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1.
Front Oncol ; 11: 737847, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722287

RESUMO

Purpose: To develop and validate a nomogram combining radiomics of B-mode ultrasound (BMUS) images and the American College of Radiology (ACR) Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS) for predicting malignant thyroid nodules and improving the performance of the guideline. Method: A total of 451 thyroid nodules referred for surgery and proven pathologically at an academic referral center from January 2019 to September 2020 were retrospectively collected and randomly assigned to training and validation cohorts (7:3 ratio). A nomogram was developed through combining the BMUS radiomics score (Rad-Score) with ACR TI-RADS score (ACR-Score) in the training cohort; the performance of the nomogram was assessed with respect to discrimination, calibration, and clinical application in the validation and entire cohorts. Results: The ACR-Rad nomogram showed good calibration and yielded an AUC of 0.877 (95% CI 0.836-0.919) in the training cohort and 0.864 (95% CI 0.799-0.931) in the validation cohort, which were significantly better than the ACR-Score model (p < 0.001 and 0.031, respectively). The significantly improved AUC, net reclassification index (NRI), and integrated discriminatory improvement (IDI) of the nomogram were found for both senior and junior radiologists (all p < 0.001). Decision curve analysis indicated that the nomogram was clinically useful. When cutoff values for 50% predicted malignancy risk (ACR-Rad_50%) were applied, the nomogram showed increased specificity, accuracy and positive predictive value (PPV), and decreased unnecessary fine-needle aspiration (FNA) rates in comparison to ACR TI-RADS. Conclusion: The ACR-Rad nomogram has favorable value in predicting malignant thyroid nodules and improving performance of the ACR TI-RADS for senior and junior radiologists.

2.
J Healthc Eng ; 2021: 3927551, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34820075

RESUMO

Timely prediction of the mechanism and characteristics of chronic liver disease using next-generation information technology is an effective way to improve the diagnosis rate of chronic liver disease. In this paper, we have proposed a modified backpropagation (BP) neural network with improved ant colony optimization algorithm to process multiple index attribute items describing chronic liver disease and construct a chronic liver disease assessment model. The proposed model is very effective in detecting chronic liver disease on time with acceptable level of accuracy and precision ratio. To verify these claims, the proposed scheme is checked experimentally where 125 groups of 20-dimensional medical test index data items of patients with chronic liver disease were analyzed. Moreover, 13-dimensional index items were preferentially selected as test index attribute items with high sensitivity to chronic liver disease using well-known ROC curves. The 13-dimensional index items were reduced to 5-dimensional comprehensive data items by principal component analysis. The proposed neural network-based model was trained with 115 sets of test indicator sample sets, and the remaining 10 sets of sample sets were used as test samples. Compared with the original 20-dimensional data as the neural network input, the proposed model not only reduces the complexity but also improves the prediction accuracy by 15.07%.

3.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 763897, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34777258

RESUMO

Purpose: To explore the characteristics of C-TIRADS by comparing it with ACR-TIRADS, Kwak-TIRADS, KSThR-TIRADS and EU-TIRADS. Methods: A total of 1096 nodules were collected from 884 patients undergoing thyroidectomy in our center between May 2018 and December 2020. Divided the nodules into two groups: ">10mm" and "≤10mm". Ultrasound characteristics of each nodule were observed and recorded by 2 doctors, then classified based on ACR-TIRADS, Kwak-TIRADS, KSThR-TIRADS, EU-TIRADS, and C-TIRADS. Results: A total of 682 benign nodules cases (62.23%) and 414 malignant nodules cases (37.77%) were identified. The ICC value of each guideline was:0.937(ACR-TIRADS), 0.858(EU-IRADS), 0.811(Kwak-TIRADS), 0.835(KTA/KSThR-TIRADS) and 0.854(C-TIRADS). The nodule malignancy rates in the groups(Kwak-TIRADS 4B, C-TIRADS 4B、4C) of two sizes were significantly different (all p<0.05). There was no statistical difference in the other grades of two sizes (all p>0.05). Unnecessary biopsy rates were the lowest in C-TIRADS (49.02% p<0.001). Furthermore, Kwak-TIRADS had the highest sensitivity and NPV (89.9%, 91.0%, all p<0.05), while C-TIRADS had the highest specificity and PPV (82.3%, 69.2%, all p<0.05). C-TIRADS and Kwak-TIRADS had the highest accuracy (76.0%, 72.5%, P=0.071). The AUCs of the 5 guidelines were C-TIRADS(0.816, P<0.05), Kwak-TIRADS(0.789, P<0.05) KTA/KSThR-TIRADS and ACR-TIRADS(0.773, 0.763, P=0.305), EU-TIRADS(0.734, P<0.05). The AUCs of the five guidelines were not statistically different between "nodules>10mm" and "nodules ≤ 10mm" (all P>0.05). Conclusions: All five guides showed excellent interobserver agreement. C-TIRADS was slightly efficient than Kwak-IRADS, KTA/KSThR-TIRADS and ACR-TIRADS, and had greater advantages than EU-TIRADS. The diagnostic abilities of the five guidelines for "nodules ≤ 10mm" were not inferior to that of "nodules> 10mm". C-TIRADS is simple and easy to implement and can provide effective thyroid tumor risk stratification for thyroid nodule diagnosis, especially in China.

