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1.
Neuropsychologia ; : 107655, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068599

RESUMO

A person's native language background exerts constraints on the brain's automatic responses while learning a second language. It remains unclear, however, whether and how musical experience may help the brain overcome such constraints and meet the requirements of a second language. This study compared native Chinese English learners who were musicians, non-musicians and native English readers on their automatic brain automatic integration of English letter-sounds with an ERP cross-modal audiovisual mismatch negativity paradigm. The results showed that native Chinese-speaking musicians successfully integrated English letters and sounds, but their non-musician peers did not, despite of their comparable English learning experience and proficiency level. However, native Chinese-speaking musicians demonstrated enhanced cross-modal MMN for both synchronized and delayed letter-sound integration, while native English readers only showed enhanced cross-modal MMN for synchronized integration. Moreover, native Chinese-speaking musicians showed stronger theta oscillations when integrating English letters and sounds, suggesting that they had better top-down modulation. In contrast, native English readers showed stronger delta oscillations for synchronized integration, and their cross-modal delta oscillations significantly correlated with English reading performance. These findings suggest that long-term professional musical experience may enhance the top-down modulation, then help the brain efficiently integrating letter-sounds required by the second language. Such benefits from musical experience may be different from those from specific language experience in shaping the brain's automatic responses to reading.

2.
Clin Chim Acta ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased serum and urinary mitochondrial DNA have been demonstrated in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV). Here we investigated the significance of serum nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 6 (ND6), which is encoded by mtDNA and can attract neutrophils, in AAV. METHODS: Thirty-seven AAV patients (32 patients with positive myeloperoxidase-ANCA and 5 patients with proteinase 3-ANCA) were enrolled. Relationship between serum ND6 and clinico-laboratory characteristics were analyzed. RESULTS: The ND6 level of patients was higher than normal people (46.56±23.67 pg/mL vs. 4.95±2.45 pg/mL, P<0.001) The ND6 levels of patients who needed hemodialysis at disease onset and who had pulmonary hemorrhage (PH) were higher than that of the corresponding controls (P=0.004 and 0.044 respectively). The ND6 level negatively correlated with the percentages of normal glomeruli in kidney biopsy. The AUC of ROC curve to diagnose hemodialysis and PH was 0.804 and 0.750 respectively. ND6 level positively correlated with Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score in active disease, and returned to normal after remission. Patients with higher serum ND6 had higher mortality (P=0.023). CONCLUSIONS: Serum ND6 increases in active AAV, and its level correlates with the severity of disease. High ND6 level is associated with severe organ injury and predicts poor prognosis of AAV.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050214

RESUMO

This study draws on Bourdieu's theory of capitals to analyze the relative importance of economic, cultural, and social capital on health behaviors in Chinese middle-aged and older adults. Based on data from the China Family Panel Studies of 2016 (N = 15,147), we first harnessed a binary logistic regression model to discuss the associations between the three capitals and four types of health behaviors (i.e., physical exercise, smoking, binge drinking and stay-up). Using the sheaf coefficients technique, we then compared the relative effects of three of the capitals on health behaviors. The results suggest that cultural capital is the most influential one, which would significantly increase physical exercise and stay-up behaviors, and reduce smoking and binge drinking behaviors. Economic capital is also an important predictor, that may reduce smoking behavior but increase binge drinking and stay-up behaviors. Social capital has shown the least importance, although it would still be saliently associated with physical exercise, smoking and stay-up behaviors. In addition, some significant group disparities are also identified. This article is one of the first to explain health behavior inequalities through a Bourdieusian capital-based approach in Chinese contexts.

