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1.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 606(Pt 1): 784-792, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419817

RESUMO

Silicon sub-oxides (SiOx) are increasingly becoming a prospective anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Nevertheless, inferior electrical conductivity and drastic volume fluctuation upon cycling significantly hamper the electrochemical performance of SiOx. In this work, rice husks (RHs)-derived pitaya-like SiOx/nitrogen-doped carbon (SNC) superstructures have been prepared by a simple electrospray-carbonization approach. SiOx nanoparticles (NPs) are well-dispersed in a spherical nitrogen-doped carbon (NC) matrix. The carbon frameworks discourage the aggregation of SiOx NPs, facilitating the kinetics for ion diffusion and charge transfer, and maintaining structural stability upon cycling, thus bringing about improved electrochemical performance. When the optimized SNC superstructures with SiOx content of 64.3% are utilized as LIBs anodes, a stable specific capacity of 622.8 mA h g-1 after 100 cycles at 0.1 A g-1, and an excellent long cycle performance of 190.1 mA h g-1 after 5000 cycles at 5 A g-1 are obtained. This effective and universal synthetic strategy for fabricating controllable superstructures offers insights into the development of high-performance LIBs.


Assuntos
Lítio , Oryza , Carbono , Nitrogênio , Estudos Prospectivos
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6923, 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34836947

RESUMO

Nationwide nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) have been effective at mitigating the spread of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), but their broad impact on other diseases remains under-investigated. Here we report an ecological analysis comparing the incidence of 31 major notifiable infectious diseases in China in 2020 to the average level during 2014-2019, controlling for temporal phases defined by NPI intensity levels. Respiratory diseases and gastrointestinal or enteroviral diseases declined more than sexually transmitted or bloodborne diseases and vector-borne or zoonotic diseases. Early pandemic phases with more stringent NPIs were associated with greater reductions in disease incidence. Non-respiratory diseases, such as hand, foot and mouth disease, rebounded substantially towards the end of the year 2020 as the NPIs were relaxed. Statistical modeling analyses confirm that strong NPIs were associated with a broad mitigation effect on communicable diseases, but resurgence of non-respiratory diseases should be expected when the NPIs, especially restrictions of human movement and gathering, become less stringent.

3.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(45): 54348-54353, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735128

RESUMO

A surface modified-CsPbBr3/polybutylmethacrylate (PBMA) nanocomposite is reported to be a scintillator that enables us to provide a high contrast X-ray image using a common charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. Bis(2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl) phosphate (BMEP) was employed to alter the ratio of the original ligands on the CsPbBr3 nanocrystal (NC) surface for optimizing the optical performance of the CsPbBr3/PBMA nanocomposites. The nanocomposites with a concentration of 0.02 wt % NCs exhibit more than 70% transmittance in the visible region and show a green emission at 515 nm, the fast decay time is 13 ns, while the photoluminescence quantum yield value is 99.2%. Under X-ray excitation, the emission peak wavelength is centered at 524 nm and shows a narrow full width at half-maximum of 26.6 nm; the result nicely matches with the peak quantum efficiency of most commercial CCD/complementary metal oxide semiconductor cameras. The high contrast X-ray image is recorded at a low dose rate of 4.6 µGyair/s, which enables read out with software. Our results demonstrate that these CsPbBr3/PBMA nanocomposites have promising application prospects for ionizing radiation detection, especially for X-ray imaging.

