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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(37): e27279, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664886

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The role of thoracic stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in addition to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in EGFR-mutant polymetastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has not been well established. This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of EGFR-TKIs with thoracic SBRT for the treatment of this patient group.Polymetastatic NSCLC was defined as having >5 metastatic lesions. Patients with polymetastatic NSCLC harboring positive EGFR mutations after initial TKI therapy for at least 8 weeks were eligible for SBRT between August 2016and August 2019. Eligible patients were treated with thoracic SBRT, and TKIs were administered for the duration of SBRT and continued after SBRT until they were considered ineffective. The control group was treated with TKI monotherapy. Propensity score matching (ratio of 1:4) was used to account for differences in baseline characteristics. Progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival, and treatment safety were evaluated.In total, 136 patients were included in the study population. Among them, 120 patients received TKIs alone, and 16 patients received TKIs with thoracic SBRT. The baseline characteristics did not significantly differ between the two cohorts after propensity score matching. The median PFS was 17.8 months in the thoracic SBRT group and 10.8 months in the control group (P = .033). In the multivariate analysis, a Cox regression model showed that thoracic SBRT was an independent statistically significant positive predictor of improved survival, with a hazard ratio of 0.54 (P = .046). We recorded no severe toxic effects or grade 4 to 5 toxicities.Real-world data demonstrate that thoracic SBRT significantly extends PFS in EGFR-mutant polymetastatic NSCLC patients with tolerable toxicity. Given these results, randomized studies are warranted.

2.
EBioMedicine ; 72: 103614, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic reprogramming plays an essential role on lymphoma progression. Dysregulation of glutamine metabolism is implicated in natural-killer T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL) and tumor cell response to asparaginase-based anti-metabolic treatment. METHODS: To understand the metabolomic alterations and determine the potential therapeutic target of asparaginase, we assessed metabolomic profile using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in serum samples of 36 NKTCL patients, and integrated targeted metabolic analysis and RNA sequencing in tumor samples of 102 NKTCL patients. The biological function of solute carrier family 1 member 1 (SLC1A1) on metabolic flux, lymphoma cell growth, and drug sensitivity was further examined in vitro in NK-lymphoma cell line NK-92 and SNK-6, and in vivo in zebrafish xenograft models. FINDINGS: In NKTCL patients, serum metabolomic profile was characterized by aberrant glutamine metabolism and SLC1A1 was identified as a central regulator of altered glutaminolysis. Both in vitro and in vivo, ectopic expression of SLC1A1 increased cellular glutamine uptake, enhanced glutathione metabolic flux, and induced glutamine addiction, leading to acceleration of cell proliferation and tumor growth. Of note, SLC1A1 overexpression was significantly associated with PD-L1 downregulation and reduced cytotoxic CD3+/CD8+ T cell activity when co-cultured with peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Asparaginase treatment counteracted SLC1A1-mediated glutamine addiction, restored SLC1A1-induced impaired T-cell immunity. Clinically, high EAAT3 (SLC1A1-encoded protein) expression independently predicted superior progression-free and overall survival in 90 NKTCL patients treated with asparaginase-based regimens. INTERPRETATION: SLC1A1 functioned as an extracellular glutamine transporter, promoted tumor growth through reprogramming glutamine metabolism of NKTCL, while rendered tumor cells sensitive to asparaginase treatment. Moreover, SLC1A1-mediated modulation of PD-L1 expression might provide clinical rationale of co-targeting metabolic vulnerability and immunosuppressive microenvironment in NKTCL. FUNDING: This study was supported, in part, by research funding from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (82130004, 81830007 and 81900192), Chang Jiang Scholars Program, Shanghai Municipal Education Commission Gaofeng Clinical Medicine Grant Support (20152206 and 20152208), Clinical Research Plan of SHDC (2020CR1032B), Multicenter Clinical Research Project by Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (DLY201601), Shanghai Chenguang Program (19CG15), Shanghai Sailing Program (19YF1430800), Medical-Engineering Cross Foundation of Shanghai Jiao Tong University (ZH2018QNA46), and Shanghai Yi Yuan Xin Xing Program.

