiency of the inflammasome component NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) in the cardiomyocytes, but not NLRP3 deficiency in the CFs. Moreover, ISO induced pyroptosis in the CFs cocultured with cardiomyocytes, and this process was inhibited by disruption of the MNTs with Cyto D or by the NLRP3 inhibitor MCC950 and the caspase-1 inhibitor Z-YVAD-FMK (FMK). Our study revealed that MNTs facilitate the rapid propagation of inflammasome activation among cardiac cells to promote pyroptosis in the early phase of ß-adrenergic insult. Therefore, preventing inflammasome transfer is a potential therapeutic strategy to alleviate acute ß-AR overactivation-induced cardiac injury.

4.
J Ethnopharmacol ; : 113502, 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189843

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Lonicerae Japonicae Caulis, the dried stem and branch of Lonicera japonica Thunb., is a Chinese Materia Medica known as Ren Dong Teng in Chinese with long use history in the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescriptions. Lonicerae Japonicae Caulis possesses heat-clearing and detoxifying functions according to the TCM theory. In recent years, a large amount of experimental and clinical studies proved good anti-inflammatory effects of some heat-clearing and detoxifying herbs. The present study aims to reveal the anti-inflammatory property and functional substances of Lonicerae Japonicae Caulis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For anti-inflammatory activity test, LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages, DSS-induced SPF male C57BL/6J mice model, and LPS-induced SPF male ICR mice model were used in vitro and in vivo, respectively. The behavioral changes, organ damage, and the expression of inflammatory factors such as TNT-α and IL-6 mRNA expression were measured for activity evaluation. Lonicerae Japonicae Caulis samples were prepared by solvent extraction and subsequent column chromatography. The main components were identified and determined using UPLC-UV analysis as well as NMR interpretation after purification. To testify the contribution of main components for the anti-inflammatory activity, different samples were also prepared by compound-knockout strategy. RESULTS: Ethanol extract of Lonicerae Japonicae Caulis could attenuate sickness symptoms in mice such as diarrhea, less activity, and depression. It could also alleviate multiple organ damage, and significantly inhibit the expression of pro-inflammatory factors such as TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6 and IFN-γ in mice. Furthermore, the isochlorogenic acid-rich and biflavonoid-rich fractions and isochlorogenic acids A and C, and ochnaflavone could significantly down-regulate the mRNA expression of TNF-α and IL-6 in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: Lonicerae Japonicae Caulis possesses anti-inflammatory property. Its isochlorogenic acid-rich and biflavonoid-rich fractions do the major contribution. And their main components, isochlorogenic acids A and C, and ochnaflavone, take main responsibility for the anti-inflammatory property.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160852

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of combined hepatocellular carcinoma-intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (cHCC-ICC) is relatively low, and the knowledge about the prognosis of cHCC-ICC remains obscure. In the study, we aimed to screen existing primary liver cancer staging systems and shed light on the prognosis and risk factors for cHCC-ICC. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 206 cHCC-ICC patients who received curative surgical resection from April 1999 to March 2017. The correlation of survival measures with the histological types or with tumor staging systems was determined and predictive values of tumor staging systems with cHCC-ICC prognosis were compared. RESULTS: The histological type was not associated with overall survival (OS) (P = 0.338) or disease-free survival (DFS) (P = 0.843) of patients after curative surgical resection. BCLC, TNM for HCC, and TNM for ICC stages correlated with both OS and DFS in cHCC-ICC (all P < 0.05). The predictive values of TNM for HCC and TNM for ICC stages were similar in terms of predicting postoperative OS (P = 0.798) and DFS (P = 0.191) in cHCC-ICC. TNM for HCC was superior to BCLC for predicting postoperative OS (P = 0.022) in cHCC-ICC. CONCLUSION: The TNM for HCC staging system should be prioritized for clinical applications in predicting cHCC-ICC prognosis.

