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1.
Genome Med ; 14(1): 58, 2022 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35637530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) has a poor overall survival with few treatment options. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) combined with the immune features of MPM offers the prospect of identifying changes that could inform future clinical trials. METHODS: We analysed somatic mutations from 229 MPM samples, including previously published data and 58 samples that had undergone WGS within this study. This was combined with RNA-seq analysis to characterize the tumour immune environment. RESULTS: The comprehensive genome analysis identified 12 driver genes, including new candidate genes. Whole genome doubling was a frequent event that correlated with shorter survival. Mutational signature analysis revealed SBS5/40 were dominant in 93% of samples, and defects in homologous recombination repair were infrequent in our cohort. The tumour immune environment contained high M2 macrophage infiltrate linked with MMP2, MMP14, TGFB1 and CCL2 expression, representing an immune suppressive environment. The expression of TGFB1 was associated with overall survival. A small subset of samples (less than 10%) had a higher proportion of CD8 T cells and a high cytolytic score, suggesting a 'hot' immune environment independent of the somatic mutations. CONCLUSIONS: We propose accounting for genomic and immune microenvironment status may influence therapeutic planning in the future.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Mesotelioma Maligno , Mesotelioma , Neoplasias Pleurais , Genômica , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mesotelioma/genética , Neoplasias Pleurais/genética , Neoplasias Pleurais/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
2.
Int J Biol Markers ; 37(2): 158-169, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35254116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fragile histidine triad (FHIT) is a strong tumor suppressor gene, and cells deficient in FHIT are prone to acquiring cancer-promoting mutations. Due to its location, deletions within FHIT are common in cancer. Over 50% of cancers show loss of FHIT expression. However, to date, expression levels, gene regulatory networks, prognostic value, and target prediction of FHIT in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) have not been fully reported. Therefore, systematic analysis of FHIT expression, gene regulatory network, prognostic value, and targeted prediction in patients with LUAD and LUSC has important guiding significance, providing new therapeutic targets and strategies for clinical treatment of lung cancer to further improve the therapeutic effect of lung cancer. METHODS: Multiple free online databases were used for the abovementioned analysis in this study, including cBioPortal, TRRUST, Human Protein Atlas, GeneMANIA, GEPIA, Metascape, UALCAN, LinkedOmics, and TIMER. RESULTS: FHIT was upregulated in patients with LUAD, and downregulated in patients with LUSC. Genetic alterations of FHIT were found in patients with LUAD (7%), and LUSC (10%). The promoter methylation of FHIT was lower in patients with LUAD and LUSC. FHIT expression significantly correlated with LUSC pathological stages. Furthermore, patients with LUAD and LUSC having low FHIT expression levels had a longer survival than those having high FHIT expression levels. FHIT and its neighboring genes (the 50 most frequently altered neighboring genes of FHIT) functioned in the regulation of protein kinase and DNA binding in patients with LUAD, as well as cell channels and membrane potential in patients with LUSC. Gene ontology enrichment analysis revealed that the functions of FHIT and its neighboring genes are mainly related to disordered domain-specific binding, protein kinase binding, and ion gated channel activity in patients with LUAD, as well as calcium ion binding and intracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity in patients with LUSC. Transcription factor targets of FHIT and its neighboring genes in patients with lung cancer were found: USF1, SOX6, USF2, SIRT1, VHL, LEF1, EZH2, TP53, HDAC1, ESR1, EGR1, YY1, MYC, RELA, NFKB1, and E2F1 in LUAD; and HDAC1, DNMT1, and E2F1 in LUSC. We further explored the FHIT-associated kinase (PRKCQ, AURKB and ATM in LUAD as well as PLK3 in LUSC) and FHIT-associated miRNA targets (MIR-188, MIR-323, and MIR-518A-2 in LUAD). Furthermore, the following genes had the strongest correlation with FHIT expression in patients with lung cancer: NICN1, HEMK1, and BDH2 in LUAD, and ZMAT1, TTC21A, and NICN1 in LUSC. FHIT expression was positively associated with immune cell infiltration (B cell) in patients with LUAD, as well as B cell, CD8 + T, CD4 + T cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells in patients with LUSC. Nevertheless, FHIT expression was negatively associated with CD8 + T cells and neutrophils in patients with LUAD. CONCLUSIONS: The expression, gene regulatory network, prognostic value and targeted prediction of FHIT in patients with LUAD and LUSC were systematically analyzed and revealed in this study, thereby laying a foundation for further research on the role of FHIT in LUAD and LUSC occurrence. This study provides new LUAD and LUSC therapeutic targets and prognostic biomarkers as a reference for fundamental and clinical research.