3.
Org Lett ; 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34644098

RESUMO

Here, we report an unprecedented catalytic enantioselective cyanation of ketonitrones enabled by the bifunctional cyanating reagent Me2(CH2Cl)SiCN. This approach allows facile access to optically active N-hydroxyl-α-amino nitriles that are of high synthetic value but difficult to acquire by other methods. The use of bifunctional cyanating reagent Me2(CH2Cl)SiCN not only achieves an enantioselectivity higher than that with TMSCN but also enables various diversification reactions of the resulting silylated adducts. This represents the first enantioselective catalytic nucleophilic addition reaction of unactivated ketone-derived nitrones, exhibiting the potential of such tetrasubstituted C═N bonds for asymmetric synthesis of N-hydroxy α-amino acids and other N-hydroxy tertiary amines.

4.
Dalton Trans ; 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622889

RESUMO

A series of Fe(III) complexes [Fe(5-F-sal-N-1,4,7,10)]Y (Y = PF6- for 1, Y = ClO4- for 2, Y = I- for 3 and Y = NO3- for 4) have been prepared. Single-crystal X-ray crystallographic studies show that complex 1 crystallizes in the orthorhombic Pna21 space group and complexes 2-4 have an isomorphous structure and crystallize in the same monoclinic space group, P21/n. Complexes 2-4 have two independent molecules (Fe1 and Fe2) in the unit cell. Magnetic susceptibility measurements demonstrated that complexes 1 and 3 showed a gradual one-step SCO behavior (T1/2 for 1 = 177 K and for 3 = 227 K) without thermal hysteresis. The magnetic behavior of 2 shows an incomplete two-step SCO process at T1/2 = 114 K and 170 K, respectively, while 4 is in a high-spin state at all measured temperatures. A careful evaluation of the supramolecular structures of these complexes revealed correlation between the supramolecular packing forces and their SCO behavior. The crystal structure of 1 consists of a three-dimensional (3D) extended network constructed from N-H⋯F and C-H⋯F hydrogen bonds, and C-H⋯π and C⋯C short contacts. In compounds 2-4, the crystal packing is governed by C⋯C, C-H⋯π and p-π interactions for the Fe1 centers and by C-H⋯π/O interactions for the Fe2 centers, which form 1D chains. Additional interactions (C-H⋯F and N-H⋯O/I) connect the neighboring chains and planes to form a complex supramolecular network. The anion⋯π interactions in 4 provide a means for preventing SCO occurring at low temperatures. This suggests that the supramolecular connectivity of the anions influences the magnetic properties.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626118
6.
Mol Med Rep ; 24(6)2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633055

RESUMO

Thoracic radiotherapy increases the risk of radiation­induced heart damage (RIHD); however, the molecular mechanisms underlying these changes are not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of radiation on the mouse heart using high­throughput proteomics. Male C57BL/6J mice were used to establish a model of RIHD by exposing the entire heart to 16 Gy high­energy X­rays, and cardiac injuries were verified using a cardiac echocardiogram, as well as by measuring serum brain natriuretic peptide levels and conducting H&E and Masson staining 5 months after irradiation. Proteomics experiments were performed using the heart apex of 5­month irradiated mice and control mice that underwent sham­irradiation. The most significantly differentially expressed proteins were enriched in 'cardiac fibrosis' and 'energy metabolism'. Next, the cardiac fibrosis and changes to energy metabolism were confirmed using immunohistochemistry staining and western blotting. Extracellular matrix proteins, such as collagen type 1 α 1 chain, collagen type III α 1 chain, vimentin and CCCTC­binding factor, along with metabolism­related proteins, such as fatty acid synthase and solute carrier family 25 member 1, exhibited upregulated expression following exposure to ionizing radiation. Additionally, the myocardial mitochondria inner membranes were injured, along with a decrease in ATP levels and the accumulation of lactic acid in the irradiated heart tissues. These results suggest that the high doses of ionizing radiation used lead to structural remodeling, functional injury and fibrotic alterations in the mouse heart. Radiation­induced mitochondrial damage and metabolic alterations of the cardiac tissue may thus be a pathogenic mechanism of RIHD.