6.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 39(1): 251, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33222684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wingless and Int-related protein (Wnt) ligands are aberrantly expressed in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the aberrant level of Wnt ligands in serum have not been explored. Here, we aimed to identify the levels of WNT4 in serum and explored its oncogenic role in CRC. METHODS: The Oncomine database was used to analyze the relationship between WNT4 and the prognosis of CRC. ELISA was performed to measure WNT4 levels in serum and conditioned medium from fresh CRC tissues and adjacent normal tissues. Western blot and immunohistochemistry were carried out to measure the expression of WNT4 in human CRC tissues and adjacent normal tissues. The migration and invasion of CRC cells were determined by trans-well assay, and the effects of WNT4 on CRC invasion and metastasis in vivo were verified by tumor xenograft in nude mice. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and angiogenesis in subcutaneous nodules were detected by immunofluorescence (IF). In addition, the suspended spheres formation and tube formation assay were performed to explore the effects of WNT4 on CAFs and angiogenesis respectively. RESULTS: WNT4 was significantly upregulated in serum of CRC patients, and CRC tissues were identified as an important source of elevated WNT4 levels in CRC patients. Interestingly, elevated levels of WNT4 in serum were downregulated after tumor resection. Furthermore, we found that WNT4 contributed to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and activated fibroblasts by activating the WNT4/ß-catenin pathway in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, angiogenesis was induced via the WNT4/ß-catenin/Ang2 pathway. Those effects could be reversed by ICG-001, a ß-catenin/TCF inhibitor. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicated that serum levels of WNT4 may be a potential biomarker for CRC. WNT4 secreted by colorectal cancer tissues promote the progression of CRC by inducing EMT, activate fibroblasts and promote angiogenesis through the canonical Wnt/ß-catenin signalling pathway.

8.
Meat Sci ; 172: 108360, 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160211

RESUMO

The heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) level and quality characteristics of selected Harbin red sausages in the northern Chinese market and the possible differences between traditional sausages and conventional sausages were evaluated in this study. Four varieties of traditional sausages and four varieties of conventional sausages were selected. Compared to conventional sausages, traditional sausages had lower moisture content and higher hardness (P < 0.05). Twelve HAAs were evaluated and eight HAAs were detected. The total HAA content was as high as 360.73 ng/g. In particular, the contents of Norharman and Harman were much higher than those of the other HAAs (P < 0.05). Additionally, the HAA contents were higher in the traditional sausages than those in the conventional sausages (P < 0.05). Principal component analysis showed that traditional and conventional sausages had a good separation based on the quality characteristics and total HAA level. The results of this study will provide useful information on the industrial production of smoked meat products.

10.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 151: 3-14, 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130149

RESUMO

AIMS: The progression of myocardial infarction (MI) involves multiple metabolic disorders. Bile acid metabolites have been increasingly recognized as pleiotropic signaling molecules that regulate multiple cardiovascular functions. G protein-coupled bile acid receptor (TGR5) is one of the receptors sensing bile acids to mediate their biological functions. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the effects of bile acids-TGR5 signaling pathways in myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS AND RESULTS: Blood samples of AMI patients or control subjects were collected and plasma was used for bile acid metabolism analysis. We discovered that bile acid levels were altered and deoxycholic acid (DCA) was substantially reduced in the plasma of AMI patients. Mice underwent either the LAD ligation model of MI or sham operation. Both MI and sham mice were gavaged with 10 mg/kg/d DCA or vehicle control since 3-day before the operation. Cardiac function was assessed by ultrasound echocardiography, infarct area was evaluated by TTC staining and Masson trichrome staining. Administration of DCA improved cardiac function and reduced ischemic injury at the 7th-day post-MI. The effects of DCA were dependent on binding to its receptor TGR5. Tgr5-/- mice underwent the same MI model. Cardiac function deteriorated and infarct size was increased at the 7th-day post-MI, which were not savaged by DCA administration. Moreover, DCA inhibited interleukin (IL)-1ß expression in the infarcted hearts, and ameliorated IL-1ß activation at 1-day post-MI. DCA inhibited NF-κB signaling and further IL-1ß expression in cultured neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes under hypoxia as well as cardio-fibroblasts with the treatment of LPS. CONCLUSIONS: DCA-TGR5 signaling pathway activation decreases inflammation and ameliorates heart function post-infarction. Strategies that control bile acid metabolism and TGR5 signaling to ameliorate the inflammatory responses may provide beneficial effects in patients with myocardial infarction.

