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1.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 90, 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The heterotrimeric G protein complex, consisting of Gα, Gß, and Gγ subunits, are conserved signal transduction mechanism in eukaryotes. Recent molecular researches had demonstrated that G protein signaling participates in the regulation of yield related traits. However, the effects of G protein genes on yield components and stress tolerance are not well characterized. RESULTS: In this study, we generated heterotrimeric G protein mutants in rice using CRISPR/Cas9 (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) gene-editing technology. The effects of heterotrimeric G proteins on the regulation of yield components and stress tolerance were investigated. The mutants of gs3 and dep1 generated preferable agronomic traits compared to the wild-type, whereas the mutants of rga1 showed an extreme dwarf phenotype, which led to a dramatic decrease in grain production. The mutants showed improved stress tolerance, especially under salinity treatment. We found four putative extra-large G proteins (PXLG)1-4 that also participate in the regulation of yield components and stress tolerance. A yeast two hybrid showed that the RGB1 might interact with PXLG2 but not with PXLG1, PXLG3 or PXLG4. CONCLUSION: These findings will not only improve our understanding of the repertoire of heterotrimeric G proteins in rice but also contribute to the application of heterotrimeric G proteins in rice breeding.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(4)2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074988

RESUMO

Among all cereals, rice is highly sensitive to cold stress, especially at the germination stage, which adversely impacts its germination ability, seed vigor, crop stand establishment, and, ultimately, grain yield. The dissection of novel quantitative trait loci (QTLs) or genes conferring a low-temperature germination (LTG) ability can significantly accelerate cold-tolerant rice breeding to ensure the wide application of rice cultivation through the direct seeding method. In this study, we identified 11 QTLs for LTG using 144 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between a cold-tolerant variety, Lijiangxintuanheigu (LTH), and a cold-sensitive variety, Shennong265 (SN265). By resequencing two parents and RIL lines, a high-density bin map, including 2,828 bin markers, was constructed using 123,859 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between two parents. The total genetic distance corresponding to all 12 chromosome linkage maps was 2,840.12 cm. Adjacent markers were marked by an average genetic distance of 1.01 cm, corresponding to a 128.80 kb physical distance. Eight and three QTL alleles had positive effects inherited from LTH and SN265, respectively. Moreover, a pleiotropic QTL was identified for a higher number of erected panicles and a higher grain number on Chr-9 near the previously cloned DEP1 gene. Among the LTG QTLs, qLTG3 and qLTG7b were also located at relatively small genetic intervals that define two known LTG genes, qLTG3-1 and OsSAP16. Sequencing comparisons between the two parents demonstrated that LTH possesses qLTG3-1 and OsSAP16 genes, and SN-265 owns the DEP1 gene. These comparison results strengthen the accuracy and mapping resolution power of the bin map and population. Later, fine mapping was done for qLTG6 at 45.80 kb through four key homozygous recombinant lines derived from a population with 1569 segregating plants. Finally, LOC_Os06g01320 was identified as the most possible candidate gene for qLTG6, which contains a missense mutation and a 32-bp deletion/insertion at the promoter between the two parents. LTH was observed to have lower expression levels in comparison with SN265 and was commonly detected at low temperatures. In conclusion, these results strengthen our understanding of the impacts of cold temperature stress on seed vigor and germination abilities and help improve the mechanisms of rice breeding programs to breed cold-tolerant varieties.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(3)2020 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991733

RESUMO

: Heterosis is an interesting topic for both breeders and biologists due to its practical importance and scientific significance. Cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) consists of two subspecies, indica and japonica, and hybrid rice is the predominant form of indica rice in China. However, the molecular mechanism underlying heterosis in japonica remains unclear. The present study determined the genome sequence and conducted quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis using backcross recombinant inbred lines (BILs) and BILF1 lines to uncover the heterosis-related loci for rice yield increase under a japonica genetic background. The BIL population was derived from an admixture variety Habataki and japonica variety Sasanishiki cross to improve the genetic diversity but maintain the genetic background close to japonica. The results showed that heterosis in F1 mainly involved grain number per panicle. The BILF1s showed an increase in grain number per panicle but a decrease in plant height compared with the BILs. Genetic analysis then identified eight QTLs for heterosis in the BILF1s; four QTLs were detected exclusively in the BILF1 population only, presenting a mode of dominance or super-dominance in the heterozygotes. An additional four loci overlapped with QTLs detected in the BIL population, and we found that Grains Height Date 7 (Ghd7) was correlated in days to heading in both BILs and BILF1s. The admixture genetic background of Habataki was also determined by subspecies-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This investigation highlights the importance of high-throughput sequencing to elucidate the molecular mechanism of heterosis and provides useful germplasms for the application of heterosis in japonica rice production.