4.
J Ethnopharmacol ; : 114691, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597654

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Matrine injection is a complex mixture of plant bioactive substances extracted from Sophora flavescens Aiton and Smilax glabra Roxb. Since its approval by the Chinese Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) in 1995, Matrine injection has been clinically used as a complementary and alternative treatment for various cancers; however, the underlying mechanism of pancreatic cancer treatment is yet to be elucidated. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study explores the potential mechanism of matrine injection on pancreatic cancer through network pharmacology technique and in vitro experimental validation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genes differentially expressed in pancreatic cancer were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database (GSE101448). The potential active components of matrine injection were selected following a literature search, and target prediction was performed by the SwissTarget Prediction database. Overlapping genes associated with survival were screened by the Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA) database. In vitro experimental validation was performed with cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, apoptosis detection, cell cycle analysis, immunoblotting, and co-immunoprecipitation of the identified proteins. RESULTS: One thousand seven hundred genes differentially expressed among pancreatic tumor and non-tumor tissues were screened out. Sixteen active components and 226 predicted target genes were identified in matrine injection. A total of 25 potential target genes of matrine injection for the treatment of pancreatic cancer were obtained. Among them, the prognostic target genes carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9) and carbonic anhydrase 12 (CA12) based on the GEPIA database are differently expressed in tumors compared to adjacent normal tissue. In vitro experiments, the results of CCK-8 assay, apoptosis and cell cycle analysis, immunoblotting, and co-immunoprecipitation showed that matrine injection inhibited Capan-1 and Mia paca-2 proliferation, arrested the cell cycle at the S phase, and induced apoptosis through up-regulated CA12 and down-regulated CA9. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, bioinformatics and network pharmacology were applied to explore the treatment mechanism on pancreatic cancer with matrine injection. This study demonstrated that matrine injection inhibited proliferation, arrested the cell cycle, and induced apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells. The mechanism may be related to the induction of CA12 over-expression, and CA9 reduced expression. As novel targets for pancreatic cancer treatment, Carbonic anhydrases require further study.