4.
Int J Clin Pract ; : e13772, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33078536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have evaluated the use of dexmedetomidine versus fentanyl as adjuvants to ropivacaine for epidural anesthesia, yet the results are conflicting. We aimed to conduct this meta-analysis to assess the effects and safety of dexmedetomidine and fentanyl as adjuvants to ropivacaine for epidural anesthesia. METHODS: Cochrane Library et al. databases were searched from inception to Jan 28, 2020. Th synthesized effect sizes were presented as mean difference (MD) or odd of risk (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). RESULTS: 9 RCTs with a total of 672 patients were included. The synthesized results indicated that the mean time to the onset of sensory block(MD: -2.82, 95%CI (-4.84, -0.80)), and the time to maximum motor block (MD: -4.35, 95%CI (-7.31, -1.40)) in dexmedetomidine group was significantly less than that of fentanyl group, while the mean time to rescue analgesia in dexmedetomidine group was significantly increased(MD: 99.13, 95%CI (82.89, 115.37)). The incidence of nausea and vomiting(OR: 0.43, 95%CI (0.29, 0.66)), and shivering (OR: 0.34, 95%CI (0.18, 0.63)) in dexmedetomidine group was significantly reduced, yet the incidence of oral dryness in dexmedetomidine group was significantly increased OR: 5.31, 95%CI (1.69, 16.69)). CONCLUSIONS: Dexmedetomidine is better than fentanyl as adjuvant to ropivacaine for epidural anesthesia with better effects and less adverse events.

5.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 132: 110832, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059260

RESUMO

Panax Ginseng has been widely used in Asian for thousand years. In order to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ginseng, more and more ginseng clinical trials (GCTs) have been conducted recently. However, there is a lack of an extensive review summarizing the current status for the quality and quantity of ginseng clinical researches until now. Therefore, clinical trials for ginseng were retrieved from International Clinical Trials Registration Platform and collected through the system retrieval method of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses in PubMed, the Web of Science, the Korean Studies Information Service System, and SCOPUS database. We summarized the clinical characteristics of 152 registered ginseng clinical trials (R-GCTs) and119 published ginseng clinical trials (P-GCTs), such as source register, recruitment status, primary purpose, duration, sample size, conditions, and outcomes. Among them, ginseng has mainly been studied in clinical trials in the single-center and less than 200 subjects. In the most GCTs, healthy subjects and patients with various conditions, such as cardiovascular and metabolic diseases are administrated with ginseng, ginsenosides or the prescriptions containing ginseng for less than 3 months to investigate the protective and therapeutic functions of ginseng. 95 (79.8 %) published articles showed that ginseng has plenty of positive effects. This review could assist the basic researchers and clinical doctors to understand current status and problem of ginseng clinical research, and perhaps could benefit for the reasonable and accurate design of future clinical studies.

6.
Build Environ ; : 107368, 2020 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33071439

RESUMO

Various organizations and societies around the globe have issued guidelines in response to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and virus (SARS-CoV-2). In this paper, heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning-related guidelines or documents in several major countries and regions have been reviewed and compared, including those issued by the American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, the Federation of European Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Associations, the Society of Heating, Air-Conditioning and Sanitary Engineers of Japan, Architectural Society of China, and the Chinese Institute of Refrigeration. Most terms and suggestions in these guidelines are consistent with each other, although there are some conflicting details, reflecting the underlying uncertainty surrounding the transmission mechanism and characteristics of COVID-19 in buildings. All guidelines emphasize the importance of ventilation, but the specific ventilation rate that can eliminate the risk of transmission of airborne particulate matter has not been established. The most important countermeasure, commonly agreed countermeasures, the conflicting content from different guidelines, and further work have been summarized in this paper.

