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1.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 41(1): 47-55, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607752

RESUMO

T cell metabolic activation plays a crucial role in inflammation of atherosclerosis. Shikonin (SKN), a natural naphthoquinone with anti-inflammatory activity, has shown to exert cardioprotective effects, but the effect of SKN on atherosclerosis is unclear. In addition, SKN was found to inhibit glycolysis via targeting pyruvate kinase muscle isozyme 2 (PKM2). In the present study, we investigated the effects of SKN on hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy)-accelerated atherosclerosis and T cell inflammatory activation in ApoE-/- mice and the metabolic mechanisms in this process. Drinking water supplemented with Hcy (1.8 g/L) was administered to ApoE-/- mice for 2 weeks and the mice were injected with SKN (1.2 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle every 3 days. We showed that SKN treatment markedly attenuated HHcy-accelerated atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice and significantly decreased inflammatory activated CD4+ T cells and proinflammatory macrophages in plaques. In splenic CD4+ T cells isolated from HHcy-ApoE-/- mice, SKN treatment significantly inhibited HHcy-stimulated PKM2 activity, interferon-γ secretion and the capacity of these T cells to promote macrophage proinflammatory polarization. SKN treatment significantly inhibited HHcy-stimulated CD4+ T cell glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. Metabolic profiling analysis of CD4+ T cells revealed that Hcy administration significantly increased various glucose metabolites as well as lipids and acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1, which were reversed by SKN treatment. In conclusion, our results suggest that SKN is effective to ameliorate atherosclerosis in HHcy-ApoE-/- mice and this is at least partly associated with the inhibition of SKN on CD4+ T cell inflammatory activation via PKM2-dependent metabolic suppression.

2.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782769

RESUMO

AIMS: Overactivated B cells secrete pathological antibodies, which in turn accelerate the formation of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) aggravates AAA in mice; however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely elusive. In this study, we further investigated whether homocysteine (Hcy)-activated B cells produce antigen-specific antibodies that ultimately contribute to AAA formation. METHODS AND RESULTS: ELISA assays showed that HHcy induced the secretion of anti-beta 2 glycoprotein I (anti-ß2GPI) antibody from B cells both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, Hcy increased the accumulation of various lipid metabolites in B cells tested by LC-MS/MS, which contributed to elevated anti-ß2GPI IgG secretion. By using the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-specific inhibitor TAK-242 or TLR4-deficient macrophages, we found that culture supernatants from Hcy-activated B cells and HHcy plasma IgG polarized inflammatory macrophages in a TLR4-dependent manner. In addition, HHcy markedly increased the incidence of elastase- and CaPO4-induced AAA in male BALB/c mice, which was prevented in µMT mice. To further determine the importance of IgG in HHcy-aggravated AAA formation, we purified plasma IgG from HHcy or control mice and then transferred the IgG into µMT mice, which were subsequently subjected to elastase- or CaPO4-induced AAA. Compared with µMT mice that received plasma IgG from control mice, µMT mice that received HHcy plasma IgG developed significantly exacerbated elastase- or CaPO4-induced AAA accompanied by increased elastin degradation, MMP2/9 expression, and anti-ß2GPI IgG deposition in vascular lesions, as shown by immunofluorescence histochemical staining. CONCLUSION: Our findings reveal a novel mechanism by which Hcy-induced B cell-derived pathogenic anti-ß2GPI IgG might, at least in part, contribute to HHcy-aggravated chronic vascular inflammation and AAA formation. TRANSLATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: HHcy is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in which B cell secretion of IgG antibodies play a key role. However, whether the antigen specific antibody production is changed during HHcy-accelerated AAA remains unclear. Our results provided the first evidence supporting the important role of activated B cell-derived anti-ß2GPI IgG in HHcy-aggravated chronic vascular inflammation and AAA formation. It sheds new light on understanding pathogenesis of HHcy-accelerated AAA. In addition, anti-ß2GPI IgG may be a potential diagnostic marker and therapeutic target for HHcy-related vascular injury.