5.
Front Neurol ; 12: 738032, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34659096

RESUMO

Background: Primary trigeminal neuralgia (PTN) is known to reoccur following microvascular decompression (MVD) surgery. However, the rates and contributing factors related to PTN recurrence remain controversial. The purpose of this study was to explore the postoperative recurrence rates and related influencing factors of patients with PTN after MVD. Additionally, recurrence rates after different treatments were compared to provide guidelines for clinicians. Methods: We conducted systematic reviews and meta-analyses in accordance with the preferred reporting items of the PRISMA guidelines. We searched nine databases, namely, the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CINAHL, CBM, CNKI, VIP, and Wanfang databases, from establishment to July 13, 2020, selecting for studies about the long-term postoperative efficacy of MVD in the treatment of PTN. Factors associated with higher recurrence rates after MVD and long-term postoperative results of other treatments underwent formal meta-analysis, where odds ratios (ORs) with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. The dose-response model was used to inspect the associations between several factors and higher recurrence rates. Results: Seventy-four studies (8,172 patients, 32 case series studies, and 42 non-randomized controlled trials) were analyzed in our research. Overall, 956 out of 8,172 patients relapsed, and the pooled recurrence rate was 0.096 (0.080-0.113). Influencing factors of relatively higher recurrence rates included atypical trigeminal neuralgia symptoms, lack of nerve groove, non-arterial compression, patients who were 50-60 years old, and longer disease duration. Dose-response analysis showed that the recurrence rate had a significant trend with the published year and the follow-up time. Simultaneously, the recurrence rate of MVD treatment was much lower than that of conventional drug treatment, gamma knife surgery, percutaneous balloon compression, and radiofrequency thermocoagulation. When the surgical technique was improved or combined with partial sensory rhizotomy (PSR), the postoperative recurrence rates were significantly reduced. Conclusions: Even for PTN patients who have a successful operation, ~10% of them will still relapse. This research identifies several factors that can affect the recurrence rate. Compared with other operations, MVD has a relatively lower recurrence rate. Our analysis suggests that improved surgical techniques and combining PSR and MVD will yield better results. Systematic Review Registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/, identifier: CRD42020159276.

6.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717292

RESUMO

Melilotus species are used as green manure and rotation crops worldwide and contain abundant pharmacologically active coumarins. However, there is a paucity of information on its genome and coumarin production and function. Here, we reported a chromosome-scale assembly of Melilotus albus genome with 1.04 Gb in eight chromosomes, containing 71.42% repetitive elements. Long terminal repeat retrotransposon bursts coincided with declining of population sizes during the Quaternary glaciation. Resequencing of 94 accessions enabled insights into genetic diversity, population structure, and introgression. Melilotus officinalis had relatively larger genetic diversity than that of M. albus. The introgression existed between M. officinalis group and M. albus group, and gene flows was from M. albus to M. officinalis. Selection sweep analysis identified candidate genes associated with flower colour and coumarin biosynthesis. Combining genomics, BSA, transcriptomics, metabolomics, and biochemistry, we identified a ß-glucosidase (BGLU) gene cluster contributing to coumarin biosynthesis. MaBGLU1 function was verified by overexpression in M. albus, heterologous expression in Escherichia coli, and substrate feeding, revealing its role in scopoletin (coumarin derivative) production and showing that nonsynonymous variation drives BGLU enzyme activity divergence in Melilotus. Our work will accelerate the understanding of biologically active coumarins and their biosynthetic pathways, and contribute to genomics-enabled Melilotus breeding.

8.
Small ; 17(45): e2102016, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608752

RESUMO

As a favorable candidate for the next-generation anode materials, metallic lithium is faced with two crucial problems: uncontrollable lithium plating/stripping process and huge volume expansion during cycling. Herein, a 3D lithiophilic skeleton modified with nanoscale Bi sheets (Ni@Bi Foam, i.e., NBF) through one-step facile substitution reaction is constructed. Benefiting from the nanoscale modification, smooth and dense lithiophilic Li3 Bi layer is in situ formed, which improves the uniform deposition of Li subsequently. Meanwhile, the 3D structure inhibits the growth of Li dendrites effectively by reducing local areal current density. Consequently, the NBF exhibits outstanding cycling stability with a high average Coulombic efficiency of 98.46% at 1 mA cm-2 with 1 mAh cm-2 (>500 cycles). Symmetrical cell with NBF exhibits a high reversibility at 1 mA cm-2 with 1 mAh cm-2 (>2000 h). Moreover, superior long-term cycling and rate performance of NBF@Li anode are also acquired when assembled with high areal loading of LiFePO4 (10.1 mg cm-2 ) cathode (Negative/Positive ratio: 2.91). Even in anode-free metal lithium batteries, NBF has higher capacity during cycling compared with NF. To conclude, NBF shows excellent electrochemical performance and provides an idea of facile preparation method which can be extend to other metal batteries.