4.
Adv Mater ; 32(4): e1906374, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31799762

RESUMO

An efficient electron transport layer (ETL) plays a key role in promoting carrier separation and electron extraction in planar perovskite solar cells (PSCs). An effective composite ETL is fabricated using carboxylic-acid- and hydroxyl-rich red-carbon quantum dots (RCQs) to dope low-temperature solution-processed SnO2 , which dramatically increases its electron mobility by ≈20 times from 9.32 × 10-4 to 1.73 × 10-2 cm2 V-1 s-1 . The mobility achieved is one of the highest reported electron mobilities for modified SnO2 . Fabricated planar PSCs based on this novel SnO2 ETL demonstrate an outstanding improvement in efficiency from 19.15% for PSCs without RCQs up to 22.77% and have enhanced long-term stability against humidity, preserving over 95% of the initial efficiency after 1000 h under 40-60% humidity at 25 °C. These significant achievements are solely attributed to the excellent electron mobility of the novel ETL, which is also proven to help the passivation of traps/defects at the ETL/perovskite interface and to promote the formation of highly crystallized perovskite, with an enhanced phase purity and uniformity over a large area. These results demonstrate that inexpensive RCQs are simple but excellent additives for producing efficient ETLs in stable high-performance PSCs as well as other perovskite-based optoelectronics.

5.
Diagn Interv Radiol ; 26(1): 28-33, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650969

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate skeletal muscle perfusion in a canine hind limb ischemia model using CT perfusion imaging (CTPI). METHODS: Twelve beagles underwent embolization at the branch of the left deep femoral artery. The right hind limbs were used as controls. CTPI was performed immediately after embolization. The perfusion parameters of the regions of interest (ROI), including blood volume (BV), blood flow (BF), mean transit time (MTT) and permeability (PMB), were obtained in both the lateral and posterior hind limb muscle groups. RESULTS: After embolization, the BV, BF and PMB values in the lateral muscles of the left hind limbs were significantly lower than those in the right hind limbs (P > 0.05), and the MTT was significantly prolonged (P > 0.05). The values for BV, BF, MTT and PMB in the posterior muscles of the left hind limbs were not significantly different from those in the right hind limbs (P > 0.05). The values for BV, BF and PMB in the lateral muscles of the left hind limbs were significantly lower than those in the posterior muscles of the left hind limbs (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: CTPI could be used to evaluate skeletal muscle perfusion in a canine model, which may have clinical relevance in lower limb ischemia and vascular reconstruction.

6.
Biotechnol Bioeng ; 117(1): 96-108, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612991

RESUMO

Although production of biodiesels from microalgae is proved to be technically feasible, a commercially viable system has yet to emerge. High-cell-density fermentation of microalgae can be coupled with photoautotrophic cultivation to produce oils. In this study, by optimizing culturing conditions and employing a sophisticated substrate feed control strategy, ultrahigh-cell-density of 286 and 283.5 g/L was achieved for the unicellular alga Scenedesmus acuminatus grown in 7.5-L bench-scale and 1,000-L pilot-scale fermenters, respectively. The outdoor scale-up experiments indicated that heterotrophically grown S. acuminatus cells are more productive in terms of both biomass and lipid accumulation when they are inoculated in photobioreactors for lipid production as compared to the cells originally grown under photoautotrophic conditions. Technoeconomic analysis based on the pilot-scale data indicated that the cost of heterotrophic cultivation of microalgae for biomass production is comparable with that of the open-pond system and much lower than that of tubular PBR, if the biomass yield was higher than 200 g/L. This study demonstrated the economic viability of heterotrophic cultivation on large-scale microalgal inocula production, but ultrahigh-productivity fermentation is a prerequisite. Moreover, the advantages of the combined heterotrophic and photoautotrophic cultivation of microalgae for biofuels production were also verified in the pilot-scale.