Assuntos
Hidrolases Anidrido Ácido , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Proteínas de Neoplasias , Hidrolases Anidrido Ácido/genética , Hidrolases Anidrido Ácido/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Hidroxibutirato Desidrogenase/genética , Hidroxibutirato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , MicroRNAs , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Prognóstico
3.
Int J Biol Markers ; 37(1): 90-101, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34870494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: VEGFA is one of the most important regulators of angiogenesis and plays a crucial role in cancer angiogenesis and progression. Recent studies have highlighted a relationship between VEGFA expression and renal cell carcinoma occurrence. However, the expression level, gene regulation network, prognostic value, and target prediction of VEGFA in renal cell carcinoma remain unclear. Therefore, system analysis of the expression, gene regulation network, prognostic value, and target prediction of VEGFA in patients with renal cell carcinoma is of great theoretical significance as there is a clinical demand for the discovery of new renal cell carcinoma treatment targets and strategies to further improve renal cell carcinoma treatment efficacy. METHODS: This study used multiple free online databases, including cBioPortal, TRRUST, GeneMANIA, GEPIA, Metascape, UALCAN, LinkedOmics, Metascape, and TIMER for the abovementioned analysis. RESULTS: VEGFA was upregulated in patients with kidney renal clear cell carcinoma (KIRC) and kidney chromophobe (KICH), and downregulated in patients with kidney renal papillary cell carcinoma (KIRP). Moreover, genetic alterations of VEGFA were found in patients with renal cell carcinoma as follows: 4% (KIRC), 8% (KICH), and 4% (KIRP). The promoter methylation of VEGFA was lower and higher in patients with clinical stages of KIRC and stage 1 KIRP, respectively. VEGFA expression significantly correlated with KIRC and KIRP pathological stages. Furthermore, patients with KICH and KIRP having low VEGFA expression levels had a longer survival than those having high VEGFA expression levels. VEGFA and its neighboring genes functioned in the regulation of protein methylation and glycosylation, as well as muscle fiber growth and differentiation in patients with renal cell carcinoma. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis revealed that the functions of VEGFA and its neighboring genes in patients with renal cell carcinoma are mainly related to cell adhesion molecule binding, catalytic activity, acting on RNA, ATPase activity, actin filament binding, protease binding, transcription coactivator activity, cysteine-type peptidase activity, and calmodulin binding. Transcription factor targets of VEGFA and its neighboring genes in patients with renal cell carcinoma were found: HIF1A, TFAP2A, and ESR1 in KIRC; STAT3, NFKB1, and HIPK2 in KICH; and FOXO3, TFAP2A, and ETS1 in KIRP. We further explored the VEGFA-associated kinase (ATM in KICH as well as CDK1 and AURKB in KIRP) and VEGFA-associated microRNA (miRNA) targets (MIR-21 in KICH as well as MIR-213, MIR-383, and MIR-492 in KIRP). Furthermore, the following genes had the strongest correlation with VEGFA expression in patients with renal cell carcinoma: NOTCH4, GPR4, and TRIB2 in KIRC; CKMT2, RRAGD, and PPARGC1A in KICH; and FLT1, C6orf223, and ESM1 in KIRP. VEGFA expression in patients with renal cell carcinoma was positively associated with immune cell infiltration, including CD8+T cells, CD4+T cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and dendritic cells. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed VEGFA expression and potential gene regulatory network in patients with renal cell carcinoma, thereby laying a foundation for further research on the role of VEGFA in renal cell carcinoma occurrence. Moreover, the study provides new renal cell carcinoma therapeutic targets and prognostic biomarkers as a reference for fundamental and clinical research.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias Renais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de Cálcio-Calmodulina/genética , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de Cálcio-Calmodulina/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Creatina Quinase Mitocondrial/genética , Creatina Quinase Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , MicroRNAs , Prognóstico , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5259, 2020 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067454