3.
Stem Cell Reports ; 13(5): 817-831, 2019 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680059

RESUMO

CADASIL (cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy) is the most common form of genetic stroke and vascular dementia syndrome resulting from mutations in NOTCH3. To elucidate molecular mechanisms of the condition and identify drug targets, we established a patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) model and demonstrated for the first time a failure of the patient iPSC-derived vascular mural cells (iPSC-MCs) in engaging and stabilizing endothelial capillary structures. The patient iPSC-MCs had reduced platelet-derived growth factor receptor ß, decreased secretion of the angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), were highly susceptible to apoptotic insults, and could induce apoptosis of adjacent endothelial cells. Supplementation of VEGF significantly rescued the capillary destabilization. Small interfering RNA knockdown of NOTCH3 in iPSC-MCs revealed a gain-of-function mechanism for the mutant NOTCH3. These disease mechanisms likely delay brain repair after stroke in CADASIL, contributing to the brain hypoperfusion and dementia in this condition, and will help to identify potential drug targets.

4.
FASEB J ; 33(11): 12780-12799, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480861

RESUMO

Intercellular communication between lymphocytes plays a fundamental role in numerous immune responses. Previously, we demonstrated that hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) induced T cell intracellular glycolytic-lipogenic reprogramming and IFN-γ secretion via pyruvate kinase muscle isozyme 2 (PKM2) to accelerate atherosclerosis. Usually, B cells partially obtain help from T cells in antibody responses. However, whether PKM2 activation in T cells regulates B cell antibody production is unknown. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are important cellular communication vehicles. Here, we found that PKM2 activator TEPP46-stimulated T-cell-derived EVs promoted B-cell IgG secretion. Conversely, EVs secreted from PKM2-null T cells were internalized into B cells and markedly inhibited B-cell mitochondrial programming, activation, and IgG production. Mechanistically, lipidomics analyses showed that increased ceramides in PKM2-activated T-cell EVs were mainly responsible for enhanced B cell IgG secretion induced by these EVs. Finally, quantum dots (QDs) were packaged with PKM2-null T cell EVs and anti-CD19 antibody to exert B-cell targeting and inhibit IgG production, eventually ameliorating HHcy-accelerated atherosclerosis in vivo. Thus, PKM2-mediated EV ceramides in T cells may be an important cargo for T-cell-regulated B cell IgG production, and QD-CD19-PKM2-null T cell EVs hold high potential to treat B cell overactivation-related diseases.-Yang, J., Dang, G., Lü, S., Liu, H., Ma, X., Han, L., Deng, J., Miao, Y., Li, X., Shao, F., Jiang, C., Xu, Q., Wang, X., Feng, J. T-cell-derived extracellular vesicles regulate B-cell IgG production via pyruvate kinase muscle isozyme 2.

5.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(8): 544, 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320613

RESUMO

The process of vascular remodeling is associated with increased hypoxia. However, the contribution of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α), the key transcription factor mediating cellular hypoxic responses, to vascular remodeling is established, but not completely understood. In the angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced vascular remodeling model, HIF1α was increased and activated in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Selective genetic disruption of Hif1a in VSMCs markedly ameliorated Ang II-induced vascular remodeling, as revealed by decreased blood pressure, aortic thickness, collagen deposition, inflammation, and aortic stiffness. VSMC Hif1a deficiency also specifically suppressed Ang II-induced infiltration of CD45+CD11b+F4/80+CD206- M1 macrophages into the vessel. Mechanistically, HIF1α deficiency in VSMCs dramatically suppressed the expression of CCL7, a chemokine critical for macrophage recruitment. Bioinformatic analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed three functional hypoxia-response elements in the Ccl7 promoter, indicating that Ccl7 is a direct HIF1α target gene. Blocking CCL7 with antibody in vivo alleviated Ang II-induced hypertension and vascular remodeling, coincident with decreased macrophage infiltration. This study provides direct evidence that HIF1α activation in VSMCs exacerbates Ang II-induced macrophage infiltration and resultant vascular remodeling via its target gene Ccl7, and thus may serve as a potential therapeutic target for remodeling-related vascular disease.

