Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 261
Filtrar
1.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248143

RESUMO

Segmentation of colorectal cancerous regions from 3-D magnetic resonance (MR) images is a crucial procedure for radiotherapy. Automatic delineation from 3-D whole volumes is in urgent demand yet very challenging. Drawbacks of existing deep-learning-based methods for this task are two-fold: 1) extensive graphics processing unit (GPU) memory footprint of 3-D tensor limits the trainable volume size, shrinks effective receptive field, and therefore, degrades speed and segmentation performance and 2) in-region segmentation methods supported by region-of-interest (RoI) detection are either blind to global contexts, detail richness compromising, or too expensive for 3-D tasks. To tackle these drawbacks, we propose a novel encoder-decoder-based framework for 3-D whole volume segmentation, referred to as 3-D RoI-aware U-Net (3-D RU-Net). 3-D RU-Net fully utilizes the global contexts covering large effective receptive fields. Specifically, the proposed model consists of a global image encoder for global understanding-based RoI localization, and a local region decoder that operates on pyramid-shaped in-region global features, which is GPU memory efficient and thereby enables training and prediction with large 3-D whole volumes. To facilitate the global-to-local learning procedure and enhance contour detail richness, we designed a dice-based multitask hybrid loss function. The efficiency of the proposed framework enables an extensive model ensemble for further performance gain at acceptable extra computational costs. Over a dataset of 64 T2-weighted MR images, the experimental results of four-fold cross-validation show that our method achieved 75.5% dice similarity coefficient (DSC) in 0.61 s per volume on a GPU, which significantly outperforms competing methods in terms of accuracy and efficiency. The code is publicly available.

3.
Mol Cancer ; 19(1): 60, 2020 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metastasis causes the vast majority of colorectal carcinoma (CRC)-related deaths. However, little is known about the specific traits and underlying mechanisms of metastasis-initiating cells in primary CRC. And whether or not circular RNAs (circRNAs) take part in this particular event remain not adequately stated yet. METHODS: A screening method based on Transwell assay was first applied to build CRC subgroups with different metastatic potential. High throughput RNA sequencing was used to find out novel metastatic drivers in CRC metastasis-initiating step. A series of in vitro and in vivo assays were further applied to elucidate the functions and underlying molecular mechanisms of circRNAs in CRC metastasis. RESULTS: A circRNA consisting of exon 8-11 of LONP2, termed as circLONP2, was upregulated in metastasis-initiating CRC subgroups. Aberrant higher expression of circLONP2 was observed in primary CRC tissues with established metastasis, and along the invasive margin in metastatic site. High expression of circLONP2 predicted unfavorable overall survival. Functional studies revealed that circLONP2 could enhance the invasiveness of CRC cells in vitro, and targeting circLONP2 through anti-sense oligonucleotide (ASO) dramatically reduced the penetrance of metastasis to foreign organs in vivo. Mechanically, circLONP2 directly interacted with and promoted the processing of primary microRNA-17 (pri-miR-17), through recruiting DiGeorge syndrome critical region gene 8 (DGCR8) and Drosha complex in DDX1-dependent manner. Meanwhile, upregulated mature miR-17-5p could be assembled into exosomes and internalized by neighboring cells to enhance their aggressiveness. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that circLONP2 acts as key metastasis-initiating molecule during CRC progression through modulating the intracellular maturation and intercellular transfer of miR-17, resulting in dissemination of metastasis-initiating ability in primary site and acceleration of metastasis formation in foreign organs. circLONP2 could serve as an effective prognostic predictor and/or novel anti-metastasis therapeutic target in CRC treatment.

5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1507, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198345

RESUMO

Tumor cells often reprogram their metabolism for rapid proliferation. The roles of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in metabolism remodeling and the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Through screening, we found that the lncRNA Actin Gamma 1 Pseudogene (AGPG) is required for increased glycolysis activity and cell proliferation in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Mechanistically, AGPG binds to and stabilizes 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase 3 (PFKFB3). By preventing APC/C-mediated ubiquitination, AGPG protects PFKFB3 from proteasomal degradation, leading to the accumulation of PFKFB3 in cancer cells, which subsequently activates glycolytic flux and promotes cell cycle progression. AGPG is also a transcriptional target of p53; loss or mutation of TP53 triggers the marked upregulation of AGPG. Notably, inhibiting AGPG dramatically impaired tumor growth in patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models. Clinically, AGPG is highly expressed in many cancers, and high AGPG expression levels are correlated with poor prognosis, suggesting that AGPG is a potential biomarker and cancer therapeutic target.