9.
Nanoscale ; 13(37): 15731-15742, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528054

RESUMO

The storage of sodium ions with carbon materials has huge potential for large-scale application due to its resource-rich and environmental advantages. However, how to realize high power density, high energy density and long cycle life are the bottlenecks restricting its development. Herein, by using a facile synthesis strategy, a carbon-based framework with a hierarchical structure and intrinsic heteroatom sites which are the characteristics contributing to ultrahigh rate and capacity has been achieved. As a result, the hierarchical carbon-based material exhibits excellent performance when used as both the anode and cathode for sodium-ion capacitors (SICs), which can deliver a high energy density of 224 W h kg-1 (at 180 W kg-1), an ultrahigh power density of 17 160 W kg-1 (at 128 W h kg-1) and ultralong cycle life (91% capacity retention after 10 000 cycles at 2 A g-1), outperforming most of the previously reported SICs with other configurations.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590387

RESUMO

The autophagic ubiquitin-like protein LC3 functions through interactions with LC3-interaction regions (LIRs) of other autophagy proteins, including autophagy receptors, which stands out as a promising protein-protein interaction (PPI) target for the intervention of autophagy. Post-translational modifications like acetylation of Lys49 on the LIR-interacting surface could disrupt the interaction, offering an opportunity to design covalent small molecules interfering with the interface. Through screening covalent compounds, we discovered a small molecule modulator of LC3A/B that covalently modifies LC3A/B protein at Lys49. Activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) based evaluations reveal that a derivative molecule DC-LC3in-D5 exhibits a potent covalent reactivity and selectivity to LC3A/B in HeLa cells. DC-LC3in-D5 compromises LC3B lipidation in vitro and in HeLa cells, leading to deficiency in the formation of autophagic structures and autophagic substrate degradation. DC-LC3in-D5 could serve as a powerful tool for autophagy research as well as for therapeutic interventions.

11.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 13: 706834, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34349636

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of this study is to analyze the effects of acupuncture on peripheral immune function, inflammation, and cognitive impairment in vascular dementia (VD) rats. Methods: In this study, 2-month-old healthy male Wistar rats (260-280 g) were assigned to the groups as follows: normal group (Gn, n = 10), sham-operated group (Gs, n = 10), and operated group (Go, n = 45). The Go group was established by permanent, bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO). Two months after operation, the operated rats were screened by hidden platform trial and the rats with cognitive dysfunction were further randomly divided into impaired group (Gi), acupoint group (Ga), and non-acupoint group (Gna) with 10 rats in each group. The Ga group was given acupuncture treatment for 14 days with a rest for every 7 days. After treatment, the Morris water maze (MWM) test was performed to evaluate the spatial learning and memory abilities of rats. The lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood and spleen of rats were measured by flow cytometry. The levels of cytokines [i.e., interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interferon-γ (INF-γ)], chemokines (i.e., macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2)), and other inflammatory mediators (i.e., cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)) in peripheral blood and hippocampus were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: Compared with the Gn group, the Gi rats presented long escape latencies to find the platform. After acupuncture treatment, the escape latencies of the Ga group were rescued markedly when compared with the Gi group (P < 0.05). The proportion of CD4 + T lymphocytes in both spleen and peripheral blood in the Ga group increased (P < 0.05) in comparison with the Gi group. There is an obvious reduction in IL-1ß (P < 0.05), IL-2 (P < 0.05), TNF-α (P < 0.01), INF-γ (P < 0.01), MIP-2 (P < 0.05), and iNOS (P < 0.01), coming along with the increased levels of IL-4 and IL-10 (P < 0.01) in the Ga group when compared with the Gi group. In addition, the hippocampus proinflammatory factors IL-1ß (P < 0.01), IL-2 (P < 0.01), TNF-α (P < 0.05), INF-γ (P < 0.05), MIP-2 (P < 0.05), iNOS (P < 0.01), and COX-2 decreased in the Ga group, whereas the anti-inflammatory factors IL-4 and IL-10 (P < 0.01) increased. Conclusion: There are abnormal immune function and peripheral inflammation in VD rats. Acupuncture can regulate the peripheral immune function and inflammation of the VD rats and can improve the cognitive dysfunction of the rats.