RESUMO

To increase understanding of the genomic landscape of acral melanoma, a rare form of melanoma occurring on palms, soles or nail beds, whole genome sequencing of 87 tumors with matching transcriptome sequencing for 63 tumors was performed. Here we report that mutational signature analysis reveals a subset of tumors, mostly subungual, with an ultraviolet radiation signature. Significantly mutated genes are BRAF, NRAS, NF1, NOTCH2, PTEN and TYRP1. Mutations and amplification of KIT are also common. Structural rearrangement and copy number signatures show that whole genome duplication, aneuploidy and complex rearrangements are common. Complex rearrangements occur recurrently and are associated with amplification of TERT, CDK4, MDM2, CCND1, PAK1 and GAB2, indicating potential therapeutic options.


Assuntos
Melanoma/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Feminino , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/genética , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/metabolismo , Amplificação de Genes , Dosagem de Genes , Genômica , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Mutação , Oxirredutases/genética , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/metabolismo , Receptor Notch2/genética , Receptor Notch2/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
7.
BMC Pediatr ; 20(1): 456, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is a rare inherited X-linked primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID). One such disease, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) deficiency, is characterized by Epstein-Barr virus-related hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (EBV-HLH). However, EBV-HLH with coronary artery dilation and acute renal injury (AKI) in children is unusual. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a young boy aged 17 months with a novel XIAP variant. He was initially diagnosed with EBV-HLH based on the HLH-2004 diagnostic criteria and the condition was accompanied by coronary artery dilation and acute renal injury. The comprehensive genetic analysis of peripheral blood-derived DNA revealed a hemizygous variant of the XIAP gene [c.116G > C(p.G39A)], which was inherited from his mother (heterozygous condition). After combined treatment with rituximab, intravenous immunoglobulin, corticosteroids, antiviral drugs, and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in addition to supportive therapy, his clinical manifestations and laboratory indexes were improved. The patient achieved complete remission with MMF treatment in the 8-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: We report the [c.116G > C(p.G39A)] variant in the XIAP gene for the first time in a case of XLP-2 associated with EBV-HLH. For male patients with severe EBV-HLH, the possibility of XLP should be considered and molecular genetic testing should be used early in auxiliary diagnosis. Reports of EBV-HLH with coronary artery dilation and AKI in children are rare. In the patients with EBV-HLH, color Doppler echocardiography and urine tests should be monitored regularly. If necessary, renal biopsy can be performed to clarify the pathology. Treatment with rituximab, immunosuppressors and supportive therapy achieved a good effect, but long-term follow-up is required.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica , Injúria Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Criança , Vasos Coronários , Dilatação , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/complicações , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/diagnóstico , Herpesvirus Humano 4/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/complicações , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/diagnóstico , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/genética , Masculino , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/genética
8.
BMC Med Genet ; 21(1): 183, 2020 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957924

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disorders of the metabolism and absorption of vitamin B12 can lead to decrease in activity of methionine synthetase and methylmalonate coenzyme A mutase (MMUT), which results in increased levels of methylmalonic acid and homocysteine in blood and urine. Often, combined methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) and homocysteinemia is misdiagnosed due to a lack of specific symptoms. The clinical manifestations are diverse, but proteinuria as the initial presentation is rare. CASE PRESENTATION: Two cases of MMA with homocysteinemia in children are reported. Proteinuria were a primary presenting symptom, followed by anemia and neurologic symptoms (frequent convulsions and unstable walking, respectively). Screening of amino acids and acyl carnitine in serum showed that the propionyl carnitine:acetylcarnitine ratio increased. Profiling of urinary organic acids by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed high levels of methylmalonic acid. Homocysteine content in blood was increased. Comprehensive genetic analyses of peripheral blood-derived DNA demonstrated heterozygous variants of methylmalonic aciduria type C and homocystinuria (MMACHC) and amnionless (AMN) genes in our two patients, respectively. After active treatment, the clinical manifestations in Case 1 were relieved and urinary protein ceased to be observed; Case 2 had persistent proteinuria and was lost to follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Analyses of the organic acids in blood and urine suggested MMA combined with homocysteinemia. In such diseases, reports of renal damage are uncommon and proteinuria as the initial presentation is rare. Molecular analysis indicated two different genetic causes. Although the pathologic mechanisms were related to vitamin B12, the severity and prognosis of renal lesions were different. Therefore, gene detection provides new insights into inherited metabolic diseases.