7.
Clin Lab ; 66(10)2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33073947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study explores the expression and significance of miR-133 expression in peripheral blood of patients with acute cerebral infarction (ACI), so as to provide new evidence for the diagnosis and treatment of ACI. METHODS: Serum levels of miR-133, interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), C-reactive protein (CRP) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were examined using RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Pearson's correlation assay was used to analyze the relationship between the level of serum miR-133 and inflammatory factors. Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze the 10-year survival rate of ACI patients with different levels of miR-133 expression. RESULTS: The level of serum miR-133 in the ACI group was significantly higher than that in healthy group. Mean-while, the level of serum miR-133 in the large infarction group, middle infarction group, small infarction group, and lacunar infarction group was higher than in the healthy group. Moreover, the serum levels of miR-133 in patients with atherosclerotic thrombotic cerebral infarction (AT) and cardioembolic stroke (CE) were significantly higher than those in healthy subjects and small artery occlusive cerebral infarction (SAD) subjects. Serum levels of IL-6, IL-8, CRP and TNF-α in ACI group were significantly higher than those in healthy group. The correlation analysis showed that serum miR-133 was positively correlated with IL-6, IL-8, CRP, and TNF-α in ACI patients. The 10-year survival rate of the low-expression group was significantly higher than that of the high-expression group. CONCLUSIONS: Serum level of miR-133 may indicate the onset and progression of cerebral infarction and may be a potential biomarker for the diagnosis of ACI.

8.
Biol Res ; 53(1): 47, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066819

RESUMO

Nitrogen is the main limiting nutrient after carbon, hydrogen and oxygen for photosynthetic process, phyto-hormonal, proteomic changes and growth-development of plants to complete its lifecycle. Excessive and inefficient use of N fertilizer results in enhanced crop production costs and atmospheric pollution. Atmospheric nitrogen (71%) in the molecular form is not available for the plants. For world's sustainable food production and atmospheric benefits, there is an urgent need to up-grade nitrogen use efficiency in agricultural farming system. The nitrogen use efficiency is the product of nitrogen uptake efficiency and nitrogen utilization efficiency, it varies from 30.2 to 53.2%. Nitrogen losses are too high, due to excess amount, low plant population, poor application methods etc., which can go up to 70% of total available nitrogen. These losses can be minimized up to 15-30% by adopting improved agronomic approaches such as optimal dosage of nitrogen, application of N by using canopy sensors, maintaining plant population, drip fertigation and legume based intercropping. A few transgenic studies have shown improvement in nitrogen uptake and even increase in biomass. Nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, glutamine synthetase, glutamine oxoglutarate aminotransferase and asparagine synthetase enzyme have a great role in nitrogen metabolism. However, further studies on carbon-nitrogen metabolism and molecular changes at omic levels are required by using "whole genome sequencing technology" to improve nitrogen use efficiency. This review focus on nitrogen use efficiency that is the major concern of modern days to save economic resources without sacrificing farm yield as well as safety of global environment, i.e. greenhouse gas emissions, ammonium volatilization and nitrate leaching.

9.
Technol Health Care ; 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33074204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The traditional meal assistance robots use human-computer interaction such as buttons, voice, and EEG. However, most of them rely on excellent programming technology for development, in parallelism with exhibiting inconvenient interaction or unsatisfactory recognition rates in most cases. OBJECTIVE: To develop a convenient human-computer interaction mode with a high recognition rate, which allows users to make the robot show excellent adaptability in the new environment without programming ability. METHODS: A visual interaction method based on deep learning was used to develop the feeding robot: when the camera detects that the user's mouth is open for 2 seconds, the feeding command is turned on, and the feeding is temporarily conducted when the eyes are closed for 2 seconds. A programming method of learning from the demonstration, which is simple and has strong adaptability to different environments, was employed to generate a feeding trajectory. RESULTS: The user is able to eat independently through convenient visual interaction, and it only requires the caregiver to drag and teach the robotic arm once in the face of a new eating environment.

10.
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng ; PP2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976091