11.
Biosci Rep ; 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND:  This study was to assess the prognostic value of Fasting Blood Glucose to HDL-C Ratio (GHR) in non-diabetic patients with CAD undergoing PCI. Methods and Results: 6645 non-diabetic patients from two independent cohort the CORFCHD-PCI study (n=4282) and the CORFCHD-ZZ (n=2363) study were enrolled in Clinical Outcomes and Risk Factors of Patients with Coronary Heart Disease after PCI, Patients were divided into two groups according to the GHR value. The primary outcome included all-cause mortality (ACM) and cardiac mortality (CM). The average follow-up time was 36.51±22.50 months. We found that there were significant differences between the two groups in the incidences of ACM (P =0.013) and CM (P=0.038). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed GHR as an independent prognostic factor for ACM. The incidence of ACM increased 1.284 times in patients in the higher GHR group (hazard ratio [HR]:1.284 [95% confidence interval [CI]:1.010-1.631], P <0.05). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis suggested that patients with high GHR value tended to have an increased accumulated risk of ACM. However, we did not found significant differences in the incidence of major adverse cardiac events, main adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE), stroke, recurrent MI, bleeding events. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that GHR index is an independent and novel predictor of ACM in non-diabetic CAD patients who underwent PCI.

12.
Lasers Med Sci ; 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33118126

RESUMO

To evaluate the feasibility and safety of photoselective vaporization for prostate (PVP) with a 180-W XPS Greenlight laser as day surgery in the Chinese population. We retrospectively collected 114 cases undergoing the day surgery PVP and 198 cases undergoing conventional inpatient surgery PVP from April 2017 to March 2020. All patients' data including baseline characteristics, peri-operative data, post-operative outcomes, and complications were recorded and evaluated. The day-surgery procedures were successful in 110 patients. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics in both groups. The catheterization time and hospitalization time were much shorter and economic cost was much lower in the day-surgery group than in the conventional inpatient surgery group. As for the post-operative complications, the incidence rate of the urinary retention is higher in the day-surgery group than in conventional inpatient surgery group. During the follow-up periods, the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), quality of life (QoL), maximal urinary flow rate (Qmax), and post-void residual urine (PVR) improved significantly in both groups, and no differences were observed between the two groups. Compared to the conventional inpatient surgery, the day-surgery PVP is feasible and safe, which can reduce the hospitalization time and economic cost.