6.
Theranostics ; 9(13): 3825-3839, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31281516

RESUMO

Reversing multidrug resistance (MDR) remains a big challenge in cancer therapy. Combining the hyperthermia and chemotherapy is a promising strategy for efficient cancer treatment with MDR reversal. Gold nanocages (GNCs) are an ideal photothermal (PTT)-chemotherapy integration platform due to their good photothermal conversion efficiency and the unique hollow interiors. However, insufficient tumor cell internalization and in vivo premature drug leakage restrict the anticancer activity of GNCs-based drug delivery systems. Methods: pH low insertion peptide (pHLIP)- and thermoresponsive poly(di(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate-co-oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) polymer-conjugated GNCs were rationally constructed to load anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX@pPGNCs). Tumor acidic environment-responsive tumor cell internalization, and near-infrared (NIR) laser-induced tumor accumulation, penetration and on-demand drug release were systematically examined. Results: DOX@pPGNCs display good photothermal efficacy and thermoresponsive property. NIR laser irradiations at the tumor site significantly enhance tumor accumulation and penetration. Once DOX@pPGNCs reach the tumor site, the conformational transformation of pHLIP at the acidic tumor microenvironment contributes to the enhanced cellular internalization. Furthermore, NIR laser-triggered photothermal effects induce the shrinkage of thermoresponsive polymer, resulting in the opening of the pores of GNCs and a rapid intracellular DOX release to the nuclei. DOX@pPGNCs exhibit synergistic antitumor effect with MDR reversal in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion: DOX@pPGNCs present strong potential to overcome MDR in cancer.

7.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 39(10): 2049-2066, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340667

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) plays a vital role in maintaining vascular homeostasis. However, most studies ascribed the function of PVAT in vascular remodeling to adipokines secreted by the perivascular adipocytes. Whether mesenchymal stem cells exist in PVAT and play a role in vascular regeneration remain unknown. Approach and Results: Single-cell RNA-sequencing allowed direct visualization of the heterogeneous PVAT-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PV-ADSCs) at a high resolution and revealed 2 distinct subpopulations, among which one featured signaling pathways crucial for smooth muscle differentiation. Pseudotime analysis of cultured PV-ADSCs unraveled their smooth muscle differentiation trajectory. Transplantation of cultured PV-ADSCs in mouse vein graft model suggested the contribution of PV-ADSCs to vascular remodeling through smooth muscle differentiation. Mechanistically, treatment with TGF-ß1 (transforming growth factor ß1) and transfection of microRNA (miR)-378a-3p mimics induced a similar metabolic reprogramming of PV-ADSCs, including upregulated mitochondrial potential and altered lipid levels, such as increased cholesterol and promoted smooth muscle differentiation. CONCLUSIONS: Single-cell RNA-sequencing allows direct visualization of PV-ADSC heterogeneity at a single-cell level and uncovers 2 subpopulations with distinct signature genes and signaling pathways. The function of PVAT in vascular regeneration is partly attributed to PV-ADSCs and their differentiation towards smooth muscle lineage. Mechanistic study presents miR-378a-3p which is a potent regulator of metabolic reprogramming as a potential therapeutic target for vascular regeneration.

8.
Circ Res ; 125(2): 223-241, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079549

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Transplantation-accelerated arteriosclerosis is one of the major challenges for long-term survival of patients with solid organ transplantation. Although stem/progenitor cells have been implicated to participate in this process, the cells of origin and underlying mechanisms have not been fully defined. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to investigate the role of c-Kit lineage cells in allograft-induced neointima formation and to explore the mechanisms underlying this process. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using an inducible lineage tracing Kit-CreER;Rosa26-tdTomato mouse model, we observed that c-Kit is expressed in multiple cell types in the blood vessels, rather than a specific stem/progenitor cell marker. We performed allograft transplantation between different donor and recipient mice, as well as bone marrow transplantation experiments, demonstrating that recipient c-Kit+ cells repopulate neointimal smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and leukocytes, and contribute to neointima formation in an allograft transplantation model. c-Kit-derived SMCs originate from nonbone marrow tissues, whereas bone marrow-derived c-Kit+ cells mainly generate CD45+ leukocytes. However, the exact identity of c-Kit lineage cells contributing to neointimal SMCs remains unclear. ACK2 (anti-c-Kit antibody), which specifically binds and blocks c-Kit function, ameliorates allograft-induced arteriosclerosis. Stem cell factor and TGF (transforming growth factor)-ß1 levels were significantly increased in blood and neointimal lesions after allograft transplantation, by which stem cell factor facilitated c-Kit+ cell migration through the stem cell factor/c-Kit axis and downstream activation of small GTPases, MEK (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase)/ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase)/MLC (myosin light chain), and JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase)/c-Jun signaling pathways, whereas TGF-ß1 induces c-Kit+ cell differentiation into SMCs via HK (hexokinase)-1-dependent metabolic reprogramming and a possible downstream O-GlcNAcylation of myocardin and serum response factor. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide evidence that recipient c-Kit lineage cells contribute to vascular remodeling in an allograft transplantation model, in which the stem cell factor/c-Kit axis is responsible for cell migration and HK-1-dependent metabolic reprogramming for SMC differentiation.