7.
Cell Tissue Res ; 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599689

RESUMO

Determining the source of primary cells is conductive to enriching sufficient cells with immortal potential thereby improving the success rate of establishing cell lines. However, most of the existing insect cell lines are established by mixing and fragmentation of explants. At present, the origin of cell lines can only be determined according to the cultured tissues, so it is impossible to determine which cell types they come from. In this study, a new cell line designated IOZCAS-Myse-1 was generated from pupal ovaries of the migratory pest Mythimna separata by explant tissues to derive adherent cultures. This paper mainly shows the further descriptive information on the origin of primary cells in the process of ovarian tissue isolation and culture. Phospho-histone H3 antibody-labeled cells with mitotic activity showed that the rapidly developing somatic cells in vivo gradually stopped proliferation when cultured ex vivo. The primary cells dissociated outside the tissue originated from the lumen cells, rather than the germ cells or the follicular epithelium cells. The results suggest that the newly established cell line IOZCAS-Myse-1 had two possible sources. One is the mutation of lumen cells in the vitellarium, and the other is the stem cells with differentiation potential in the germarium of the ovarioles. Moreover, the newly established cell line is sensitive to the infection of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus, responds to 20-hydroxyecdysone and has weak encapsulation ability. Therefore, the new cell line can be a useful platform for replication of viral insecticides, screening of hormone-based insecticides and immunology research.

9.
J Affect Disord ; 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34565593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies reported that there were associations between physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior (SB), triglycerides (TG) and depression. However, it is unclear whether there is an interaction and/or mediation effect of TG in the associations between PA, SB and depression. This study was to explore the effects of TG in the associations between PA, SB and depression, respectively. METHODS: Our study included 7,728 adults (aged ≥20 years) participating in the 2009-2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), which was a nationally representative survey. With higher TG as a mediator, a four-way decomposition method was used to decompose the total effects of insufficient PA and prolonged SB on depression, respectively. RESULTS: There were statistically significant associations between moderate-to-vigorous recreational activity (MVRA), SB, TG and depression (all P < 0.05), respectively. With higher TG as a mediator, there were interaction and mediation effects in the association between SB and depression, and the excess relative risk (95% CI) of reference interaction effect (INTref) and the total mediation effect were 0.15(0.01,0.29) and 0.03(0.00,0.06), respectively. While insufficient MVRA attributed a proportion of 80.42% for the controlled direct effect (CDE) and 6.28% for total mediation effect. In addition, similar findings were observed in those with hypertension, overweight/obesity, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndromes. LIMITATION: This was a cross-sectional study, and the ability to make causal inference was limited. CONCLUSION: The controlled direct effect of MVRA, the mediation of TG, and the interaction between SB and TG played the vital roles in increasing the risk of depression.

11.
J Proteome Res ; 20(10): 4746-4757, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496567

RESUMO

Tandem mass tag (TMT)-coupled liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry is a powerful method to investigate synovial tissue protein profiles in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA). Protein was isolated from synovial tissue samples of 22 patients and labeled with a TMT kit. Over 500 proteins were identified as the differential expression protein on comparing RA and OA synovial tissue, including 239 upregulated and 271 downregulated proteins. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD027703. Gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis showed that the majority participated in the developmental processes and protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum. Olfactomedin 4 (OLFM4), a secreted glycoprotein, in joint inflammation of RA was explored. OLFM4 was upregulated in RA synovial tissue samples. In fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS), inflammation cytokines, TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-1ß, and LPS can upregulate OLFM4. After OLFM4 knockdown under TNF-α stimulation, RA FLS proliferation was inhibited and the expression of CXCL9, CXCL11, and MMP-1 was decreased. Overall, the RA synovial tissue protein expression profile by proteomic analysis shows some unique targets in RA pathophysiology, and OLFM4 in FLS plays an important role in RA joint inflammation. OLFM4 can be a promising therapeutic target in RA synovial tissue.