13.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095866

RESUMO

With the study of human diseases and biological processes increasing, a large number of non-coding variants have been identified and facilitated. The rapid accumulation of genetic and epigenomic information has resulted in an urgent need to collect and process data to explore the regulation of non-coding variants. Here, we developed a comprehensive variation annotation database for human (VARAdb, http://www.licpathway.net/VARAdb/), which specifically considers non-coding variants. VARAdb provides annotation information for 577,283,813 variations and novel variants, prioritizes variations based on scores using nine annotation categories, and supports pathway downstream analysis. Importantly, VARAdb integrates a large amount of genetic and epigenomic data into five annotation sections, which include 'Variation information', 'Regulatory information', 'Related genes', 'Chromatin accessibility' and 'Chromatin interaction'. The detailed annotation information consists of motif changes, risk SNPs, LD SNPs, eQTLs, clinical variant-drug-gene pairs, sequence conservation, somatic mutations, enhancers, super enhancers, promoters, transcription factors, chromatin states, histone modifications, chromatin accessibility regions and chromatin interactions. This database is a user-friendly interface to query, browse and visualize variations and related annotation information. VARAdb is a useful resource for selecting potential functional variations and interpreting their effects on human diseases and biological processes.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33074566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Gastroesophageal varices (GEV) present in compensated advanced chronic liver disease (cACLD) and can develop into high-risk varices (HRV). The gold standard for diagnosing GEV is esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). However, EGD is invasive and less tolerant. This study aimed to develop and validate radiomics signatures based on noncontrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) images for non-invasive diagnosis of GEV and HRV in patients with cACLD. METHODS: The multicenter trial enrolled 161 patients with cACLD from six university hospitals in China between January 2015 and September 2019, who underwent both EGD and noncontrast-enhanced CT examination within 14 days prior to the endoscopy. Two radiomics signatures, termed rGEV and rHRV, respectively, were built based on CT images in a training cohort of 129 patients and validated in a prospective validation cohort of 32 patients (ClinicalTrials. gov identifier: NCT03749954). RESULTS: In the training cohort, both rGEV and rHRV exhibited high discriminative abilities on determining the existence of GEV and HRV with the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.941 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.904-0.978) and 0.836 (95% CI 0.766-0.905), respectively. In validation cohort, rGEV and rHRV showed high discriminative abilities with AUCs of 0.871 (95% CI 0.739-1.000) and 0.831 (95% CI 0.685-0.978), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that rGEV and rHRV could serve as the satisfying auxiliary parameters for detection of GEV and HRV with good diagnostic performance.

15.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(19): 19147-19158, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051401

RESUMO

Activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway promotes the progression of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). This study tested the anti-RCC cell activity of the PI3K/mTOR dual inhibitor, VS-5584. We show that VS-5584 inhibited PI3K/AKT/mTORC1/2 activation in established (786-O and A498 lines) and primary RCC cells, thereby suppressing cell survival, proliferation, migration and cell cycle progression. VS-5584 induced significant apoptosis in RCC cells. A daily single oral dose of VS-5584 (20 mg/kg) significantly inhibited 786-O tumor growth in vivo. VS-5584 treatment of 786-O tumor xenografts and RCC cells resulted in feedback upregulation of bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4). Furthermore, BRD4 inhibition (by JQ1 and CPI203), knockdown or complete knockout potentiated VS-5584-induced RCC cell death and apoptosis. Conversely, forced overexpression of BRD4 attenuated the cytotoxicity of VS-5584 in 786-O cells. Collectively, VS-5584 potently inhibits RCC cell proliferation and survival. Its anti-tumor activity is further enhanced by the targeted inhibition of BRD4.

16.
NPJ Parkinsons Dis ; 6: 27, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33083521

RESUMO

To compare the differences between asleep and awake robot-assisted deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery for Parkinson's Disease (PD), we conducted this retrospective cohort study included 153 PD patients undergoing bilateral robot-assisted DBS from June 2017 to August 2019, of which 58 cases were performed under general anesthesia (GA) and 95 cases under local anesthesia (LA). Procedure duration, stimulation parameters, electrode implantation accuracy, intracranial air, intraoperative electrophysiological signal length, complications, and Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS) measurements were recorded and compared. The clinical evaluation was conducted by two raters who were blinded to the choice of anesthesia. Procedure duration was significantly shorter in the GA group, while on stimulation off medication motor scores (UPDRS-III) were significantly improved in both the GA and LA group. ANCOVA covariated for the baseline UPDRS-III and levodopa challenge exhibited no significant differences. In terms of amplitude, frequency, and pulse width, the stimulation parameters used for DBS power-on were similar. There were no significant differences in electrode implantation accuracy, intraoperative electrophysiological signal length, or intracerebral hemorrhage (no occurrences in either group). The pneumocephalus volume was significantly smaller in the GA group. Six patients exhibited transient throat discomfort associated with tracheal intubation in the GA group. The occurrence of surgical incision infection was similar in both groups. Compared with the awake group, the asleep group exhibited a shorter procedure duration with a similar electrode implantation accuracy and short-term motor improvement. Robot-assisted asleep DBS surgery is a promising surgical method for PD.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33074442