9.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 39(6): 1055-1071, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30943771

RESUMO

Objective- Vascular adventitia encompasses progenitors and is getting recognized as the major site of inflammation in early stage of atherosclerosis. However, the cellular atlas of the heterogeneous adventitial cells, the intercellular communication, the cellular response of adventitia to hyperlipidemia, and its contribution to atherosclerosis have been elusive. Approach and Results- Single-cell RNA sequencing was applied to wt (wild type) and ApoE (apolipoprotein E)-deficient aortic adventitia from 12-week-old C57BL/6J mice fed on normal laboratory diet with early stage of atherosclerosis. Unbiased clustering analysis revealed that the landscape of adventitial cells encompassed adventitial mesenchyme cells, immune cells (macrophages, T cells, and B cells), and some types of rare cells, for example, neuron, lymphatic endothelial cells, and innate lymphoid cells. Seurat clustering analysis singled out 6 nonimmune clusters with distinct transcriptomic profiles, in which there predominantly were stem/progenitor cell-like and proinflammatory population (Mesen II). In ApoE-deficient adventitia, resident macrophages were activated and related to increased myeloid cell infiltration in the adventitia. Cell communication analysis further elucidated enhanced interaction between a mesenchyme cluster and inflammatory macrophages in ApoE-deficient adventitia. In vitro transwell assay confirmed the proinflammatory role of SCA1+ (stem cell antigen 1 positive) Mesen II population with increased CCL2 (chemokine [C-C motif] ligand 2) secretion and thus increased capacity to attract immune cells in ApoE-deficient adventitia. Conclusions- Cell atlas defined by single-cell RNA sequencing depicted the heterogeneous cellular landscape of the adventitia and uncovered several types of cell populations. Furthermore, resident cell interaction with immune cells appears crucial at the early stage of atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Túnica Adventícia/metabolismo , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Aterosclerose/genética , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Hiperlipidemias/genética , Túnica Adventícia/citologia , Animais , Aterosclerose/fisiopatologia , Células Cultivadas , Análise por Conglomerados , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Pericitos/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Valores de Referência , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos
11.
NPJ Regen Med ; 4: 6, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30911410

RESUMO

Cell therapies to treat critical limb ischaemia have demonstrated only modest results in clinical trials, and this has been partly attributed to poor cell retention following their delivery directly into the ischaemic limb. The aim of this study was to determine whether alginate encapsulation of therapeutic pro-angio/arteriogenic macrophages enhances their retention and ultimately improves limb perfusion. A reproducible GMP-compliant method for generating 300 µm alginate capsules was developed to encapsulate pro-angio/arteriogenic macrophages. Longitudinal analysis revealed no detrimental effect of encapsulation on cell number or viability in vitro, and macrophages retained their pro-angio/arteriogenic phenotype. Intramuscular delivery of encapsulated macrophages into the murine ischaemic hindlimb demonstrated increased cell retention compared with injection of naked cells (P = 0.0001), and that this was associated both enhanced angiogenesis (P = 0.02) and arteriogenesis (P = 0.03), and an overall improvement in limb perfusion (P = 0.0001). Alginate encapsulation of pro-angio/arteriogenic macrophages enhances cell retention and subsequent limb reperfusion in vivo. Encapsulation may therefore represent a means of improving the efficacy of cell-based therapies currently under investigation for the treatment of limb ischaemia.