12.
Platelets ; : 1-9, 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387532

RESUMO

Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) exhibits a number of important characteristics. RNA-seq analysis revealed that the BPI expression was increased in platelets of (non)ST-elevated myocardial infarction (NSTEMI/STEMI) patients. Activated platelets can induce NETosis which may be accompanied by the release of myeloperoxidase-DNA (MPO-DNA) and S100A8/A9. This study investigated the plasma BPI levels in myocardial infarction patients and its correlation with MPO-DNA and S100A8/A9. This prospective study recruited 80 control individuals, as well as 63 NSTEMI and 59 STEMI patients who were admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Bengbu Medical College for coronary angiography (CAG) and/or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) between May 1, 2020 and August 31, 2020. Demographic and clinical characteristics, clinical indicators, hs-CRP, IL-1ß, MPO-DNA (a circulated marker of NETs), circulating levels of S100A8/A9 and BPI were measured from each individual. The severity of coronary lesions was evaluated by the Gensini score, based on the results of the CAG. Pearson's or spearman's correlation was used to examine the correlation between BPI and the above-mentioned parameters, as well as the severity of coronary artery disease. Linear regression analysis was applied to identify the independent predictive factors of BPI. Received operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of plasma BPI for MI. The plasma BPI levels increased by 8.76 times in the STEMI group and 5.38 times in the NSTEMI group compared to the control group. The plasma level of hs-CRP and IL-1ß in both STEMI and NSTEMI groups were also significantly higher than the control group. In addition, the plasma levels of MPO-DNA and S100A8/A9 in the STEMI and NSTEMI groups were significantly higher than the control group. Plasma levels of BPI were positively correlated with IL-1ß, hs-CRP, MPO-DNA and S100A8/A9. The correlation between BPI and the severity of coronary artery disease was also significant. The optimal cutoff value of plasma BPI was 35.1705 ng/ml for MI patients from the ROC curve analysis. Plasma BPI levels are increased in myocardial infarction patients and positively correlated with MPO-DNA and S100A8/A9. Plasma BPI level may serve as a potential biomarker of myocardial infarction.

13.
ACS Nano ; 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379405

RESUMO

The sluggish kinetics and shuttle effect of lithium polysulfide intermediates are the major issues that retard the practical applications of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. Herein, we introduce a defect engineering strategy to construct a defected-UiO-66-NH2-4/graphene electrocatalytic membrane (D-UiO-66-NH2-4/G EM) which could accelerate the conversion of lithium polysulfides in high sulfur loadings and low electrolyte/sulfur (E/S) ratio Li-S batteries. Metal-organic frameworks (UiO-66-NH2) can be directionally chemical engraved to form concave octahedra with abundant defects. According to electrocatalytic kinetics and DFT calculations studies, the D-UiO-66-NH2-4 architecture effectively provides ample sites to capture polysulfides via strong chemical affinity and effectively delivers electrocatalytic activity of polysulfide conversion. As a result, a Li-S battery with such an electrocatalytic membrane delivers a high capacity of 12.3 mAh cm-2 (1013 mAh g-1) at a sulfur loading up to 12.2 mg·S cm-2 under a lean electrolyte condition (E/S = 5 µL mg-1-sulfur) at 2.1 mA cm-2 (0.1 C). Moreover, a prototype soft package battery also exhibits excellent cycling stability with a maintained capacity of 996 mAh g-1 upon 100 cycles.

14.
J Org Chem ; 86(17): 11998-12007, 2021 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404211

RESUMO

A visible-light photoredox-catalyzed sulfonyl lactonization of unsaturated carboxylic acids with sulfonyl chlorides is described. This reaction features good functional group tolerance and a broad substrate scope, providing a simple and efficient protocol to access a wide range of sulfonyl lactones in high to excellent yields. Preliminary mechanistic investigations suggested that a free-radical pathway should be involved in the process.