7.
Bioresour Technol ; 295: 122296, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670205

RESUMO

Synthesis gas (Syngas) biomethanation is an environmentally friendly technology for fuel calorific value improvement. However, the slow mass transfer and poor product quality limit its development. In this study, the effects of temperature, hydrogen/carbon monoxide (H2/CO) ratio and trace element addition on simulated syngas biomethanation were investigated in three batches of experiments. Results showed that (1) the temperature influenced little on the quality of produced biogas; (2) the methane content in the biogas production were 66.37 ±â€¯4.04%, 70.61 ±â€¯6.06% and 73.35 ±â€¯2.39% respectively with the H2/CO ratio of 3:1, 4:1 and 5:1; (3) after the addition of Fe, Co and Ni elements, the biogas quality was significantly improved (methane content was 79.76 ±â€¯7.35%), but the microbial community structure did not change. This experiment provided a guidance for improving the biogas production performance of syngas biomethanation.


Assuntos
Monóxido de Carbono , Oligoelementos , Anaerobiose , Biocombustíveis , Reatores Biológicos , Hidrogênio , Metano , Temperatura Ambiente
8.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 6(23): 1902043, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31832326

RESUMO

Metal-containing polymer networks are ubiquitous in biological systems, and their unique structures enable a variety of fascinating biological behaviors. Cuticle of mussel byssal threads, containing Fe-catecholate complexes, shows remarkably high hardness, high extensibility, and self-healing capability. Understanding strengthening and self-healing mechanisms is essential for elucidating animal behaviors and rationally designing mussel-inspired materials. Here, direct evidence of Fe3+ and Fe2+ gradient distribution across the cuticle thickness is demonstrated, which shows more Fe2+ inside the inner cuticle, to support the hypothesis that the cuticle is a functionally graded material with high stiffness, extensibility, and self-healing capacity. The mechanical tests of the mussel threads show that both strength and extensibility of the threads decrease with increasing oxygen contents, but this property degradation can be restored upon removing the oxygen. The first-principles calculations explain the change in iron coordination, which plays a key role in strengthening, degradation, and self-healing of the polymer networks. The oxygen absorbs on metal ions, weakening the iron-catecholate bonds in the cuticle and collagen core, but this process can be reversed by sea water. These findings can have important implications in the design of next-generation bioinspired robust, highly extensible materials, and catalysis.

9.
Mikrochim Acta ; 186(12): 772, 2019 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31720849

RESUMO

Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) is a readily available copolymer that comes as an aqueous dispersion with good processability. A flexible voltammetric sensor for the widely used food stabilizer tert.-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) was constructed by using a film of PEDOT:PSS. The electron transfer efficiency of the electrode was enhanced by doping with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and mass transport at the electrode-electrolyte interface was increased by adding the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) which acts as a sorbent for TBHQ. SEM, AFM, XPS, UV - vis and electrochemical analysis were conducted to characterize the properties of the electrode. After optimization of the experimental conditions, the electrode operated at a working potential of 0.17 V (vs. SCE) has a linear response in the 0.5-200 µM TBHQ concentration range and a lower detection limit of 0.15 µM (at S/N = 3). It was applied for the determination of TBHQ in spiked real samples, and recoveries ranged between 96.85 and 103.41%. Graphical abstractSchematic representation of an electrochemical flexible electrode for the determination of tert.-butylhydroquinone based on the use of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate).

11.
Chemistry ; 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571290

RESUMO

Engineering noble metal nanostructures at the atomic level can significantly optimize their electrocatalytic performance and remarkably reduce their usage. We report the synthesis of atomically dispersed Pt on screw-like Pd/Au nanowires by using ultrafine Pd nanowires as seeds. Au can selectively grow on the surface of Pd nanowires by an island growth pattern to fabricate surface defect sites to load atomically dispersed Pt, which can be confirmed by X-ray absorption fine structure measurements and aberration corrected HRTEM images. The nanowires with 2.74 at % Pt exhibit superior HER properties in acidic solution with an overpotential of 20.6 mV at 10 mA cm-2 and enhanced alkaline ORR performance with a mass activity over 15 times greater than the commercial platinum/carbon (Pt/C) catalysts.