Assuntos
Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/complicações , Hiper-Homocisteinemia/complicações , Proteinúria/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/genética , Aminoácidos/sangue , Sequência de Bases , Carnitina/análogos & derivados , Carnitina/sangue , Pré-Escolar , DNA/sangue , DNA/genética , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Homocisteína/sangue , Humanos , Hiper-Homocisteinemia/genética , Masculino , Ácido Metilmalônico/urina , Proteinúria/etiologia
9.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 6: 33, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818150

RESUMO

The homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) score was developed using whole-genome copy number data derived from arrays as a way to infer deficiency in the homologous recombination DNA damage repair pathway (in particular BRCA1 or BRCA2 deficiency) in breast cancer samples. The score has utility in understanding tumour biology and may be indicative of response to certain therapeutic strategies. Studies have used whole-exome sequencing to derive the HRD score, however, with increasing use of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to characterise tumour genomes, there has yet to be a comprehensive comparison between HRD scores derived by array versus WGS. Here we demonstrate that there is both a high correlation and a good agreement between array- and WGS-derived HRD scores and between the scores derived from WGS and downsampled WGS to represent shallow WGS. For samples with an HRD score close to threshold for stratifying HR proficiency or deficiency there was however some disagreement in the HR status between array and WGS data, highlighting the importance of not relying on a single method of ascertaining the homologous recombination status of a tumour.

10.
Rheumatol Int ; 40(5): 811-819, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377830

RESUMO

Pancreatitis is uncommon in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and is rarely reported in children, possibly being related to macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). The incidence of MAS in children with lupus pancreatitis is unknown, as is their prognosis. In this case-based review, we report a pediatric patient with SLE complicated with pancreatitis and MAS, and performed a literature review. We report an 11-year-old girl with SLE and MAS who developed pancreatitis on the second day of methylprednisolone pulse therapy (500 mg/day). We continued methylprednisolone pulse therapy, and performed three rounds of DNA-immunoadsorption and three rounds of hemoperfusion. A second course of methylprednisolone pulse therapy was initiated 9 days later. The patient received a monthly cyclophosphamide pulse therapy (10 mg/kg/day, 2 consecutive days every month) for 6 months, after which she was treated with mycophenolate mofetil 20 mg/kg/day. The condition of the patient gradually improved, her blood amylase and lipase decreased. She was in a stable condition during 13-month follow-up period. Review of the literature of pediatric patients with SLE and pancreatitis showed that there are 127 cases that have been reported in the past 30 years, 40 cases were excluded in our study because of inadequate information. Of the 87 patients included in our literature review, the mortality rate was 33.33%, and 52.86% of the patients with pancreatitis had MAS at the same time. Pancreatitis is uncommon in SLE, but must be suspected if a patient with SLE develops digestive symptoms. Patients with SLE with pancreatitis have a high incidence of MAS and high mortality rate; however, early recognition and effective treatment can relieve the disease symptoms.


Assuntos
Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Ativação Macrofágica/diagnóstico , Pancreatite/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Síndrome de Ativação Macrofágica/etiologia , Masculino , Pancreatite/etiologia
11.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3163, 2019 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320640