RESUMO

GOAL: Idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) represents generalized spike-wave discharges (GSWD) and distributed changes in thalamocortical circuit. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how the ongoing alpha oscillation acts upon the local temporal dynamics and spatial hyperconnectivity during epileptic state. METHODS: We evaluated the spatiotemporal regulation of alpha oscillations in epileptic state based on simultaneous EEG-fMRI recordings in 45 IGE patients. The alpha-BOLD temporal consistency, as well as the effect of alpha power windows on dynamic functional connectivity strength (dFCS) was analyzed. Then, stable synchronization networks during GSWD were constructed, and the spatial covariation with alpha-based network integration was investigated. RESULTS: Increased temporal covariation was demonstrated between alpha power and BOLD fluctuations in thalamus and distributed cortical regions in IGE. High alpha power had inhibition effect on dFCS in healthy controls, while in epilepsy, high alpha windows arose along with the enhancement of dFCS in thalamus, caudate and some default mode network (DMN) regions. Moreover, synchronization networks in GSWD-before, GSWD-onset and GSWD-after stages were demonstrated, and the connectivity strength in prominent hub nodes (precuneus, thalamus) was associated with the spatially disturbed alpha-based network integration. CONCLUSION: The results indicated the spatiotemporal regulation of alpha in epilepsy by means of increased power and decreased coherence communication. It provided links between alpha rhythm and the altered temporal dynamics, as well as the hyperconnectivity in thalamus-DMN circuit. SIGNIFICANCE: The combination between neural oscillations and epileptic representations may be of clinical importance in terms of seizure prediction and non-invasive interventions.

11.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 22(1): 200, 2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867828

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The disruption of metabolic events and changes to nutrient and oxygen availability due to sustained inflammation in RA increases the demand of bioenergetic and biosynthetic processes within the damaged tissue. The current study aimed to understand the molecular mechanisms of SLC7A5 (amino acid transporter) in synoviocytes of RA patients. METHODS: Synovial tissues were obtained from OA and RA patients. Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) were isolated, and SLC7A5 expression was examined by using RT-qPCR, immunofluorescence, and Western blotting. RNAi and antibody blocking treatments were used to knockdown SLC7A5 expression or to block its transporter activities. mTOR activity assay and MMP expression levels were monitored in RA FLS under amino acid deprivation or nutrient-rich conditions. RESULTS: RA FLS displayed significantly upregulated expression of SLC7A5 compared to OA FLS. Cytokine IL-1ß was found to play a crucial role in upregulating SLC7A5 expression via the NF-κB pathway. Intervening SLC7A5 expression with RNAi or blocking its function by monoclonal antibody ameliorated MMP3 and MMP13 protein expression. Conversely, upregulation of SLC7A5 or tryptophan supplementation enhanced mTOR-P70S6K signals which promoted the protein translation of MMP3 and MMP13 in RA FLS. CONCLUSION: Activated NF-κB pathway upregulates SLC7A5, which enhances the mTOR-P70S6K activity and MMP3 and MMP13 expression in RA FLS.

12.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(38): 42660-42668, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878431

RESUMO

Li-rich and Mn-based layered oxides are the most promising candidates for next-generation high energy density cathode materials. However, inherent problems including poor rate performance, continuous capacity degradation, and voltage fading hinder their commercial utilization. Herein, a lattice- and interfacial-modified Li1.2Mn0.54Co0.13Ni0.13O2 with a pristine-layered bulk structure, Na- and S-doped transition phase, and epitaxially grown Na2Mn (SO4)2 (C2/c symmetry) layer were constructed by Na2S treatment. The monoclinic Na2Mn(SO4)2 not only acts as an interface protective layer, alleviating the harmful electrode-electrolyte reactions, but also promotes formation of oxygen vacancy in the layered structure, enhancing reversibility of oxygen redox. The Na and S surface lattice doping leads to enhanced Li+ diffusion and alleviates the chance of oxygen release. With the positive effects provided by the stable interfacial layer and lattice modification, the modified cathodes with moderate Na2S treatment shows alleviated capacity and voltage decay and enhanced electrochemical kinetics. Especially, the washed cathode with 3 wt % Na2S treatment delivers a discharge specific capacity of 305 at 0.1 C and 219 mA h g-1 at 1 C, as well as 93.15% capacity retention and 88.20% voltage retention after 200 cycles at 1 C.