12.
Langmuir ; 35(45): 14481-14485, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622108

RESUMO

MXene is a new type of two-dimensional (2D) material that finds wide applications; however, its adhesion and tribological properties have not yet been fully revealed. Here, the chemical structure of MXene was revealed by X-ray diffraction, and the adhesion and friction behaviors of MXene were studied with atomic force microscopy (AFM) Nanoman technology. It was found in AFM tests that MXene exhibited enhanced adhesion and friction at higher pressure but exhibited reduced adhesion and friction at elevated temperature, while the sliding speed and delay time of the AFM probe have negligible effects on the friction. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to reveal the change in the chemical structure of MXene at different temperatures. We found increased oxidation, and replacement of C by O atoms occurred on MXene at higher temperatures, which has a profound impact on the adhesion and friction between MXene and the probe tip. This discovery lays the foundation for understanding the adhesion mechanism and the dynamic adhesion behavior in friction of MXene, rendering MXene a much broader application prospect.

13.
Neuroreport ; 30(16): 1081-1086, 2019 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31503206

RESUMO

The modulation of cerebral activity could induce plastic changes in the cerebral cortex and contribute to motor rehabilitation. Focal vibration over lower-extremity muscles has therapeutic effects on the impaired motor function for stroke patients, but the modulatory effects of focal vibration on brain activity are less known. To explore this problem, this experiment was designed and conducted, in which focal vibration (75 Hz) was applied over the right Achilles tendon of 14 healthy subjects and the affected Achilles tendon of seven subacute stroke patients. Electroencephalography was recorded in the following phases: resting-state and three focal vibration sessions. Electroencephalographical analysis showed a significantly desynchronized power of contralateral primary sensorimotor cortex (S1-M1) in beta1 band (13-18 Hz) following all focal vibration sessions occurred in healthy subjects compared to resting-state, whereas a significantly desynchronized power of bilateral S1-M1 in the beta1 and beta2 band (18-21 Hz) was observed in stroke patients compared to resting-state. Besides, event-related power desynchronization of bilateral S1-M1 in stroke patients was significantly lower than healthy subjects in the beta2 and beta3 band (21-30 Hz) during focal vibration sessions. These results demonstrated that focal vibration over Achilles tendon could activate bilateral S1-M1 in stroke patients, which was different in healthy subjects. These indications contribute to a better understanding of the underlying mechanism of focal vibration on stroke rehabilitation.

14.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 30(11): 2377-2386, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512322

RESUMO

AIMS: Ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) originating from the para-Hisian region represent a challenging location. The long-term success rate of catheter ablation above the septal leaflet of the tricuspid valve is not ideal. This study aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of catheter ablation for para-Hisian VAs via a direct approach under the septal valve with reversed C-curve technique. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-five consecutive patients with para-Hisian VAs were included. Systematic mapping was performed in the right ventricle septum, including both the regions above and under the septal valve. Radiofrequency (RF) ablation was preferentially performed under the valve with reversed C-curve technique in all patients. If the ablation failed under the valve, it was then performed above the valve and even in aortic sinus cusps. The earliest ventricular activation preceding surface QRS (V-QRS) under the valve was significantly larger than that above the valve (34.8 ± 5.3 vs 27.8 ± 5.7 ms, P < .01). RF ablation under the valve with reversed C-curve technique achieved acute success in 22 of 25 (88%) patients. Junctional rhythm developed during ablation in 3 of 25 (12%) patients and no atrioventricular block occurred. In the remaining three patients, RF application above the valve failed to eliminate the VAs and one of them achieved successful ablation in the right coronary cusp. During a mean follow-up of 17.8 ± 9.4 months, no patients presented with VAs recurrence and no postprocedure complications occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Catheter ablation under the valve with reversed C-curve technique shows to be effective and safe for para-Hisian VAs.