6.
Sci Transl Med ; 12(524)2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894106

RESUMO

Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) has emerged as a useful diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in many cancers. Here, we conducted a study to investigate the potential use of ctDNA methylation markers for the diagnosis and prognostication of colorectal cancer (CRC) and used a prospective cohort to validate their effectiveness in screening patients at high risk of CRC. We first identified CRC-specific methylation signatures by comparing CRC tissues to normal blood leukocytes. Then, we applied a machine learning algorithm to develop a predictive diagnostic and a prognostic model using cell-free DNA (cfDNA) samples from a cohort of 801 patients with CRC and 1021 normal controls. The obtained diagnostic prediction model discriminated patients with CRC from normal controls with high accuracy (area under curve = 0.96). The prognostic prediction model also effectively predicted the prognosis and survival of patients with CRC (P < 0.001). In addition, we generated a ctDNA-based molecular classification of CRC using an unsupervised clustering method and obtained two subgroups of patients with CRC with significantly different overall survival (P = 0.011 in validation cohort). Last, we found that a single ctDNA methylation marker, cg10673833, could yield high sensitivity (89.7%) and specificity (86.8%) for detection of CRC and precancerous lesions in a high-risk population of 1493 participants in a prospective cohort study. Together, our findings showed the value of ctDNA methylation markers in the diagnosis, surveillance, and prognosis of CRC.

7.
Cancer Lett ; 473: 74-89, 2020 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904482

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal cancer causes countless deaths every year due to therapeutic resistance. However, whether metabolic alterations contribute to chemoresistance is not well understood. In this study, we report that fatty acid (FA) catabolism was activated in gastrointestinal cancer cells treated with oxaliplatin, which exhibited higher expression of the rate-limiting enzymes carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B (CPT1B) and CPT2. The clinical analysis also showed that high expression of these enzymes was associated with poor oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy outcomes in patients. Furthermore, genetic or pharmacological inhibition of CPT2 with perhexiline disturbed NADPH and redox homeostasis and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and cell apoptosis in gastrointestinal cancer cells following oxaliplatin treatment. Specifically, the combination of oxaliplatin and perhexiline significantly suppressed the progression of gastrointestinal cancer in cell-based xenograft and patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models. Mechanistically, CPT2 was transcriptionally upregulated by nuclear factor of activated T cells 3 (NFATc3), which translocated to the nucleus in response to oxaliplatin treatment. In summary, our study suggests that the inhibition of CPT-mediated FA catabolism combined with conventional chemotherapy is a promising therapeutic strategy for patients with gastrointestinal cancers.

9.
Cancer Res ; 80(4): 675-688, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948940

RESUMO

Suppression of gluconeogenesis elevates glycolysis and is commonly observed in tumors derived from gluconeogenic tissues including liver and kidney, yet the definitive regulatory mechanism remains elusive. Here, we screened an array of transcription regulators and identified the enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) as a key factor that inhibits gluconeogenesis in cancer cells. Specifically, EZH2 repressed the expression of a rate-limiting gluconeogenic enzyme fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase 1 (FBP1) and promoted tumor growth primarily through FBP1 suppression. Furthermore, EZH2 was upregulated by genotoxins that commonly induce hepatic and renal tumorigenesis. Genotoxin treatments augmented EZH2 acetylation, leading to reduced association between EZH2 and its E3 ubiquitin ligase SMURF2. Consequently, EZH2 became less ubiquitinated and more stabilized, promoting FBP1 attenuation and tumor formation. Intriguingly, FBP1 physically interacted with EZH2, competed for EZH2 binding, and dissembled the polycomb complex. Therefore, FBP1 suppresses polycomb-initiated transcriptional responses and constitutes a double-negative feedback loop indispensable for EZH2-promoted tumorigenesis. Finally, EZH2 and FBP1 levels were inversely correlated in tumor tissues and accurately predicted patient survival. This work reveals an unexpected cross-talk between epigenetic and metabolic events, and identifies a new feedback circuitry that highlights EZH2 inhibitors as liver and kidney cancer therapeutics. SIGNIFICANCE: A novel feedback loop involving EZH2 and suppression of the gluconeogenesis enzyme FBP1 promotes hepatocellular cancer growth.See related commentary by Leithner, p. 657.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: In the phase 3 CONCUR trial (NCT01584830), regorafenib improved overall survival (OS) versus placebo in Asian patients with treatment-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). We conducted a post hoc subgroup analysis of Chinese patients in CONCUR. METHODS: Adults with mCRC progressing despite at least two prior treatment regimens and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-1 were randomized 2:1 to regorafenib 160 mg once daily or placebo for the first 3 weeks of each 4-week cycle. Dose modifications were permitted. The primary endpoint was OS. Secondary endpoints included progression-free survival, objective overall response, disease control rate, and safety. RESULTS: A total of 172 Chinese patients were randomized and treated (regorafenib n = 112, placebo n = 60). OS was significantly improved with regorafenib versus placebo (8.4 vs 6.2 months, respectively; hazard ratio [HR] 0.56, 95% CI 0.39-0.80; one-sided P = 0.000632), as was progression-free survival (HR 0.32, 95% CI 0.22-0.47; one-sided P < 0.000001). The most common drug-related grade ≥ 3 treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs; regorafenib, placebo) were hand-foot skin reaction (19%, 0%), hypertension (13%, 3%), hypophosphatemia (7%, 0%), increased alanine aminotransferase (6%, 0%), and increased aspartate aminotransferase (5%, 0%). In patients receiving regorafenib and placebo, respectively, TEAEs led to treatment discontinuation in 14% and 7%, dose reduction in 39% and 0%, and dose interruption in 64% and 20%. CONCLUSIONS: This retrospective analysis showed that regorafenib provided an OS benefit over placebo for Chinese patients with previously treated mCRC. TEAEs were consistent with the regorafenib safety profile and manageable with treatment modifications.