13.
Evol Bioinform Online ; 16: 1176934320941495, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963469

RESUMO

Rice (Oryza sativa) yield is correlated to various factors. Transcription regulators are important factors, such as the typical SHORT INTERNODES-related sequences (SRSs), which encode proteins with single zinc finger motifs. Nevertheless, knowledge regarding the evolutionary and functional characteristics of the SRS gene family members in rice is insufficient. Therefore, we performed a genome-wide screening and characterization of the OsSRS gene family in Oryza sativa japonica rice. We also examined the SRS proteins from 11 rice sub-species, consisting of 3 cultivars, 6 wild varieties, and 2 other genome types. SRS members from maize, sorghum, Brachypodium distachyon, and Arabidopsis were also investigated. All these SRS proteins exhibited species-specific characteristics, as well as monocot- and dicot-specific characteristics, as assessed by phylogenetic analysis, which was further validated by gene structure and motif analyses. Genome comparisons revealed that segmental duplications may have played significant roles in the recombination of the OsSRS gene family and their expression levels. The family was mainly subjected to purifying selective pressure. In addition, the expression data demonstrated the distinct responses of OsSRS genes to various abiotic stresses and hormonal treatments, indicating their functional divergence. Our study provides a good reference for elucidating the functions of SRS genes in rice.

14.
Biotechnol Bioeng ; 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915459

RESUMO

Microbial consortium is a complex adaptive system with higher-order dynamic characteristics that are not present by individual members. To accurately predict the social interactions, we formulate a set of unstructured kinetic models to quantitatively capture the dynamic interactions of multiple microbial species. By introducing an interaction coefficient, we analytically derived the steady-state solutions for the interacting species and the substrate-depleting profile in the chemostat. We analyzed the stability of the possible coexisting states defined by competition, parasitism, amensalism, commensalism, and cooperation. Our model predicts that only parasitism, commensalism, and cooperation could lead to stable coexisting states. We also determined the optimal social interaction criteria of microbial coculture when sequential metabolic reactions are compartmentalized into two distinct species. Coupled with Luedeking-Piret and Michaelis-Menten equations, accumulation of metabolic intermediates in one species and formation of end-product in another species could be derived and assessed. We discovered that parasitism consortia disfavor the bioconversion of intermediate to final product; and commensalism consortia could efficiently convert metabolic intermediates to final product and maintain metabolic homeostasis with a broad range of operational conditions (i.e., dilution rates); whereas cooperative consortia leads to highly nonlinear pattern of precursor accumulation and end-product formation. The underlying dynamics and emergent properties of microbial consortia may provide critical knowledge for us to understand ecological coexisting states, engineer efficient bioconversion process, deliver effective gut therapeutics as well as elucidate probiotic-pathogen or tumor-host interactions in general.

15.
Mol Med Rep ; 22(4): 3513-3524, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32945465

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) are the two most common debilitating joint disorders and although both share similar clinical manifestations, the pathogenesis of each is different and remains relatively unclear. The present study aimed to use bioinformatic analysis to identify pivotal genes and pathways involved in the pathogenesis of RA. Microarray datasets from patients with RA and OA were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using GEO2R software; Gene Ontology analysis and pathway enrichment were analyzed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery and the Kyoto Encylopedia for Genes and Genomes, respectively; and protein­protein interaction networks of DEGs were constructed using the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes database, and module analysis and pathway crosstalk of the PPI network was visualized using plugins of Cytoscape. In addition, the prediction of target mRNAs for differentially expressed microRNAs (DEMs) was performing using the starBase database and the identified pivotal genes were verified using reverse­transcription quantitative PCR in synovial tissue from patients with RA. A total of 566 DEGs were identified in GSE55457, GSE55235 while 23 DEMs were identified in the GSE72564 dataset. Upregulated DEGs were found to be mostly enriched in the 'Cytokine­cytokine receptor interaction' pathway, whereas downregulated DEGs were discovered to be enriched in the 'PPAR signaling pathway'. The top 25 DEGs were mostly enriched in the 'Chemokine signaling pathway'. In addition, six of the miRNA target genes were selected as potential biomarkers and a total of 24 genes were selected as potential hub genes. Experimental validation demonstrated that the expression levels of Cytotoxic T­Lymphocyte Associated Protein 4 (CTLA4), Zeta­chain­associated protein kinase 70 (ZAP70) and LCK proto­oncogene (LCK) were significantly increased, whereas HGF expression levels were decreased in RA synovial tissue. In conclusion, these findings suggest that the identified DEGs and pivotal genes in the present study may further enhance our knowledge of the underlying pathways in the pathogenesis of RA. These genes may also serve as diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for RA; however, further experimental validation is necessary following the bioinformatic analysis to determine our conclusions.