15.
Mol Med Rep ; 20(3): 2591-2596, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524254

RESUMO

Long non­coding RNA (lncRNA) SRA­like non­coding RNA (SLNCR1; also known as linc00673) is a recently identified oncogenic lncRNA. The role of SLNCR1 in non­small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), a common malignancy, remains poorly understood. The present study aimed to investigate the involvement of long non­coding RNA SLNCR1 in the pathogenesis of NSCLC. Reverse transcription­quantitative PCR (RT­qPCR) and ELISA were performed to measure the levels of lncRNA SLNCR1 and secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) in lung biopsies, respectively. Correlations between expression levels of lncRNA SLNCR1 and sPLA2 were analyzed by Pearson's correlation analysis. Diagnostic value of lncRNA SLNCR1 for NSCLC was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. lncRNA SLNCR1 small interfering (si)RNA and sPLA2 overexpression vector were transfected into NSCLC cells. Cell migration, invasion and stemness were examined by Transwell migration assay, Matrigel invasion assay and flow cytometric assay, respectively. Following transfection, expression of lncRNA SLNCR1 and sPLA2 was detected by RT­qPCR and western blotting, respectively. The results demonstrated that lncRNA SLNCR1 expression levels were upregulated in tumor tissues compared with adjacent healthy tissues of patients with NSCLC. Plasma lncRNA SLNCR1 and sPLA2 expression levels were upregulated in patients with NSCLC compared with healthy controls. Plasma lncRNA SLNCR1 and sPLA2 were positively correlated in patients with NSCLC, but not in healthy controls. lncRNA SLNCR1 siRNA silencing inhibited, whereas sPLA2 overexpression promoted cell migratory and invasive abilities and stemness. lncRNA SLNCR1 siRNA silencing led to downregulated sPLA2 expression, whereas sPLA2 overexpression did not significantly affect lncRNA SLNCR1 expression. sPLA2 overexpression attenuated the inhibitory effects of lncRNA SLNCR1 siRNA silencing on cell migration, invasion and stemness. In conclusion, lncRNA SLNCR1 may regulate cancer cell migration, invasion and stemness in NSCLC through interactions with sPLA2.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Fosfolipases A2 Secretórias/genética , Interferência de RNA , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Humanos , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Curva ROC
16.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(81): 12164-12167, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544187

RESUMO

Multicolor tunable carbon dots (CDs) are obtained by only altering the reaction solvents in solvothermal treatment. The red CDs (R-CDs) have a quantum yield of 50.8%, the highest reported for nitrogen and sulfur co-doped R-CDs so far. These CDs are developed into fluorescent hydrogels for precise remote force measurement and WLEDs with the CIE color coordinate of (0.31, 0.32).

17.
J Healthc Eng ; 2019: 3817124, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559004

RESUMO

In the last decade, technology-assisted stroke rehabilitation has been the focus of research. Electroencephalogram- (EEG-) based brain-computer interface (BCI) has a great potential for motor rehabilitation in stroke patients since the closed loop between motor intention and the actual movement established by BCI can stimulate the neural pathways of motor control. Due to the deficits in the brain, motor intention expression may shift to other brain regions during and even after neural reorganization. The objective of this paper was to study the event-related desynchronization (ERD) topography during motor attempt tasks of the paretic hand in stroke patients and compare the classification performance using different channel-selection strategies in EEG-based BCI. Fifteen stroke patients were recruited in this study. A cue-based experimental paradigm was applied in the experiment, in which each patient was required to open the palm of the paretic or the unaffected hand. EEG was recorded and analyzed to measure the motor intention and indicate the activated brain regions. Support vector machine (SVM) combined with common spatial pattern (CSP) algorithm was used to calculate the offline classification accuracy between the motor attempt of the paretic hand and the resting state applying different channel-selection strategies. Results showed individualized ERD topography during the motor attempt of the paretic hand due to the deficits caused by stroke. Statistical analysis showed a significant increase in the classification accuracy by analyzing the channels showing ERD than analyzing the channels from the contralateral sensorimotor cortex (SM1). The results indicated that for stroke patients whose affected motor cortex is extensively damaged, the compensated brain regions should be considered for implementing EEG-based BCI for motor rehabilitation as the closed loop between the altered activated brain regions and the paretic hand can be stimulated more accurately using the individualized channel-selection strategy.