11.
Theranostics ; 10(2): 498-515, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31903134

RESUMO

Rationale: STING is a critical player in the innate and adaptive immune system, sensing cytosolic DNA to activate the expression of interferon genes and regulate T lymphocytes, which drives immunogenic responses to cancer cells. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), abundantly present in the tumor microenvironment, play a key role in cancer development. Gastric cancer is one of the most common and leading causes in cancer-related death worldwide. However, studies on the function and regulation of STING in TAMs and their roles in gastric cancer progression are still limited. Methods: We analyzed STING and CD68 expression of 200 pairs of gastric cancer and adjacent normal tissues by immunohistochemistry to identify the prognostic values of STING, as well as the correlations between STING and CD68 in gastric cancer. The characteristics of STING-altered macrophages, as well as their effects on cancer cell apoptosis and T cell differentiation were examined by flow cytometry. Cytokines secreted by STING-altered macrophages were identified by the Human Inflammation Array3 kit. Concentrations of soluble IL24 and IFN-ß were measured by ELISA. In vivo models, including spontaneous gastric cancer in p53+/- mice and cell line-based xenografts, were established, and clinical benefits of STING-altered macrophages were examined. Results: Our study identifies STING as a prognostic factor for gastric cancer, and for the first time demonstrated that knocking-down STING and STING activation by 2'3'-c-GAMP both promote TAMs polarizing into pro-inflammatory subtype and induce apoptosis of gastric cancer cells, mechanistically through IL6R-JAK-IL24 pathway. Conclusions : This study evaluated effects of targeting STING in TAMs in anti-gastric-cancer therapies. Moreover, we unveil a novel function of STING to activate the IL6R-JAK-IL24 pathway in macrophages.

12.
Oncogene ; 39(3): 637-650, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530934

RESUMO

Patients with stage II or III colorectal cancer (CRC) exhibit various clinical outcomes after radical treatments. The 5-year survival rate was between 50 and 87%. However, the underlying mechanisms of the variation remain unclear. Here we show that AMPKα1 is overexpressed in CRC patient specimens and the high expression is correlated with poor patient survival. We further reveal a previously unrecognized function of AMPKα1, which maintains high level of reduced glutathione to keep reduction-oxidation reaction (redox) homeostasis under stress conditions, thus promoting CRC cell survival under metabolic stress in vitro and enhancing tumorigenesis in vivo. Mechanistically, AMPKα1 regulate the glutathione reductase (GSR) phosphorylation possibly through residue Thr507 which enhances its activity. Suppression of AMPKα1 by using nano-sized polymeric vector induces a favorable therapeutic effect, especially when in combination with oxaliplatin. Our study uncovers a novel function of AMPKα1 in redox regulation and identifies a promising therapeutic strategy for treatment of CRC.

13.
Cancer Med ; 9(1): 151-159, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Monosialotetrahexosylganglioside (GM1) is a neuroprotective glycosphingolipid that repairs nerves. Oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy is neurotoxic. This study assessed the efficacy of GM1 for preventing oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neurotoxicity (OIPN) in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients receiving oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. METHODS: In total, 196 patients with stage II/III CRC undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy with mFOLFOX6 were randomly assigned to intravenous GM1 or a placebo. The primary endpoint was the rate of grade 2 or worse cumulative neurotoxicity (NCI-CTCAE). The secondary endpoints were chronic cumulative neurotoxicity (EORTC QLQ-CIPN20), time to grade 2 neurotoxicity (NCI-CTCAE or the oxaliplatin-specific neuropathy scale), acute neurotoxicity (analog scale), rates of dose reduction or withdrawal due to OIPN, 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) and adverse events. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the arms in the rate of NCI-CTCAE grade 2 or worse neurotoxicity (GM1: 33.7% vs placebo: 31.6%; P = .76) or neuropathy measured by the EORTC QLQ-CIPN20 or time to grade 2 neurotoxicity using NCI-CTCAE and the oxaliplatin-specific neuropathy scale. GM1 substantially decreased participant-reported acute neurotoxicity (sensitivity to cold items [P < .01], discomfort swallowing cold liquids [P < .01], throat discomfort [P < .01], muscle cramps [P < .01]). The rates of dose reduction or withdrawal were not significantly different between the arms (P = .08). The 3-year DFS rates were 85% and 83% in the GM1 and placebo arms, respectively (P = .19). There were no differences in toxicity between the arms. CONCLUSION: Patients receiving GM1 were less troubled by the symptoms of acute neuropathy. However, we do not support the use of GM1 to prevent cumulative neurotoxicity. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02251977).