12.
Circ Res ; 124(10): e84-e100, 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879402

RESUMO

RATIONALE: RNA helicases, highly conserved enzymes, are currently believed to be not only involved in RNA modulation, but also in other biological processes. We recently reported that RNA helicase DDX (DEAD-box protein)-5 is required for maintaining the homeostasis of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). However, the expression and function of RNA helicase in vascular physiology and disease is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of RNA helicase in vascular diseases. METHODS AND RESULTS: We showed here that DDX-5 was the most abundant DEAD-box protein expressed in human and rodent artery, which mainly located in SMCs. It was demonstrated that DDX-5 levels were reduced in cytokine-stimulated SMCs and vascular lesions. DDX-5 knocking down or deficiency increased SMC proliferation and migration, whereas overexpression of DDX-5 prevented aberrant proliferation and migration of SMCs. Mechanistic studies revealed transcription factor GATA (GATA-binding protein)-6 as a novel downstream target of DDX-5, which directly interacted with GATA-6 and protected it from MDM (mouse double minute)-2-mediated degradation. Our ChIP assay identified a previously unreported binding of p27Kip1 promoter to GATA-6. DDX-5 increased the recruitment of GATA-6 to p27Kip1 promoter, which enhanced p27Kip1 expression and maintained SMC quiescence. Finally, we showed exacerbated neointima formation in DDX-5 SMC-deficient mice after femoral artery injury, whereas overexpression of DDX-5 potently inhibited vascular remodeling in balloon-injured rat carotid artery. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide the first evidence for a role of RNA helicase DDX-5 in the protection against SMC proliferation, migration, and neointimal hyperplasia. Our data extend the fundamental role of RNA helicase beyond RNA modulation, which provides the basic information for new therapeutic strategies for vascular diseases.

13.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 39(4): 765-773, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30816803

RESUMO

Objective- To determine the role of a cytokine-like protein DKK3 (dikkopf-3) in directly transdifferentiating fibroblasts into endothelial cells (ECs) and the underlying mechanisms. Approach and Results- DKK3 overexpression in human fibroblasts under defined conditions for 4 days led to a notable change in cell morphology and progenitor gene expression. It was revealed that these cells went through mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition and subsequently expressed KDR (kinase insert domain receptor) at high levels. Further culture in EC defined media led to differentiation of these progenitors into functional ECs capable of angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo, which was regulated by the VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor)/miR (microRNA)-125a-5p/Stat3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3) axis. More importantly, fibroblast-derived ECs showed the ability to form a patent endothelium-like monolayer in tissue-engineered vascular grafts ex vivo. Conclusions- These data demonstrate that DKK3 is capable of directly differentiating human fibroblasts to functional ECs under defined media and provides a novel potential strategy for endothelial regeneration.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/fisiologia , Transdiferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Reatores Biológicos , Células Cultivadas , Meios de Cultura , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/fisiologia , Fibroblastos/citologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , MicroRNAs/fisiologia , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/fisiologia , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética
14.
Carbohydr Polym ; 204: 42-49, 2019 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30366541

RESUMO

In this article, durable antimicrobial cotton fabric was prepared by a one-pot modification process using a colloidal solution of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) stabilized by carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC). Due to coordination bonds between the amine groups of CMC and the Ag NPs and the ester bonds present between the carboxyl groups of CMC and the hydroxyl groups of cellulose, the Ag NPs were tightly immobilized onto the cotton fiber surface. As a result, the Ag NPs that were adhered on the cotton fabrics have uniform dispersion and small size, ranging from 10 nm to 80 nm. This provides the cotton fabric with remarkable and durable antibacterial activity against both S. aureus and E. coli. After 50 laundering cycles, the bacterial reduction rate (BR) for the modified cotton fabric remained over 94%. This method is simple, and it is particularly suitable for the industrial finishing process.

15.
Theranostics ; 8(19): 5362-5378, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30555552

RESUMO

Gold nanocages (AuNCs), with high photothermal conversion efficiency and unique hollow interiors, have become a promising nanoplatform for synergistic phototheraml therapy (PTT)-chemotherapy. However, the insufficient tumor targeting, in vivo premature drug leakage and low drug loading efficiency responsible for the spatial-temporal un-synchronization of PTT-chemotherapy, as well as inflammatory response might compromise the anticancer treatment of AuNCs-based drug delivery systems. Methods: Cancer cell membrane (CCM)-coated AuNCs were developed to load anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX@CAuNCs) by transmembrane ammonium sulfate gradient method. In vitro and in vivo analysis, including characterization, macrophage phagocytosis and tumor targeting capacity, near-infrared (NIR) laser-induced drug release, antitumor efficacy and inflammation response were systematically performed. Results: DOX@CAuNCs showed a high DOX loading capacity and on-demand NIR laser-triggered DOX release compared with CAuNCs passively loading DOX by electrostatic adsorption, a commonly used method to load drug to AuNCs. Meanwhile, in view of the properties of CCM coated on AuNCs, DOX@CAuNCs exhibited decreased macrophage phagocytosis, prolonged blood circulation and enhanced internalization by cancer cells, generating preferable tumor targeting ability. With these integrated advantages, DOX@CAuNCs demonstrated highly efficient and precise spatial-temporal synchronization of PTT-chemotherapy, achieving complete tumor ablation with no obvious side effects. Besides, coating with CCM significantly alleviated AuNCs-induced inflammatory response. Conclusion: This biomimetic AuNCs-based platform might be a prospective drug delivery system for precision PTT and chemotherapy, acquiring desired cancer treatment efficacy and low inflammatory response.