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A proteomic analysis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has revealed that Heat Shock Protein 70 (HSP70) is among the cancer antigen proteins of HCC. Moreover, we confirmed that HSP70 was highly expressed in HCC by immunohistochemical staining. Based on these results, we developed an HSP70 mRNA-transfected dendritic cell (DC) therapy for treating unresectable or recurrent HCC, and the phase I trial was completed successfully. Thus, we aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of this therapy as a postoperative adjuvant treatment after curative resection for HCC to prevent recurrence by conducting a phase I/II randomized controlled clinical trial. METHODS: Patients (n = 45) with resectable HCC of stages II-IVa were registered and randomly assigned into two groups (DC group: 31 patients, control group: 14 patients) before surgery. The primary endpoint was disease-free survival (DFS), and the secondary endpoints were safety and overall survival. The DC therapy was initially administered at approximately 1 week after surgery, and twice every 3-4 weeks thereafter. RESULTS: No adverse events specific to the immunotherapy were observed in the DC group. There was no difference in DFS between the DC and control groups (p = 0.666). However, in the subgroup with HSP70-expressing HCC, DFS of the DC group tended to be better (p = 0.090) and OS of the DC group was significantly longer (p = 0.003) than those of the control group. CONCLUSION: The HSP70 mRNA-transfected DC therapy was performed safely as an adjuvant therapy. The prognosis of HSP70-expressing HCC cases could be expected to improve with this therapy.

18.
Nano Lett ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044079

RESUMO

Heterogeneous ice nucleation on atmospheric aerosols strongly affects the earth's climate, and at the microscopic level, surface-irregularity-induced ice crystallization behaviors are common but crucial. Because of the lack of visual evidence and effective experimental methods, the mechanism of atomic-structure-dependent ice formation on aerosol surfaces is poorly understood. Here we chose highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) to represent soot (a primary aerosol), and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) was performed for in situ observations of ice formation. We found that hexagonal ice crystals show an aligned growth pattern via a two-stage pathway with one a axis coinciding with the direction of atomic step edges on the HOPG surface. Additionally, the ice crystals grow at a noticeably higher speed along this direction. This study reveals the role of atomic surface defects in heterogeneous ice nucleation and may pave the way to control icing-related processes in practical applications.

19.
New Phytol ; 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32984961

RESUMO

Carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) has been used widely to infer intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) of C3 plants, a key parameter linking carbon and water fluxes. Despite the essential role of mesophyll conductance (gm ) in photosynthesis and Δ, its effect on Δ-based predictions of iWUE has generally been neglected. Here, we derive a mathematical expression of iWUE as a function of Δ that includes gm (iWUEmes ) and exploits the gm -stomatal conductance (gsc ) relationship across drought-stress levels and plant functional groups (deciduous or semideciduous woody, evergreen woody and herbaceous species) in a global database. iWUEmes was further validated with an independent dataset of online-Δ and CO2 and H2 O gas exchange measurements with seven species. Drought stress reduced gsc and gm by nearly one-half across all plant functional groups, but had no significant effect on the gsc  : gm ratio, with a well supported value of 0.79 ± 0.07 (95% CI, n = 198). gm was negatively correlated to iWUE. Incorporating the gsc  : gm ratio greatly improved estimates of iWUE, compared with calculations that assumed infinite gm . The inclusion of the gsc  : gm ratio, fixed at 0.79 when gm was unknown, proved desirable to eliminate significant errors in estimating iWUE from Δ across various C3 vegetation types.

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