4.
Plant Dis ; 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818919

RESUMO

Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat. Identifying novel resistance genes applicable for developing disease resistant cultivars is important for the sustainable control of wheat stripe rust. Chinese wheat landrace Xiaohemai (XHM) is an elite germplasm line with all-stage resistance (ASR) effective against predominant Chinese Pst races. In this study, we performed a bulked segregant analysis coupled with exome capture sequencing (BSE-seq) to identify a candidate genomic region strongly associated with stripe rust resistance on chromosome 1AL in 173 F2:3 lines derived from cross XHM × Avocet S. The gene, designated as YrXH-1AL, was validated by a conventional quantitative trait locus analysis using newly developed Kompetitive allele-specific PCR (KASP) markers, explaining up to 48.50% of the phenotypic variance. By testing a secondary mapping population comprising 144 lines from the same cross at the seedling stage with prevalent Pst race CYR34, YrXH-1AL was identified as a single Mendelian factor in a 1.5 cM interval flanked by KASP markers KP1A_484.33 and KP1A_490.09. This region corresponded to a 5.76 Mb genomic interval on Chinese Spring chromosome 1AL. Furthermore, two co-segregating KASP markers showed high polymorphisms among 130 Chinese wheat cultivars and could be used for marker-assisted selection. Because no other Yr genes for ASR that originated from common wheat have been detected on chromosome 1AL, YrXH-1AL is likely a novel gene that can be incorporated into modern breeding materials to develop wheat cultivars with enhanced stripe rust resistance.

5.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 145: 112383, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736077

RESUMO

Hypertension is one of the important causes of cardiovascular diseases, and the imbalance of vascular homeostasis caused by oxidative stress and endothelial inflammation occurs throughout hypertension pathogenesis. Therefore, inhibiting oxidative stress and endothelial inflammation is important for treating hypertension. Tianma Gouteng Decoction (TGD) is a Chinese herbal medicine that is commonly used to treat hypertension in China, and demonstrates clinically effective antihypertensive effects. However, its blood pressure reduction mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we further determined the antihypertensive effects of TGD and revealed its underlying mechanism. We established an AngII-induced hypertension mice model, which was treated with TGD for six weeks. We monitored blood pressure, heart rate, and body weight every week. After six weeks, we detected changes in the structure and function of the heart, the structure of blood vessels, and vasomotor factors. We also detected the expression of oxidative stress and inflammation-related genes. We found that TGD can significantly reduce blood pressure, improve cardiac structure and function, and reverse vascular remodeling, which could be due to the inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammation. We also found that the effect of inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation could be related to the up-regulation of transcription factor EB (TFEB) expression by TGD. Therefore, we used AAV9 to knock down TFEB and observe the role of TFEB in TGD's antihypertensive and cardiovascular protection properties. We found that after TFEB knockdown, the protective effect of TGD on blood pressure and cardiovascular remodeling in AngII-induced hypertensive mice was inhibited, and that it was unable to inhibit oxidative stress and inflammation. Therefore, our study demonstrated for the first time that TGD could exert anti-oxidative stress and anti-inflammatory effects through TFEB and reverse the cardiovascular remodeling caused by hypertension.

6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6540, 2021 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34764263

RESUMO

Bony fusion caused by pathological new bone formation manifests the clinical feature of ankylosing spondylitis (AS). However, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here we discovered spontaneous kyphosis, arthritis and bony fusion in mature CD4-Cre;Ptpn11f/f mice, which present the pathophysiological features of AS. A population of CD4-Cre-expressing proliferating chondrocytes was SHP2 deficient, which could differentiate into pre-hypertrophic and hypertrophic chondrocytes. Functionally, SHP2 deficiency in chondrocytes impeded the fusion of epiphyseal plate and promoted chondrogenesis in joint cavity and enthesis. Mechanistically, aberrant chondrocytes promoted ectopic new bone formation through BMP6/pSmad1/5 signaling. It is worth emphasizing that such pathological thickness of growth plates was evident in adolescent humans with enthesitis-related arthritis, which could progress to AS in adulthood. Targeting dysfunctional chondrogenesis with Smo inhibitor sonidegib significantly alleviated the AS-like bone disease in mice. These findings suggest that blockade of chondrogenesis by sonidegib would be a drug repurposing strategy for AS treatment.