12.
Neural Netw ; 144: 129-137, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492547

RESUMO

The detection of attentive mental state plays an essential role in the neurofeedback process and the treatment of Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, the performance of the detection methods is still not satisfactory. One of the challenges is to find a proper representation for the electroencephalogram (EEG) data, which could preserve the temporal information and maintain the spatial topological characteristics. Inspired by the deep learning (DL) methods in the research of brain-computer interface (BCI) field, a 3D representation of EEG signal was introduced into attention detection task, and a 3D convolutional neural network model with cascade and parallel convolution operations was proposed. The model utilized three cascade blocks, each consisting of two parallel 3D convolution branches, to simultaneously extract the multi-scale features. Evaluated on a public dataset containing twenty-six subjects, the proposed model achieved better performance compared with the baseline methods under the intra-subject, inter-subject and subject-adaptive classification scenarios. This study demonstrated the promising potential of the 3D CNN model for detecting attentive mental state.

13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18023, 2021 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504296

RESUMO

Similar to global trends, the incidence rate of tuberculosis (TB) in China declined from 2000 to 2018. In this study, we aimed to evaluate TB trends in northern Guizhou Province and identify risk factors associated with rifampicin-resistant (RR) and concurrent extrapulmonary TB (EPTB). We analyzed data of TB patients hospitalized in Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical University from 2011 to 2018, and assessed correlations between demographic characteristics of patients and RR-TB as well as concurrent EPTB. Our results showed that numbers of new, retreated, RR-TB and concurrent EPTB cases increased gradually from 2011 to 2018. Retreated patients had the highest odds of RR-TB but a lower likelihood of concurrent EPTB compared to new patients. Patients between 21 and 40 years of age had a higher likelihood of RR-TB compared to those 20 years and younger. Female patients and patients from Bijie city as well as the Miao ethnic minority had higher odds of concurrent EPTB. In summary, our data demonstrate upward trends in new, rifampicin-resistant and concurrent extrapulmonary TB cases in northern Guizhou Province of China, which should not be overlooked especially during and post the COVID-19 pandemic because TB is a greater long-term global health threat than COVID-19.


Assuntos
Antibióticos Antituberculose/uso terapêutico , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/fisiologia , Sistemas Especialistas , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 818, 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fibrosis is an important factor and process of ligamentum flavum hypertrophy. The expression of phosphodiesterase family (PDE) is related to inflammation and fibrosis. This article studied the expression of PDE in hypertrophic ligamentum flavum fibroblasts and investigated whether inhibition of PDE4 activity can play an anti-fibrotic effect. METHODS: Samples of clinical hypertrophic ligamentum flavum were collected and patients with lumbar disc herniations as a control group. The collagenase digestion method is used to separate fibroblasts. qPCR is used to detect the expression of PDE subtypes, type I collagen (Col I), type III collagen (Col III), fibronectin (FN1) and transforming growth factor ß1 (TGF-ß1). Recombinant TGF-ß1 was used to stimulate fibroblasts to make a fibrotic cell model and treated with Rolipram. The morphology of the cells treated with drugs was observed by Sirius Red staining. Scratch the cells to observe their migration and proliferation. WB detects the expression of the above-mentioned multiple fibrotic proteins after drug treatment. Finally, combined with a variety of signaling pathway drugs, the signaling mechanism was studied. RESULTS: Multiple PDE subtypes were expressed in ligamentum flavum fibroblasts. The expression of PDE4A and 4B was significantly up-regulated in the hypertrophic group. Using Rolipram to inhibit PDE4 activity, the expression of Col I and TGF-ß1 in the hypertrophic group was inhibited. Col I recovered to the level of the control group. TGF-ß1 was significantly inhibited, which was lower than the control group. Recombinant TGF-ß1 stimulated fibroblasts to increase the expression of Col I/III, FN1 and TGF-ß1, which was blocked by Rolipram. Rolipram restored the increased expression of p-ERK1/2 stimulated by TGF-ß1. CONCLUSION: The expressions of PDE4A and 4B in the hypertrophic ligamentum flavum are increased, suggesting that it is related to the hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum. Rolipram has a good anti-fibrosis effect after inhibiting the activity of PDE4. This is related to blocking the function of TGF-ß1, specifically by restoring normal ERK1/2 signal.