Assuntos
Materiais Biomiméticos/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Ouro/administração & dosagem , Inflamação/patologia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Experimentais/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Materiais Biomiméticos/efeitos adversos , Materiais Biomiméticos/química , Carcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/efeitos adversos , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Tratamento Farmacológico/métodos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Ouro/efeitos adversos , Ouro/química , Hipertermia Induzida/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Nanopartículas/efeitos adversos , Nanopartículas/química , Fototerapia/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 5(8): 1800006, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30128229

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Accumulating evidence indicates that local resident stem/progenitor cells play an important role in vascular regeneration. Recently, it is demonstrated that a histone deacetylase 7-derived 7-amino acid peptide (7A, MHSPGAD) is critical in modulating the mobilization and orientated differentiation of these stem/progenitor cells. Here, its therapeutic efficacy in vascular repair and regeneration is evaluated. In vitro functional analyses reveal that the 7A peptide, in particular phosphorylated 7A (7Ap, MH[pSer]PGAD), could increase stem cell antigen-1 positive (Sca1+) vascular progenitor cell (VPC) migration and differentiation toward an endothelial cell lineage. Furthermore, local delivery of 7A as well as 7Ap could enhance angiogenesis and ameliorate vascular injury in ischaemic tissues; these findings are confirmed in a femoral artery injury model and a hindlimb ischaemia model, respectively. Importantly, sustained delivery of 7A, especially 7Ap, from tissue-engineered vascular grafts could attract Sca1+-VPC cells into the grafts, contributing to endothelialization and intima/media formation in the vascular graft. These results suggest that this novel type of peptides has great translational potential in vascular regenerative medicine.

18.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 121: 277-286, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30053526

RESUMO

AIMS: Accumulating evidence indicates the presence of vascular stem/progenitor cells that may play a role in endothelial repair and lesion formation in the injured artery, in which c-kit+ stem/progenitor cells have been reported to differentiate into endothelial and smooth muscle cells in vitro and in ischemic tissue. In this study, we investigated whether and how endogenous c-kit+ stem/progenitor cells contribute to vascular injury and neointima formation in vivo. METHODS AND RESULTS: We created Kit-CreERxRosa26-RFP mice and performed genetic lineage tracing analysis of c-kit+ stem/progenitor cells in injury-induced neointima formation in vivo. We provide direct evidence that endogenous c-kit+ stem/progenitor cells minimally differentiate into endothelial or smooth muscle cells facilitating vascular repair, but predominantly generate monocytes/macrophages and granulocytes contributing to vascular immuno-inflammatory response to endothelial injury. Although c-kit+ cells reside in both bone marrow and vessel wall, bone marrow transplantation data indicate that bone marrow-derived c-kit+ cells are the main source for enhancing neointima formation. Furthermore, treatment of ACK2, a c-kit receptor antagonizer, attenuates neointimal hyperplasia after injury at least in part by depleting c-kit+ cells and their generated progeny. CONCLUSIONS: c-kit+ stem/progenitor cells are not a main source for endothelial regeneration and smooth muscle accumulation of the large artery injury, but a plausible interventional approach to reduce vascular immuno-inflammatory response and subsequently to ameliorate vascular lesions.