7.
Insights Imaging ; 12(1): 166, 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767101

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The least amount of contrast medium (CM) should be used under the premise of adequate diagnosis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing ultra-low-dose (224 mgI/kg) CM for pancreatic artery depiction using the combination of advanced virtual monoenergetic imaging (VMI+) and high-concentration (400 mgI/mL) CM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 41 patients who underwent both normal dose CM (ND-CM, 320 mgI/kg) and low dose CM (LD-CM, 224 mgI/kg) thoracoabdominal enhanced CT for tumor follow-up were prospectively included. The VMI+ at the energy level of 40-kev for LD-CM images was reconstructed. CT attenuation, signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) of the abdominal artery, celiac artery, and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and qualitative scores of pancreatic arteries depiction were recorded and compared among the three groups (ND-CM, LD-CM, and VMI+ LD-CM images). ANOVA and Friedman tests were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: All quantitative and qualitative parameters on LD-CM images were lower than that on ND-CM images (all p < 0.01). There were no significant differences of all arteries' qualitative scores between ND-CM and VMI+ LD-CM images (all p > 0.05). VMI+ LD-CM images had the highest mean CT and CNR values of all arteries (all p < 0.0001). The CM volume was 52.6 ± 9.4 mL for the ND-CM group and 37.0 ± 6.7 mL for the LD-CM group. CONCLUSION: Ultra-low-dose CM (224 mgI/kg) was feasible for depicting pancreatic arteries. Inferior angiographic image quality could be successfully compensated by VMI+ and high-concentration CM.

8.
Environ Res ; : 112301, 2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736639

RESUMO

The sluggish Ni(II)/Ni(III) redox cycle does not benefit perxymonosulfate (PMS) activation for recalcitrant pollutant degradation. To solve this problem, a heterogeneous catalyst, Cu0.2Ni0.8O/SBA-15 (CNS), was constructed to activate PMS for decomposing two sulfonamide antibiotics, sulfachlorpyridazine (SACP) and sulfapyridine (SAP). SACP and SAP were completely degraded over Cu0.2Ni0.8O/SBA-15/PMS (CNSP) after 90 min. O2.- was the dominant active species involved in the degradation of SACP and SAP. Structural analysis and elemental valence state observations indicated that Cu(Ⅰ) provided electrons through Cu-O-Ni bonds to realize the charge compensation for Ni(Ⅲ) in the CNSP system. Thus, the in situ Cu(I)/Cu(II) promoting the Ni(II)/Ni(III) cycle could accelerate the PMS activation. This work provides new insights into the electron transfer between transition metals and the charge compensation mechanism for PMS activation. The degradation mechanism was proposed based on the XPS results before and after the reaction, a radical quenching test, and an EPR test. Combined with the SACP and SAP degradation intermediates identified by LC-MS, we suggest that the choice of treatment process depends on the occurrence of a steric hindrance effect between the molecular structure of the degradation target and free radicals.