18.
J Thorac Dis ; 11(8): 3421-3426, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559046

RESUMO

Background: The key for conducting thymectomy by thoracoscope is the treatment of thymic veins, as they are the most common source of bleeding. The traditional treatment is to cut off the distal and proximal vessels after Ham-Lock clamping. Our team found that it is safe and reliable to use ultrasonic energy to cut off thymic veins in previous open operations. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility and safety of thymic vein sealing with ultrasonic energy in video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) thymectomy. Methods: A total of 169 patients with or without thymic tumors who underwent thymectomy by thoracoscope were enrolled in the study. Among them, group A, with 89 patients, underwent thoracoscopic thymic vein resection by Ham-Lock, and group B, with 80 patients, did so by ultrasonic energy. The groups were compared in terms of the characteristics of patients, tumors, and perioperative period. Results: There were no significant differences in patients' characteristics between the two groups (P>0.05). There was no significant difference between the two groups in blood transfusion, operation time, drainage, and hospitalization (P>0.05). There were no deaths, secondary operation and post-operative blood transfusion, and no serious complications leading to prolonged hospitalization. One patient in group A was converted to thoracotomy due to left anonymous venous hemorrhage, and one patient in group B had thymic venous hemorrhage, but the hemorrhage was successfully stopped under thoracoscope. Conclusions: In VATS thymectomy (with or without thymic tumors), there is no significant difference in the treatment of thymic veins between Ham-Lock clipping and ultrasonic energy in conversion to open surgery in regards to thymic venous hemorrhage, postoperative drainage, blood transfusion, operation time, drainage, and hospital stay. Use of ultrasonic energy is a safe and reliable method for thymic vein disconnection.

19.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(35): 32062-32068, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393103

RESUMO

Silicon-based electrodes are promising and appealing for futuristic Li-ion batteries because of their high theoretical specific capacity. However, massive volume change of silicon upon lithiation and delithiation, accompanied by continual formation and destruction of the solid-electrolyte interface (SEI), leads to low Coulombic efficiency. Prelithiation of Si-based anode is regarded as an effective way for compensating for the loss of Li+ in the first discharging process. Here, a high-performance lithiated SiOx anode was prepared by using a controllable, efficient, and novel prelithiation strategy. The lithiation of SiOx is homogeneous and efficient in bulk due to well-improved Li+ diffusion in SiOx. Moreover, the in situ formed SEI during the process of prelithiation reduces the irreversible capacity loss in the first cycle and thus improves the initial Coulombic efficiency (ICE). Half-cells and full cells based on the as-prepared lithiated SiOx anode prominently increase the ICE from 79 to 89% and 68 to 87%, respectively. It is worth mentioning that the homogeneously lithiated SiOx anode achieves stable 200 cycles in NCM622//SiOx coin full cells. These exciting results provide applicable prospects of lithiated SiOx anode in the next-generation high-energy-density Li-ion batteries.

20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(35): 17361-17370, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413199

RESUMO

Mutations in transcription factor p63 are associated with developmental disorders that manifest defects in stratified epithelia including the epidermis. The underlying cellular and molecular mechanism is however not yet understood. We established an epidermal commitment model using human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and characterized differentiation defects of iPSCs derived from ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, and cleft lip/palate (EEC) syndrome patients carrying p63 mutations. Transcriptome analyses revealed stepwise cell fate transitions during epidermal commitment: Specification from multipotent simple epithelium to basal stratified epithelia and ultimately to the mature epidermal fate. Differentiation defects of EEC iPSCs caused by p63 mutations occurred during the specification switch from the simple epithelium to the basal-stratified epithelial fate. Single-cell transcriptome and pseudotime analyses of cell states identified mesodermal activation that was associated with the deviated commitment route of EEC iPSCs. Integrated analyses of differentially regulated genes and p63-dependent dynamic genomic enhancers during epidermal commitment suggest that p63 directly controls epidermal gene activation at the specification switch and has an indirect effect on mesodermal gene repression. Importantly, inhibitors of mesodermal induction enhanced epidermal commitment of EEC iPSCs. Our findings demonstrate that p63 is required for specification of stratified epithelia, and that epidermal commitment defects caused by p63 mutations can be reversed by repressing mesodermal induction. This study provides insights into disease mechanisms underlying stratified epithelial defects caused by p63 mutations and suggests potential therapeutic strategies for the disease.

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