Assuntos
Ligamento Amarelo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibrose , Humanos , Ligamento Amarelo/patologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Rolipram/metabolismo , Rolipram/farmacologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo
15.
AIDS Care ; : 1-8, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581229

RESUMO

Few large studies evaluated the effects of time trends on virologic suppression in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in China. To address this, An retrospective observational longitudinal study was conducted. We examined annual trends in the rate of virologic suppression, the viral load at the time of virologic suppression, and other determinants of virologic suppression in Zhejiang Province, China in PLWHA between January 2013 and July 2018. Patients who received a treatment regimen for at least 24 weeks were included. Virologic suppression was defined as VL ≤50 copies/mL. Generalized estimating equation logistic regression models were used to adjust for covariates. We included 16,265 patients with 45023 tests. The proportion of patients who experienced an unsuccessful virologic outcome decreased continuously throughout the observation period (18.14% to 6.64%). Time was significantly negatively associated with detectable VL (all ORs <1). Other factors were positively associated with detectable VL, including patients <30 years of age, single, non-adherent to treatment, and with a follow-up CD4 count <200 cells/µL. Patients infected through homosexual transmission and those with a longer ART duration were more likely to reach virologic suppression. We demonstrated outstanding time trend improvements in the virological outcomes of PLWHA in China.

16.
J Neural Eng ; 18(5)2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534980

RESUMO

Objective.Unconsciousness is a key feature related to general anesthesia (GA) but is difficult to be evaluated accurately by anesthesiologists clinically.Approach.To tracking the loss of consciousness (LOC) and recovery of consciousness (ROC) under GA, in this study, by investigating functional connectivity of the scalp electroencephalogram, we explore any potential difference in brain networks among anesthesia induction, anesthesia recovery, and the resting state.Main results.The results of this study demonstrated significant differences among the three periods, concerning the corresponding brain networks. In detail, the suppressed default mode network, as well as the prolonged characteristic path length and decreased clustering coefficient, during LOC was found in the alpha band, compared to the Resting and the ROC state. When to further identify the Resting and LOC states, the fused network topologies and properties achieved the highest accuracy of 95%, along with a sensitivity of 93.33% and a specificity of 96.67%.Significance.The findings of this study not only deepen our understanding of propofol-induced unconsciousness but also provide quantitative measurements subserving better anesthesia management.

17.
World J Urol ; 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550426

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To explore an appropriate duration of antibiotic therapy before percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in patients with positive urine culture. METHODS: From March 2016 to May 2018, consecutive patients with positive urine culture undergoing PCNL were prospectively registered. Initial preoperative antibiotics were given empirically. If needed, antibiotics were upgraded or adjusted to susceptible antibiotic after obtaining antibiotic-sensitivity test. Postoperative systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) was the primary outcome. RESULTS: Among the 220 participants, the incidence of positive stone culture and SIRS were 85.5% and 36.8%. Escherichia coli (53.6%, 44.5%) and Proteus mirabilis (8.2%, 10.0%) were the top two bacteria in urine and stones. In univariable analysis, patients with postoperative SIRS had a higher rate of stone culture positivity (97.5% VS 78.4%, P < 0.001) and a shorter duration of preoperative antibiotics therapy (3.4 ± 2.7 days versus 4.2 ± 2.8 days, P = 0.037). The landscape of SIRS showed a declining trend as the elongation of preoperative antibiotics (P = 0.039). In a day-by-day comparison, SIRS was less prevalent in patients treated by pre-PCNL antibiotics ≥ 7 days than in those with antibiotics ≤ 6 days (21.7% VS 40.8%, P = 0.017). Multivariable logistic regression confirmed positive stone culture (P = 0.001, OR 11.115) as an independent risk factor and pre-PCNL antibiotics ≥ 7 days (P = 0.048, OR 0.449) as an independent protective factor for SIRS. Preoperative antibiotic ≥ 7 days decreased SIRS from 45.4 to 27.8% and from 9.1 to 0% in patients with a positive and negative stone culture, respectively. CONCLUSION: Exceeding seven days should be appropriate duration of antibiotic therapy before PCNL in patients with positive urine cultures.