9.
Curr Eye Res ; 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34766863

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-fungal role of α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) in Aspergillus Fumigatus (A. fumigatus) keratitis. METHOD: Corneas of C57BL/6 mice were infected with A. Fumigatus. α-MSH (5 ul, 1x10-4mmol/ml) was given by subconjunctival injection from day 1 to day 3 post infection (p.i.). After 3 days p.i., clinical score was recored and HE staining was tested. Fungal load in mice corneas was observed by plate counting. Pro-inflammatory mediators and pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) were detected. The numbers of neutrophils and macrophages were tested by immunofluorescence staining. The role of α-MSH in RAW264.7 cells after A. fumigatus stimulation were evaluated by PCR and Western blot, and MPKA protein levels including total-JNK (T-JNK), phosphorylated-JNK (P-JNK), total-ERK (T-ERK) and phosphorylated-ERK (P-ERK) were tested via Western blot with or without α-MSH treatment. RESULTS: Compared with PBS control group, α-MSH treatment alleviated disease response and decreased clinical score at 3 days p.i. HE staining showed less infiltration in corneal tissue after α-MSH treatment. Plate counting experiment showed that number of viable fungus in corneas of α-MSH treated group was less than control group. mRNA levels of IL-1ß, TNF-α, IL-6, MIP-2, LOX-1, Dectin-1 and iNOS were decreased. Protein levels of IL-1ß, TNF-α, IL-6 and Dectin-1 were decreased. α-MSH treatment also decreased the infiltrating neutrophils and macrophages. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, Dectin-1 and LOX-1 stimulated by A. fumigatus, were also suppressed by pretreatment of α-MSH in RAW264.7 cells. The ratio of P-JNK/T-JNK and P-ERK/T-ERK were down regulated in α-MSH group compared with PBS control group. CONCLUSION: α-MSH alleviates the severity and decreases fungal load of A. fumigatus keratitis in mice. Migration of neutrophils and macrophages are restrained. α-MSH downregulates the expression of dectin-1 and the ratio of P-JNK/T-JNK and P-ERK/T-ERK in A. fumigatus infection.

10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To combat the COVID-19 pandemic, nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPI) were implemented worldwide, which impacted a broad spectrum of acute respiratory infections (ARI). METHODS: Etiologically diagnostic data from 142 559 cases with ARIs, who were tested for eight viral pathogens (influenza virus, IFV; respiratory syncytial virus, RSV; human parainfluenza virus, HPIV; human adenovirus; human metapneumovirus; human coronavirus, HCoV; human bocavirus, HBoV, and human rhinovirus, HRV) between 2012 and 2021, were analyzed to assess the changes of respiratory infections in China during the first COVID-19 pandemic year compared to pre-pandemic years. RESULTS: Test positive rates of all respiratory viruses decreased during 2020, compared to the average levels during 2012-2019, with changes ranging from -17·2% for RSV to -87·6% for IFV. Sharp decreases mostly occurred between February and August when massive NPIs remained active, although HRV rebounded to the historical level during the summer. While IFV and HMPV were consistently suppressed year round, RSV, HPIV, HCoV, HRV HBov resurged and went beyond historical levels during September, 2020-January, 2021, after NPIs were largely relaxed and schools reopened. Resurgence was more prominent among children younger than 18 years and in Northern China. These observations remain valid after accounting for seasonality and long-term trend of each virus. CONCLUSIONS: Activities of respiratory viral infections were reduced substantially in the early phases of the COVID-19 pandemic, and massive NPIs were likely the main driver. Lifting of NPIs can lead to resurgence of viral infections, particularly in children.

11.
Adv Mater ; : e2107836, 2021 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34719819

RESUMO

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with controllable shapes and sizes show a great potential in Li-S batteries. However, neither the relationship between shapes and specific capacity nor the influence of MOF particle size on cyclic stability have been fully established yet. Herein, MIL-96-Al with various shapes, forming hexagonal platelet crystals (HPC), hexagonal bipyramidal crystals (HBC), and hexagonal prismatic bipyramidal crystals (HPBC) were successfully prepared via co-solvent methods. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations demonstrate that the HBC shape with highly exposed (101) planes can effectively adsorb lithium polysulfides (LPS) during the charge/discharge process. By changing the relative proportion of the co-solvents, HBC samples with different particle sizes were prepared. When these MIL-96-Al crystals were used as sulfur host materials, it was found that those with the smaller size of HBC shape deliver the higher initial capacity. These investigations establish that different crystal planes have different adsorption abilities for LPS, and that the MOF particle size should be considered for a suitable sulfur host. More broadly, this work provides a strategy for designing sulfur hosts in Li-S batteries. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