RESUMO

Knowledge of key drivers and therapeutic targets in mucosal melanoma is limited due to the paucity of comprehensive mutation data on this rare tumor type. To better understand the genomic landscape of mucosal melanoma, here we describe whole genome sequencing analysis of 67 tumors and validation of driver gene mutations by exome sequencing of 45 tumors. Tumors have a low point mutation burden and high numbers of structural variants, including recurrent structural rearrangements targeting TERT, CDK4 and MDM2. Significantly mutated genes are NRAS, BRAF, NF1, KIT, SF3B1, TP53, SPRED1, ATRX, HLA-A and CHD8. SF3B1 mutations occur more commonly in female genital and anorectal melanomas and CTNNB1 mutations implicate a role for WNT signaling defects in the genesis of some mucosal melanomas. TERT aberrations and ATRX mutations are associated with alterations in telomere length. Mutation profiles of the majority of mucosal melanomas suggest potential susceptibility to CDK4/6 and/or MEK inhibitors.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Melanoma/genética , Mutação Puntual/genética , Quinase 4 Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Melanócitos/patologia , Melanoma/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-mdm2/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Telomerase/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
12.
BMC Med Genomics ; 12(1): 31, 2019 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30717762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oesophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) incidence is increasing and has a poor survival rate. Barrett's oesophagus (BE) is a precursor condition that is associated with EAC and often occurs in conjunction with chronic gastro-oesophageal reflux, however many individuals diagnosed with BE never progress to cancer. An understanding of the genomic features of BE and EAC may help with the early identification of at-risk individuals. METHODS: In this study, we assessed the genomic features of 16 BE samples using whole-genome sequencing. These included non-dysplastic samples collected at two time-points from two BE patients who had not progressed to EAC over several years. Seven other non-dysplastic samples and five dysplastic BE samples with high-grade dysplasia were also examined. We compared the genome profiles of these 16 BE samples with 22 EAC samples. RESULTS: We observed that samples from the two non-progressor individuals had low numbers of somatic single nucleotide variants, indels and structural variation events compared to dysplastic and the remaining non-dysplastic BE. EAC had the highest level of somatic genomic variations. Mutational signature 17, which is common in EAC, was also present in non-dysplastic and dysplastic BE, but was not present in the non-progressors. Many dysplastic samples had mutations in genes previously reported in EAC, whereas only mutations in CDKN2A or in the fragile site genes appeared common in non-dysplastic samples. Rearrangement signatures were used to identify a signature associated with localised complex events such as chromothripsis and breakage fusion-bridge that are characteristic of EACs. Two dysplastic BE samples had a high contribution of this signature and contained evidence of localised rearrangements. Two other dysplastic samples also had regions of localised structural rearrangements. There was no evidence for complex events in non-dysplastic samples. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of complex localised rearrangements in dysplastic samples indicates a need for further investigations into the role such events play in the progression from BE to EAC.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Esôfago de Barrett/complicações , Neoplasias Esofágicas/genética , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Rearranjo Gênico , Adenocarcinoma/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Esofágicas/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Gradação de Tumores , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
13.
J Pathol ; 247(2): 214-227, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30350370

RESUMO

Metaplastic breast carcinoma (MBC) is relatively rare but accounts for a significant proportion of global breast cancer mortality. This group is extremely heterogeneous and by definition exhibits metaplastic change to squamous and/or mesenchymal elements, including spindle, squamous, chondroid, osseous, and rhabdomyoid features. Clinically, patients are more likely to present with large primary tumours (higher stage), distant metastases, and overall, have shorter 5-year survival compared to invasive carcinomas of no special type. The current World Health Organisation (WHO) diagnostic classification for this cancer type is based purely on morphology - the biological basis and clinical relevance of its seven sub-categories are currently unclear. By establishing the Asia-Pacific MBC (AP-MBC) Consortium, we amassed a large series of MBCs (n = 347) and analysed the mutation profile of a subset, expression of 14 breast cancer biomarkers, and clinicopathological correlates, contextualising our findings within the WHO guidelines. The most significant indicators of poor prognosis were large tumour size (T3; p = 0.004), loss of cytokeratin expression (lack of staining with pan-cytokeratin AE1/3 antibody; p = 0.007), EGFR overexpression (p = 0.01), and for 'mixed' MBC, the presence of more than three distinct morphological entities (p = 0.007). Conversely, fewer morphological components and EGFR negativity were favourable indicators. Exome sequencing of 30 cases confirmed enrichment of TP53 and PTEN mutations, and intriguingly, concurrent mutations of TP53, PTEN, and PIK3CA. Mutations in neurofibromatosis-1 (NF1) were also overrepresented [16.7% MBCs compared to ∼5% of breast cancers overall; enrichment p = 0.028; mutation significance p = 0.006 (OncodriveFM)], consistent with published case reports implicating germline NF1 mutations in MBC risk. Taken together, we propose a practically minor but clinically significant modification to the guidelines: all WHO_1 mixed-type tumours should have the number of morphologies present recorded, as a mechanism for refining prognosis, and that EGFR and pan-cytokeratin expression are important prognostic markers. Copyright © 2018 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Mutação , Neoplasias Complexas Mistas/genética , Antígenos CD/análise , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Neoplasias da Mama/química , Neoplasias da Mama/classificação , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Caderinas/análise , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Estudos Transversais , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Receptores ErbB/análise , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Queratinas/análise , Metaplasia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Neoplasias Complexas Mistas/química , Neoplasias Complexas Mistas/classificação , Neoplasias Complexas Mistas/patologia , Neurofibromina 1/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Fenótipo , Carga Tumoral , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
14.
Int J Cancer ; 144(5): 1049-1060, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30178487