16.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(18): 18415-18435, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991322

RESUMO

The association between vitamin C intake and breast cancer is unclear. This meta-analysis aimed to precisely assess the association of vitamin C intake with breast cancer risk and mortality. We searched the PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases up to June 2020 and found 69 studies relevant to breast cancer risk (54 studies) and survival (15 studies). Relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using the random-effects models. Pooled results suggested that the highest versus lowest vitamin C intake was significantly associated with a lower risk of breast cancer incidence (Relative Risk = 0.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.81-0.92). Dietary vitamin C but not supplements was found to reduce breast cancer risk (Relative Risk = 0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.82-0.96). For the highest versus lowest vitamin C intake, the pooled hazard risk for breast cancer-specific mortality was 0.78 (95% confidence interval, 0.69-0.88), totality mortality was 0.82 (95% confidence interval, 0.74-0.91), and recurrence was 0.81 (95% confidence interval, 0.67-0.99). Our analysis suggests that higher vitamin C intake is significantly associated with reduced breast cancer incidence and mortality. However, the intake of vitamin C supplements has no significant effect on breast cancer prevention.

17.
Sci Total Environ ; 754: 142184, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920411

RESUMO

Catering oil fumes are a major hazard to human health. In particular, the typical Chinese cooking style is characterised by a high temperature frying process that produces high levels of cooking oil fumes. However, limited data relating to this sector mean that national emission inventory data specific to the catering service industry do not exist. To address above deficiency and thus to establish the inventory of a city, or a province, or even a country, a door-to-door survey campaign was launched in the Chinese cities of Heze and Linfen to determine the structure of local catering industries. Data revealed that the number of catering businesses per 104 people was 17 ± 4. Of these, 3.0 ± 1.4, 15.0 ± 1.4, and 82.0 ± 0.0% were classified as large, medium, and small enterprises, respectively. Furthermore, the installation rates of fume purifiers were 74 ± 13, 66 ± 9, and 51 ± 14% for large, medium, and small enterprises, respectively, with net removal efficiencies of 63 ± 11, 50 ± 7, and 31 ± 8%, respectively. This information was extrapolated across all provincial regions of China to construct a provincial and national emission inventory. In 2017, China's national catering industry released approximately 34 kt of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), 38 kt of particulate matter with a diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5), 48 kt of particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 µm (PM10), 1 kt of black carbon (BC), and 27 kt of organic carbon (OC). A significant correlation was observed between vegetable oil consumption and emissions (e.g., for VOCs, y = 14.94 x + 76.50, R2 = 0.87, where y is VOCs emissions and x is vegetable oil consumption), indirectly corroborating the rationality of the inventory. Moreover, this correlation provides the potential for a dynamic inventory based on vegetable oil consumption. Future studies are proposed to address more influential factors to improve the reliability of the national inventory and refer to big data, rather than door-to-door investigation, to identify the amount of catering service businesses in a region.