Assuntos
Cloretos , Lactonas , Ácidos Carboxílicos , Catálise , Luz
15.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(30): 11670-11678, 2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34292709

RESUMO

While alkyl radicals have been well demonstrated to undergo both 1,5- and 1,6-hydrogen atom abstraction (HAA) reactions, 1,4-HAA is typically a challenging process both entropically and enthalpically. Consequently, chemical transformations based on 1,4-HAA have been scarcely developed. Guided by the general mechanistic principles of metalloradical catalysis (MRC), 1,4-HAA has been successfully incorporated as a key step, followed by 4-exo-tet radical substitution (RS), for the development of a new catalytic radical process that enables asymmetric 1,4-C-H alkylation of diazoketones for stereoselective construction of cyclobutanone structures. The key to success is the optimization of the Co(II)-based metalloradical catalyst through judicious modulation of D2-symmetric chiral amidoporphyrin ligand to adopt proper steric, electronic, and chiral environments that can utilize a network of noncovalent attractive interactions for effective activation of the substrate and subsequent radical intermediates. Supported by an optimal chiral ligand, the Co(II)-based metalloradical system, which operates under mild conditions, is capable of 1,4-C-H alkylation of α-aryldiazoketones with varied electronic and steric properties to construct chiral α,ß-disubstituted cyclobutanones in good to high yields with high diastereoselectivities and enantioselectivities, generating dinitrogen as the only byproduct. Combined computational and experimental studies have shed light on the mechanistic details of the new catalytic radical process, including the revelation of facile 1,4-HAA and 4-exo-tet-RS steps. The resulting enantioenriched α,ß-disubstituted cyclobutanones, as showcased with several enantiospecific transformations to other types of cyclic structures, may find useful applications in stereoselective organic synthesis.

16.
J Org Chem ; 86(15): 10580-10590, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314188

RESUMO

A copper-catalyzed intermolecular electrophilic amination of benzamides with O-benzoyl hydroxylamines was achieved with the assistance of an 8-aminoquinolyl group. With this protocol, good compatibility was observed for a variety of aryl amides and heteroaryl amides, and excellent tolerance with various functional groups was achieved. Significantly, the monoaminated product was overwhelmingly delivered under the simple reaction conditions. Preliminary mechanistic investigations suggested that a radical pathway should be excluded and C-H activation be potentially the rate-determining step.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34239586

RESUMO

Acorus tatarinowii is a traditional aromatic resuscitation drug that can be clinically used to prevent cardiovascular diseases. The volatile oil of Acorus tatarinowii (VOA) possesses important medicinal properties, including protection against acute myocardial ischemia (MI) injury. However, the pharmacodynamic material basis and molecular mechanisms underlying this protective effect remain unclear. Using network pharmacology and animal experiments, we studied the mechanisms and pathways implicated in the activity of VOA against acute MI injury. First, VOA was extracted from three batches of Acorus tatarinowii using steam distillation, and then, its chemical composition was determined by GC-MS. Next, the components-targets and protein-protein interaction networks were constructed using systematic network pharmacology. Gene Ontology (GO) function and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses were also conducted in order to predict the possible pharmacodynamic mechanisms. Furthermore, animal experiments including ELISAs, histological examinations, and Western blots were performed in order to validate the pharmacological effects of VOA. In total, 33 chemical components were identified in VOA, and ß-asarone was found to be the most abundant component. Based on network pharmacology analysis, the therapeutic effects of VOA against myocardial ischemia might be mediated by signaling pathways involving COX-2, PPAR-α, VEGF, and cAMP. Overall, the obtained results indicate that VOA alleviates the pathological manifestations of isoproterenol-hydrochloride-induced myocardial ischemia in rats, including the decreased SOD (superoxide dismutase) content and increased LDH (lactic dehydrogenase) content. Moreover, the anti-MI effect of VOA might be attributed to the downregulation of the COX-2 protein that inhibits apoptosis, the upregulation of the PPAR-α protein that regulates energy metabolism, and the activation of VEGF and cAMP signaling pathways.