RESUMO

Cutaneous melanoma accounts for at least >10% of all cancers in adolescents and young adults (AYA, 15-30 years of age) in Western countries. To date, little is known about the correlations between germline variants and somatic mutations and mutation signatures in AYA melanoma patients that might explain why they have developed a cancer predominantly affecting those over 65 years of age. We performed genomic analysis of 50 AYA melanoma patients (onset 10-30 years, median 20); 25 underwent whole genome sequencing (WGS) of both tumor and germline DNA, exome data were retrieved from 12 TCGA AYA cases, and targeted DNA sequencing was conducted on 13 cases. The AYA cases were compared with WGS data from 121 adult cutaneous melanomas. Similar to mature adult cutaneous melanomas, AYA melanomas showed a high mutation burden and mutation signatures of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) damage. The frequencies of somatic mutations in BRAF (96%) and PTEN (36%) in the AYA WGS cohort were double the rates observed in adult melanomas (Q < 6.0 × 10-6 and 0.028, respectively). Furthermore, AYA melanomas contained a higher proportion of non-UVR-related mutation signatures than mature adult melanomas as a proportion of total mutation burden (p = 2.0 × 10-4 ). Interestingly, these non-UVR mutation signatures relate to APOBEC or mismatch repair pathways, and germline variants in related genes were observed in some of these cases. We conclude that AYA melanomas harbor some of the same molecular aberrations and mutagenic insults occurring in older adults, but in different proportions. Germline variants that may have conferred disease susceptibility correlated with somatic mutation signatures in a subset of AYA melanomas.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Células Germinativas/fisiologia , Melanoma/genética , Mutação/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 13(1): e0190264, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29320538

RESUMO

Technological innovation and increased affordability have contributed to the widespread adoption of genome sequencing technologies in biomedical research. In particular large cancer research consortia have embraced next generation sequencing, and have used the technology to define the somatic mutation landscape of multiple cancer types. These studies have primarily utilised the Illumina HiSeq platforms. In this study we performed whole genome sequencing of three malignant pleural mesothelioma and matched normal samples using a new platform, the BGISEQ-500, and compared the results obtained with Illumina HiSeq X Ten. Germline and somatic, single nucleotide variants and small insertions or deletions were independently identified from data aligned human genome reference. The BGISEQ-500 and HiSeq X Ten platforms showed high concordance for germline calls with genotypes from SNP arrays (>99%). The germline and somatic single nucleotide variants identified in both sequencing platforms were highly concordant (86% and 72% respectively). These results indicate the potential applicability of the BGISEQ-500 platform for the identification of somatic and germline single nucleotide variants by whole genome sequencing. The BGISEQ-500 datasets described here represent the first publicly-available cancer genome sequencing performed using this platform.


Assuntos
Genoma Humano , Células Germinativas , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Mutação INDEL , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
17.
Nature ; 545(7653): 175-180, 2017 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28467829

RESUMO

Melanoma of the skin is a common cancer only in Europeans, whereas it arises in internal body surfaces (mucosal sites) and on the hands and feet (acral sites) in people throughout the world. Here we report analysis of whole-genome sequences from cutaneous, acral and mucosal subtypes of melanoma. The heavily mutated landscape of coding and non-coding mutations in cutaneous melanoma resolved novel signatures of mutagenesis attributable to ultraviolet radiation. However, acral and mucosal melanomas were dominated by structural changes and mutation signatures of unknown aetiology, not previously identified in melanoma. The number of genes affected by recurrent mutations disrupting non-coding sequences was similar to that affected by recurrent mutations to coding sequences. Significantly mutated genes included BRAF, CDKN2A, NRAS and TP53 in cutaneous melanoma, BRAF, NRAS and NF1 in acral melanoma and SF3B1 in mucosal melanoma. Mutations affecting the TERT promoter were the most frequent of all; however, neither they nor ATRX mutations, which correlate with alternative telomere lengthening, were associated with greater telomere length. Most melanomas had potentially actionable mutations, most in components of the mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphoinositol kinase pathways. The whole-genome mutation landscape of melanoma reveals diverse carcinogenic processes across its subtypes, some unrelated to sun exposure, and extends potential involvement of the non-coding genome in its pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Genoma Humano/genética , Melanoma/genética , Mutação/genética , DNA Helicases/genética , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/genética , Genes p16 , Humanos , Melanoma/classificação , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Neurofibromatose 1/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Telomerase/genética , Telômero/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Proteína Nuclear Ligada ao X
18.
Nature ; 543(7643): 65-71, 2017 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28199314