Assuntos
Artérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Linhagem da Célula/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-kit/genética , Células-Tronco/citologia , Túnica Íntima/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Artérias/lesões , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular/genética , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Granulócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Monócitos/metabolismo , Neointima/genética , Neointima/patologia , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Túnica Íntima/lesões , Túnica Íntima/patologia
19.
Circ Res ; 123(4): 451-466, 2018 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29980568

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Vascular progenitor cells play key roles in physiological and pathological vascular remodeling-a process that is crucial for the regeneration of acellular biodegradable scaffolds engineered as vital strategies against the limited availability of healthy autologous vessels for bypass grafting. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms driving vascular progenitor cells recruitment and differentiation could help the development of new strategies to improve tissue-engineered vessel grafts and design drug-targeted therapy for vessel regeneration. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we sought to investigate the role of Dkk3 (dickkopf-3), recently identified as a cytokine promotor of endothelial repair and smooth muscle cell differentiation, on vascular progenitor cells cell migration and vascular regeneration and to identify its functional receptor that remains unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Vascular stem/progenitor cells were isolated from murine aortic adventitia and selected for the Sca-1 (stem cell antigen-1) marker. Dkk3 induced the chemotaxis of Sca-1+ cells in vitro in transwell and wound healing assays and ex vivo in the aortic ring assay. Functional studies to identify Dkk3 receptor revealed that overexpression or knockdown of chemokine receptor CXCR7 (C-X-C chemokine receptor type 7) in Sca-1+ cells resulted in alterations in cell migration. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments using Sca-1+ cell extracts treated with Dkk3 showed the physical interaction between DKK3 and CXCR7, and specific saturation binding assays identified a high-affinity Dkk3-CXCR7 binding with a dissociation constant of 14.14 nmol/L. Binding of CXCR7 by Dkk3 triggered the subsequent activation of ERK1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2)-, PI3K (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase)/AKT (protein kinase B)-, Rac1 (Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1)-, and RhoA (Ras homolog gene family, member A)-signaling pathways involved in Sca-1+ cell migration. Tissue-engineered vessel grafts were fabricated with or without Dkk3 and implanted to replace the rat abdominal aorta. Dkk3-loaded tissue-engineered vessel grafts showed efficient endothelization and recruitment of vascular progenitor cells, which had acquired characteristics of mature smooth muscle cells. CXCR7 blocking using specific antibodies in this vessel graft model hampered stem/progenitor cell recruitment into the vessel wall, thus compromising vascular remodeling. CONCLUSIONS: We provide a novel and solid evidence that CXCR7 serves as Dkk3 receptor, which mediates Dkk3-induced vascular progenitor migration in vitro and in tissue-engineered vessels, hence harnessing patent grafts resembling native blood vessels.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular , Células Progenitoras Endoteliais/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Receptores CXCR/metabolismo , Regeneração , Animais , Aorta/citologia , Aorta/metabolismo , Aorta/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Células Progenitoras Endoteliais/citologia , Células Progenitoras Endoteliais/fisiologia , Endotélio Vascular/citologia , Endotélio Vascular/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas rac1 de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Proteínas rho de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo
20.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 121: 69-80, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29981303

RESUMO

Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), a protective component of vascular extracellular matrix (ECM), maintains the homeostasis of mature vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). However, whether COMP modulates the differentiation of stem cells towards the smooth muscle lineage is still elusive. Firstly, purified mouse COMP directly induced mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation into VSMCs both in vitro and in vivo, while the silencing of endogenous COMP markedly inhibited ESC-VSMC differentiation. RNA-Sequencing revealed that Notch signaling was significantly activated by COMP during ESC-VSMC differentiation, whereas the inhibition of Notch signaling attenuated COMP-directed ESC-VSMC differentiation. Furthermore, COMP deficiency inhibited Notch activation and VSMC differentiation in mice. Through silencing distinct Notch receptors, we identified that Notch1 mainly mediated COMP-initiated ESC-VSMC differentiation. Mechanistically, COMP N-terminus directly interacted with the EGF11-12 domain of Notch1 and activated Notch1 signaling, as evidenced by co-immunoprecipitation and mammalian two-hybrid assay. In conclusion, COMP served as a potential ligand of Notch1, thereby driving ESC-VSMC differentiation.


Assuntos
Proteína de Matriz Oligomérica de Cartilagem/genética , Cartilagem/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Receptor Notch1/genética , Animais , Cartilagem/metabolismo , Linhagem da Célula/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Humanos , Ligantes , Camundongos , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/citologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/citologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Domínios Proteicos/genética
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