18.
Nat Plants ; 7(9): 1239-1253, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475528

RESUMO

Aristolochia, a genus in the magnoliid order Piperales, has been famous for centuries for its highly specialized flowers and wide medicinal applications. Here, we present a new, high-quality genome sequence of Aristolochia fimbriata, a species that, similar to Amborella trichopoda, lacks further whole-genome duplications since the origin of extant angiosperms. As such, the A. fimbriata genome is an excellent reference for inferences of angiosperm genome evolution, enabling detection of two novel whole-genome duplications in Piperales and dating of previously reported whole-genome duplications in other magnoliids. Genomic comparisons between A. fimbriata and other angiosperms facilitated the identification of ancient genomic rearrangements suggesting the placement of magnoliids as sister to monocots, whereas phylogenetic inferences based on sequence data we compiled yielded ambiguous relationships. By identifying associated homologues and investigating their evolutionary histories and expression patterns, we revealed highly conserved floral developmental genes and their distinct downstream regulatory network that may contribute to the complex flower morphology in A. fimbriata. Finally, we elucidated the genetic basis underlying the biosynthesis of terpenoids and aristolochic acids in A. fimbriata.


Assuntos
Aristolochia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aristolochia/genética , Ácidos Aristolóquicos/biossíntese , Evolução Biológica , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/genética , Magnoliopsida/genética , Terpenos/metabolismo , Ácidos Aristolóquicos/genética , Variação Genética , Genoma de Planta , Genótipo , Filogenia , Plantas Medicinais/genética , Plantas Medicinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento
19.
J Integr Plant Biol ; 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469075

RESUMO

Cryptochromes are blue light photoreceptors that mediate various light responses in plants and mammals. The heterotrimeric G-protein is known to regulate various physiological processes in plants and mammals. In Arabidopsis, cryptochrome 1 (CRY1) and the G-protein ß subunit AGB1 act antagonistically to regulate stomatal development. The molecular mechanism by which CRY1 and AGB1 regulate this process remains unknown. Here, we show that Arabidopsis CRY1 acts partially through AGB1, and AGB1 acts through SPEECHLESS (SPCH), a master transcription factor that drives stomatal initiation and proliferation, to regulate stomatal development. We demonstrate that AGB1 physically interacts with SPCH to block the bHLH DNA-binding domain of SPCH and inhibit its DNA-binding activity. Moreover, we demonstrate that photoexcited CRY1 represses the interaction of AGB1 with SPCH to release AGB1 inhibition of SPCH DNA-binding activity, leading to the expression of SPCH-target genes promoting stomatal development. Taken together, our results suggest that the mechanism by which CRY1 promotes stomatal development involves positive regulation of the DNA-binding activity of SPCH mediated by CRY1 inhibition of the AGB1-SPCH interaction. We propose that the antagonistic regulation of SPCH DNA-binding activity by CRY1 and AGB1 may allow plants to balance light and G-protein signaling and optimize stomatal density and pattern.

20.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558894

RESUMO

Breaking the symmetry of a crystal structure can enable even-order nonlinear activities, including second-harmonic generation (SHG). The emerging chiral hybrid organic-inorganic metal halides feature unique optical and electronic properties and flexible crystal structures, making them a class of promising nonlinear optical materials. However, their nonlinear response performances are currently inferior to traditional nonlinear crystals, because of the lack of research on resonant enhancement and third-harmonic generation (THG). Herein, we designed chiral hybrid bismuth halides with naturally nonsymmetrical structure to enable SHG. Simultaneously, these chiral compounds preserve 1D crystal structures to create strong free exciton, broad self-trapped exciton (STE), and discrete band energy levels, which facilitate the resonant enhancement of SHG and THG susceptibilities. These new chiral films showcase superior effective SHG susceptibility (χ(2) ∼ 130.5 pm V-1 at an interesting wavelength of 1550 nm), exceeding that of the reference, a commercial LiNbO3 (χ(2) ∼ 83.4 pm V-1) single-crystal film. Furthermore, their THG intensities are even higher than their SHG intensities, with effective THG susceptibility (χ(3)) being ∼9.0 × 106 pm2 V-2 at 1550 nm (37 times that of the reference monolayer WS2). Their high SHG and THG performances indicate the promising future of these 1D chiral hybrid bismuth halides toward nonlinear optical applications.

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