RESUMO

The diagnosis of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (PanNETs) is increasing owing to more sensitive detection methods, and this increase is creating challenges for clinical management. We performed whole-genome sequencing of 102 primary PanNETs and defined the genomic events that characterize their pathogenesis. Here we describe the mutational signatures they harbour, including a deficiency in G:C > T:A base excision repair due to inactivation of MUTYH, which encodes a DNA glycosylase. Clinically sporadic PanNETs contain a larger-than-expected proportion of germline mutations, including previously unreported mutations in the DNA repair genes MUTYH, CHEK2 and BRCA2. Together with mutations in MEN1 and VHL, these mutations occur in 17% of patients. Somatic mutations, including point mutations and gene fusions, were commonly found in genes involved in four main pathways: chromatin remodelling, DNA damage repair, activation of mTOR signalling (including previously undescribed EWSR1 gene fusions), and telomere maintenance. In addition, our gene expression analyses identified a subgroup of tumours associated with hypoxia and HIF signalling.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Genômica , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Sequência de Bases , Proteínas de Ligação a Calmodulina/genética , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina/genética , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , DNA Glicosilases/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Reparo do DNA/genética , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Proteína EWS de Ligação a RNA , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Telômero/genética , Telômero/metabolismo
19.
Gastroenterology ; 152(1): 68-74.e2, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27856273

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer is molecularly diverse, with few effective therapies. Increased mutation burden and defective DNA repair are associated with response to immune checkpoint inhibitors in several other cancer types. We interrogated 385 pancreatic cancer genomes to define hypermutation and its causes. Mutational signatures inferring defects in DNA repair were enriched in those with the highest mutation burdens. Mismatch repair deficiency was identified in 1% of tumors harboring different mechanisms of somatic inactivation of MLH1 and MSH2. Defining mutation load in individual pancreatic cancers and the optimal assay for patient selection may inform clinical trial design for immunotherapy in pancreatic cancer.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Mutação , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Transcriptoma , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Genoma , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética
20.
Nature ; 531(7592): 47-52, 2016 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26909576

RESUMO

Integrated genomic analysis of 456 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas identified 32 recurrently mutated genes that aggregate into 10 pathways: KRAS, TGF-ß, WNT, NOTCH, ROBO/SLIT signalling, G1/S transition, SWI-SNF, chromatin modification, DNA repair and RNA processing. Expression analysis defined 4 subtypes: (1) squamous; (2) pancreatic progenitor; (3) immunogenic; and (4) aberrantly differentiated endocrine exocrine (ADEX) that correlate with histopathological characteristics. Squamous tumours are enriched for TP53 and KDM6A mutations, upregulation of the TP63∆N transcriptional network, hypermethylation of pancreatic endodermal cell-fate determining genes and have a poor prognosis. Pancreatic progenitor tumours preferentially express genes involved in early pancreatic development (FOXA2/3, PDX1 and MNX1). ADEX tumours displayed upregulation of genes that regulate networks involved in KRAS activation, exocrine (NR5A2 and RBPJL), and endocrine differentiation (NEUROD1 and NKX2-2). Immunogenic tumours contained upregulated immune networks including pathways involved in acquired immune suppression. These data infer differences in the molecular evolution of pancreatic cancer subtypes and identify opportunities for therapeutic development.


Assuntos
Genes Neoplásicos/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Genômica , Mutação/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/classificação , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/classificação , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/imunologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Metilação de DNA , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Fator 3-beta Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Fator 3-gama Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Histona Desmetilases/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Prognóstico , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/genética , Análise de Sobrevida , Transativadores/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcrição Genética , Transcriptoma , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra
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