18.
J Integr Plant Biol ; 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877013

RESUMO

Type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs) are the largest protein phosphatase family. PP2Cs dephosphorylate substrates for signaling in Arabidopsis, but the functions of most PP2Cs remain unknown. Here, we characterized PP2C49 (AT3G62260, a Group G PP2C), which regulates Na+ distribution under salt stress and is localized to the cytoplasm and nucleus. PP2C49 was highly expressed in root vascular tissues and its disruption enhanced plant tolerance to salt stress. Compared with wild type, the pp2c49 mutant contained more Na+ in roots but less Na+ in shoots and xylem sap, suggesting that PP2C49 regulates shoot Na+ extrusion. Reciprocal grafting revealed a root-based mechanism underlying the salt tolerance of pp2c49. Systemic Na+ distribution largely depends on AtHKT1;1 and loss of function of AtHKT1;1 in the pp2c49 background overrode the salt tolerance of pp2c49, resulting in salt sensitivity. Furthermore, compared with plants overexpressing PP2C49 in the wild-type background, plants overexpressing PP2C49 in the athtk1;1 mutant background were sensitive to salt, like the athtk1;1 mutants. Moreover, protein-protein interaction and two-voltage clamping assays demonstrated that PP2C49 physically interacts with AtHKT1;1 and inhibits the Na+ permeability of AtHKT1;1. This study reveals that PP2C49 negatively regulates AtHKT1;1 activity and thus determines systemic Na+ allocation during salt stress.

19.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 40(9): 1295-1300, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32990224

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of DNMT3b in human bladder cancer tissues and its correlation with postoperative survival of patients with bladder cancer. METHODS: Thirty-eight pairs of surgically resected human bladder cancer tissues and adjacent bladder tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry for DNMT3b expression, and the correlations of DNMT3b expression level were analyzed with the patients'age, gender, pathological grade, tumor size, T stage, lymph node metastasis and TNM stages. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed to assess the effect of DNMT3b expression on survival outcomes of the patients. RESULTS: High DNMT3b protein expression was detected in 63.16% of the bladder cancer tissues and in 13.16% of the adjacent tissues (P < 0.05). The expression level of DNMT3b was associated with the pathological grade (P=0.002), tumor size (P < 0.001), T stage (P < 0.001), lymphatic metastasis (P=0.039) and TNM stage (P < 0.001), but not with gender or age of the patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the protein expression level of DNMT3b was correlated with tumor size (P=0.008) and TNM grades of the tumor (P=0.042). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the patients with a high DNMT3b expression had a significantly shorter overall survival than those with a low DNMT3b expression (P=0.021). CONCLUSIONS: DNMT3b overexpression in bladder cancer is closely related to such clinicopathological factors as pathological grade, tumor size, T stage, lymphatic metastasis, and TNM stage and a shorter overall survival of the patients, suggesting the potential value of DNMT3b as a prognostic marker and a new therapeutic target for bladder cancer.

20.
Phytomedicine ; 79: 153342, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992085

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Multidrug resistance (MDR) is the major barrier to the successful treatment of chemotherapy. Compounds from nature products working as MDR sensitizers provided new treatment strategies for chemo-resistant cancers patients. METHODS: We investigated the reversal effects of nuciferine (NF), an alkaloid from Nelumbo nucifera and Nymphaea caerulea, on the paclitaxel (PTX) resistance ABCB1-overexpressing cancer in vitro and in vivo, and explored the underlying mechanism by evaluating drug sensitivity, cell cycle perturbations, intracellular accumulation, function and protein expression of efflux transporters as well as molecular signaling involved in governing transporters expression and development of MDR in cancer. RESULTS: NF overcomes the resistance of chemotherapeutic agents included PTX, doxorubicin (DOX), docetaxel, and daunorubicin to HCT-8/T and A549/T cancer cells. Notably, NF suppressed the colony formation of MDR cells in vitro and the tumor growth in A549/T xenograft mice in vivo, which demonstrated a very strong synergetic cytotoxic effect between NF and PTX as combination index (CI) (CI<0.1) indicated. Furthermore, NF increased the intracellular accumulation of P-gp substrates included DOX and Rho123 in the MDR cells and inhibited verapamil-stimulated ATPase activity. Mechanistically, inhibition of PI3K/AKT/ERK pathways by NF suppressed the activation of Nrf2 and HIF-1α, and further reduced the expression of P-gp and BCRP, contributing to the sensitizing effects of NF against MDR in cancer. CONCLUSION: This novel finding provides a promising treatment strategy for overcoming MDR and improving the efficiency of chemotherapy by using a multiple-targets MDR sensitizer NF.

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