12.
Neuroimage ; 245: 118687, 2021 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732323

RESUMO

Preliminary studies have shown the feasibility of deep learning (DL)-based super-resolution (SR) technique for reconstructing thick-slice/gap diagnostic MR images into high-resolution isotropic data, which would be of great significance for brain research field if the vast amount of diagnostic MRI data could be successively put into brain morphometric study. However, less evidence has addressed the practicability of the strategy, because lack of a large-sample available real data for constructing DL model. In this work, we employed a large cohort (n = 2052) of peculiar data with both low through-plane resolution diagnostic and high-resolution isotropic brain MR images from identical subjects. By leveraging a series of SR approaches, including a proposed novel DL algorithm of Structure Constrained Super Resolution Network (SCSRN), the diagnostic images were transformed to high-resolution isotropic data to meet the criteria of brain research in voxel-based and surface-based morphometric analyses. We comprehensively assessed image quality and the practicability of the reconstructed data in a variety of morphometric analysis scenarios. We further compared the performance of SR approaches to the ground truth high-resolution isotropic data. The results showed (i) DL-based SR algorithms generally improve the quality of diagnostic images and render morphometric analysis more accurate, especially, with the most superior performance of the novel approach of SCSRN. (ii) Accuracies vary across brain structures and methods, and (iii) performance increases were higher for voxel than for surface based approaches. This study supports that DL-based image super-resolution potentially recycle huge amount of routine diagnostic brain MRI deposited in sleeping state, and turning them into useful data for neurometric research.

13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 228: 112942, 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737156

RESUMO

Triadimefon is a broad-spectrum fungicide widely applied in the agriculture. It is believed to be an endocrine disruptor. Whether triadimefon can inhibit the development of fetal Leydig cells and the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Thirty-two female pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into four groups and were dosed via gavage of triadimefon (0, 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg/day) for 9 days from gestational day (GD) 12-20. Triadimefon significantly reduced serum testosterone level in male fetuses at 100 mg/kg. The double immunofluorescence staining of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage (a biomarker for fetal Leydig cells) was used to measure PCNA-labeling in fetal Leydig cells. It markedly increased fetal Leydig cell number primarily via increasing single cell population and elevated the PCNA-labeling of fetal Leydig cells in male fetuses at 100 mg/kg while it induced abnormal aggregation of fetal Leydig cells. The expression levels of fetal Leydig cell genes, Lhcgr, Scarb1, Star, Cyp11a1, Hsd3b1, Cyp17a1, Hsd17b3, Insl3 and Nr5a1, were determined to explore its effects on fetal Leydig cell development. We found that triadimefon markedly down-regulated the expression of Leydig cell genes, Hsd17b3, Insl3, and Nr5a1 as low as 25 mg/kg and Scarb1 and Cyp11a1 at 100 mg/kg. It did not affect Sertoli cell number but markedly down-regulated the expression of Sertoli cell gene Amh at 50 and 100 mg/kg. Triadimefon significantly down-regulated the expression of antioxidant genes Sod1, Gpx1, and Cat at 25-100 mg/kg, suggesting that it can induce oxidative stress in fetal testis, and it reduced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and AKT2 at 100 mg/kg, indicating that it can inhibit the development of fetal Leydig cells. In conclusion, gestational exposure to triadimefon inhibits the development of fetal Leydig cells in male fetuses by inhibiting its differentiation.

14.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 110: 73-83, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593196

RESUMO

Significant iron release from cast iron pipes in water distribution systems (WDSs), which usually occurs during the source water switch period, is a great concern of water utilities because of the potential occurrence of "red water" and customer complaints. This study developed a new method which combined in-situ water stagnation experiments with mathematical models and numerical simulations to predict the iron release caused by source water switch. In-situ water stagnation experiments were conducted to determine the total iron accumulation in nine cast iron pipes in-service in Beijing when switching the local water to treated Danjiangkou Reservior water. Results showed that the difference in the concentration increment of total iron in 24 hr (ΔCITI,24), i.e. short-term iron release, caused by source water switch was mainly dependent on the difference in the key quality parameters (pH, hardness, nitrate, Larson Ratio and dissolved oxygen (DO)) between the two source waters. The iron release rate (RFe) after switch, i.e. long-term iron release, was closely related to the pipe properties as well as the DO and total residual chlorine (TRC) concentrations. Mathematical models of ΔCITI,24 and RFe were developed to quantitatively reveal the relationship between iron release and the key quality parameters. The RFe model could successfully combine with EPANET-MSX, a numerical simulator of water quality for WDSs to extend the iron release modeling from pipe level to network level. The new method is applicable to predicting iron release during source water switch, thus facilitating water utilities to take preventive actions to avoid "red water".