18.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 7(6)2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208763

RESUMO

Rubber tree Corynespora leaf fall (CLF) disease, caused by the fungus Corynespora cassiicola, is one of the most damaging diseases in rubber tree plantations in Asia and Africa, and this disease also threatens rubber nurseries and young rubber plantations in China. C. cassiicola isolates display high genetic diversity, and virulence profiles vary significantly depending on cultivar. Although one phytotoxin (cassicolin) has been identified, it cannot fully explain the diversity in pathogenicity between C. cassiicola species, and some virulent C. cassiicola strains do not contain the cassiicolin gene. In the present study, we report high-quality gapless genome sequences, obtained using short-read sequencing and single-molecule long-read sequencing, of two Chinese C. cassiicola virulent strains. Comparative genomics of gene families in these two stains and a virulent CPP strain from the Philippines showed that all three strains experienced different selective pressures, and metabolism-related gene families vary between the strains. Secreted protein analysis indicated that the quantities of secreted cell wall-degrading enzymes were correlated with pathogenesis, and the most aggressive CCP strain (cassiicolin toxin type 1) encoded 27.34% and 39.74% more secreted carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) than Chinese strains YN49 and CC01, respectively, both of which can only infect rubber tree saplings. The results of antiSMASH analysis showed that all three strains encode ~60 secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters (SM BGCs). Phylogenomic and domain structure analyses of core synthesis genes, together with synteny analysis of polyketide synthase (PKS) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene clusters, revealed diversity in the distribution of SM BGCs between strains, as well as SM polymorphisms, which may play an important role in pathogenic progress. The results expand our understanding of the C. cassiicola genome. Further comparative genomic analysis indicates that secreted CAZymes and SMs may influence pathogenicity in rubber tree plantations. The findings facilitate future exploration of the molecular pathogenic mechanism of C. cassiicola.

19.
Bioresour Technol ; 337: 125450, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34192637

RESUMO

A low-cost and high-efficiency waterfall aeration biofilm reactor (WABR) combined with a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was established to treat wastewater with a C/N ratio of 50. Three WABR-SBR systems with different fillers were used. In the stable operation phase, the removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand was R1 (approximately 99%), R2 (97-99%), and R3 (96-99%); the effluent concentration of NH4+-N was 0.5 mg/L without nitrite or nitrate accumulation. High-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that the dominant phyla in the microbial community structure were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Planctomycetes. Quantitative PCR was used to quantify the nitrification and denitrification gene expressions (Nitrobacter, nirS, and nirK) to evaluate the simultaneous nitrification and denitrification processes. Both anammox and denitrifying bacteria were abundant. Metagenomic annotation of genes that revealed the metabolic pathways of carbohydrates, amino acids, and the two dominant enzymes (GH and GT) provide valuable information for microbial ecology analysis.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Águas Residuárias , Biofilmes , Reatores Biológicos , Carbono , Desnitrificação , Nitrificação , Nitrogênio , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
20.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(5): 5694-5705, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34107715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study set out to investigate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 65 patients with tsutsugamushi disease. METHODS: The clinical data of 65 patients with tsutsugamushi disease, who were admitted to the Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University were retrospectively analyzed. The clinical symptoms, laboratory examination results, clinical treatment plans, treatments, and outcomes of the patients were analyzed. RESULTS: The 65 patients with tsutsugamushi disease, included 40 males (61.54%) and 25 females (38.46%). The patients were aged from 1 year and 7 months to 88 years old, and the peak age was 60-70 years old. Geographically, the patients were concentrated in Rugao and Tongzhou District. Infections were most common between October and December (categorized as "autumn type"), and peaked in November. Farmers had the highest infection rate of any occupation (66%). All patients had the symptom of fever, with the body temperature of 60 (92.31%) patients exceeding 38.5 °C, while 58 (89%) and 51 (78%) patients had characteristic eschar and skin rash, respectively. There were 56 (86.15%) patients with varying degrees of liver damage, 8 (12.31%) cases of elevated D-dimer, 3 (4.62%) cases of myocardial injury, 38 (58.46%) cases of superficial lymph node enlargement, 8 (12.31%) cases of splenomegaly, and 2 cases (3.08%) of bulbar conjunctival congestion. Of the 65 patients enrolled, the overall misdiagnosis rate of first medical contact was 64.62. CONCLUSIONS: Tsutsugamushi disease, infection has obvious seasonality and a susceptible population, especially among farmers and the elderly.


Assuntos
Orientia tsutsugamushi , Tifo por Ácaros , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tifo por Ácaros/diagnóstico , Tifo por Ácaros/epidemiologia
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