Assuntos
Água Potável , Ferro , Cloro , Corrosão , Qualidade da Água , Abastecimento de Água
15.
Opt Express ; 29(16): 24792-24803, 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614827

RESUMO

Scintillators play an important role in the field of nuclear radiation detection. However, the light output of the scintillators is often limited by total internal reflection due to the high refractive indices of the scintillators. Furthermore, the light emission from scintillators typically has an approximately Lambertian profile, which is detrimental to the collection of the light. In this paper, we demonstrate a promising method to achieve enhancement of the light output from scintillators through use of mixed-scale microstructures that are composed of a photonic crystal slab and a microlens array. Simulations and experimental results both show significant improvements in the scintillator light output. The X-ray imaging characteristics of scintillators are improved by the application of the mixed-scale microstructures. The results presented here suggest that the application of the proposed mixed-scale microstructures to scintillators will be beneficial in the nuclear radiation detection field.

16.
Otol Neurotol ; 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607998

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the feasibility of ultrashort echo time (UTE) imaging in the visualization of Eustachian tubes (ETs). METHODS: The local institutional review board approved the study protocol. Twenty volunteers were involved in this study. The scanning scheme consisted of T2-sampling perfection with application-optimized contrasts by using different flip angle evolutions (T2-SPACE) MR imaging with water excitation, a UTE scan with a prototype sequence and a CT scan. The UTE images were compared with both the T2-SPACE and CT images. The quality of the images was rated by two radiologists blindly. Interobserver agreement was assessed using the kappa statistic. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 17, SPSS Inc.). A value of p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: For all subjects, the T2-SPACE images successfully displayed the cartilaginous part of the ET (Fig. 1). The CT images fully showed the bony part of the ET for all the subjects (Fig. 2). The UTE images successfully displayed both the cartilaginous and bony parts of the ET (Fig. 3). However, the UTE images showed the cartilaginous and bony portions of the ET as a whole. CONCLUSIONS: By analyzing the depiction of the ET from UTE images and comparing it with that from MR and CT images, we found that UTE images could display not only the cartilaginous structure of the ET that cannot be seen by conventional MR sequences, but also the bony structure that previously could only be seen on CT images. This imaging modality could help provide a convenient and new method to display the overall shape of the ET.

17.
Adv Mater ; : e2104381, 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34632623

RESUMO

Perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs) have recently shown significant progress with external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) exceeding 20%. However, PeLEDs with pure-red (620-660 nm) light emission, an essential part for full-color displays, remain a great challenge. Herein, a general approach of spacer cation alloying is employed in Ruddlesden-Popper perovskites (RPPs) for efficient red PeLEDs with precisely tunable wavelengths. By simply tuning the alloying ratio of dual spacer cations, the thickness distribution of quantum wells in the RPP films can be precisely modulated without deteriorating their charge-transport ability and energy funneling processes. Consequently, efficient PeLEDs with tunable emissions between pure red (626 nm) and deep red (671 nm) are achieved with peak EQEs up to 11.5%, representing the highest values among RPP-based pure-red PeLEDs. This work opens a new route for color tuning, which will spur future developments of pure-red or even pure-blue PeLEDs with high performance.

18.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 755544, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34671605

RESUMO

Glaucoma and other optic neuropathies affect millions of people worldwide, ultimately causing progressive and irreversible degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and blindness. Previous research into cell replacement therapy of these neurodegenerative diseases has been stalled due to the incapability for grafted RGCs to integrate into the retina and project properly along the long visual pathway. In vivo RGC regeneration would be a promising alternative approach but mammalian retinas lack regenerative capacity. It therefore has long been a great challenge to regenerate functional and properly projecting RGCs for vision restoration in mammals. Here we show that the transcription factors (TFs) Math5 and Brn3b together are able to reprogram mature mouse Müller glia (MG) into RGCs. The reprogrammed RGCs extend long axons that make appropriate intra-retinal and extra-retinal projections through the entire visual pathway to innervate both image-forming and non-image-forming brain targets. They exhibit typical neuronal electrophysiological properties and improve visual responses in RGC loss mouse models. Together, our data provide evidence that mammalian MG can be reprogrammed by defined TFs to achieve in vivo regeneration of functional RGCs as well as a promising new therapeutic approach to restore vision to patients with glaucoma and other optic neuropathies.

19.
Plant Physiol ; 187(2): 829-845, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608960

RESUMO

Domesticated citrus varieties are woody perennials and interspecific hybrid crops of global economic and nutritional importance. The citrus fruit "hesperidium" is a unique morphological innovation not found in any other plant lineage. Efforts to improve the nutritional quality of the fruit are predicated on understanding the underlying regulatory mechanisms responsible for fruit development, including temporal control of chlorophyll degradation and carotenoid biosynthesis. Here, we investigated the molecular basis of the navel orange (Citrus sinensis) brown flavedo mutation, which conditions flavedo that is brown instead of orange. To overcome the limitations of using traditional genetic approaches in citrus and other woody perennials, we developed a strategy to elucidate the underlying genetic lesion. We used a multi-omics approach to collect data from several genetic sources and plant chimeras to successfully decipher this mutation. The multi-omics strategy applied here will be valuable in driving future gene discovery efforts in citrus as well as in other woody perennial plants. The comparison of transcriptomic and genomic data from multiple genotypes and plant sectors revealed an underlying lesion in the gene encoding STAY-GREEN (SGR) protein, which simultaneously regulates carotenoid biosynthesis and chlorophyll degradation. However, unlike SGR of other plant species, we found that the carotenoid and chlorophyll regulatory activities could be uncoupled in the case of certain SGR alleles in citrus and thus we propose a model for the molecular mechanism underlying the brown flavedo phenotype. The economic and nutritional value of citrus makes these findings of wide interest. The strategy implemented, and the results obtained, constitute an advance for agro-industry by driving opportunities for citrus crop improvement.

20.
China CDC Wkly ; 3(36): 763-768, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34594985

RESUMO

Introduction: Infectious disease surveillance has long been a challenge for low-income countries like Sierra Leone. Traditional approaches based on paper and Short Message Service (SMS) were subject to severe delays in obtaining, transmitting, and analyzing information. Methods: During the China aid operation for fighting Ebola since the end of 2014, a mobile electronic surveillance system for infectious diseases (MESSID) was developed in collaboration with the Republic of Sierra Leone Armed Forces (RSLAF), which comprised an Android-based reporting system and a complementary web-based program designed by Active Server Page.NET (ASP.NET) with the main functions including surveillance, real-time reporting, and risk assessment of infectious diseases. Results: MESSID was successfully registered in June 2016 and had been used by all medical and health institutions in RSLAF. From June 1, 2016 to July 5, 2021, 34,419 cases were diagnosed with 47 infectious diseases of 5 categories, with a total of 42 clinical symptoms. Compared to traditional approaches based on paper and SMS, the MESSID showed flexibility, high efficiency, convenience, and acceptability. Discussion: MESSID is an accessible tool for surveillance of infectious diseases in Sierra Leone and possibly in other African countries with similar needs, capable of improving timeliness of disease reporting, thus rendering a timely outbreak detection and response.

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