14.
Int J Cancer ; 146(1): 272-280, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162842

RESUMO

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated gastric carcinomas (EBVaGCs) may account for 8-9% of all gastric cancer (GC) patients. All previous reports on EBVaGC were retrospective. Prospective study is warranted to evaluate the exact role of EBV status in predicting the prognosis of GC. It is of special interest to figure out whether dynamic detection of plasma EBV-DNA load could be a feasible biomarker for the monitor of EBVaGC. From October 2014 to September 2017, we consecutively collected GC patients (n = 2,760) from Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center for EBER examination. We detected EBV-DNA load in plasma and tissue samples of EBVaGC patients at baseline. Subsequently, plasma EBV-DNA load was dynamically monitored in EBVaGC patients. The overall prevalence of EBVaGC is 5.1% (140/2,760). The incidence rate of EBVaGC decreased with advanced AJCC 7th TNM stage (p < 0.001), with the corresponding percentages of 9.3, 9.9, 6.7 and 1.4% for Stage I, II, III and IV patients. EBVaGC patients were predominately young males with better histologic differentiation and earlier TNM stage than EBV-negative GC (EBVnGC) patients. EBVaGC patients were confirmed to had a favorable 3-year survival rate (EBVaGC vs. EBVnGC: 76.8% vs. 58.2%, p = 0.0001). Though only 52.1% (73/140) EBVaGC patients gained detectable EBV-DNA and 43.6% (61/140) reached a positive cutoff of 100 copies/ml, we found the plasma EBV-DNA load in EBVaGC decreased when patients got response, while it increased when disease progressed. Our results suggested that plasma EBV-DNA is a good marker in predicting recurrence and chemotherapy response for EBVaGC patients.


Assuntos
DNA Viral/sangue , Herpesvirus Humano 4/isolamento & purificação , Neoplasias Gástricas/virologia , Carga Viral , Idoso , Feminino , Herpesvirus Humano 4/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
Mol Cancer ; 18(1): 174, 2019 12 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play nonnegligible roles in the epigenetic regulation of cancer cells. This study aimed to identify a specific lncRNA that promotes the colorectal cancer (CRC) progression and could be a potential therapeutic target. METHODS: We screened highly expressed lncRNAs in human CRC samples compared with their matched adjacent normal tissues. The proteins that interact with LINRIS (Long Intergenic Noncoding RNA for IGF2BP2 Stability) were confirmed by RNA pull-down and RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assays. The proliferation and metabolic alteration of CRC cells with LINRIS inhibited were tested in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: LINRIS was upregulated in CRC tissues from patients with poor overall survival (OS), and LINRIS inhibition led to the impaired CRC cell line growth. Moreover, knockdown of LINRIS resulted in a decreased level of insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 2 (IGF2BP2), a newly found N6-methyladenosine (m6A) 'reader'. LINRIS blocked K139 ubiquitination of IGF2BP2, maintaining its stability. This process prevented the degradation of IGF2BP2 through the autophagy-lysosome pathway (ALP). Therefore, knockdown of LINRIS attenuated the downstream effects of IGF2BP2, especially MYC-mediated glycolysis in CRC cells. In addition, the transcription of LINRIS could be inhibited by GATA3 in CRC cells. In vivo experiments showed that the inhibition of LINRIS suppressed the proliferation of tumors in orthotopic models and in patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models. CONCLUSION: LINRIS is an independent prognostic biomarker for CRC. The LINRIS-IGF2BP2-MYC axis promotes the progression of CRC and is a promising therapeutic target.

17.
Virchows Arch ; 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31720832

RESUMO

Although the positivity of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is low in colorectal cancer (CRC), anti-HER2 is becoming a new target therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). However, assessment of the HER2 scoring system was still not established in CRC. The purpose of our study was to evaluate HER2 status and its correlation with clinicopathological characteristics and survival according to the HER2 diagnostic criteria for gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma (GEA criteria) and the HERACLES diagnostic criteria (HERACLES criteria) in a large cohort of Chinese CRC patients. The HER2 positivity was 2.9% (43/1490) and 2.6% (39/1490) in CRCs based on the GEA criteria and the HERACLES criteria, and 3.7% (9/243) in mCRC according to both criteria. HER2 status was associated with primary tumor location (P = 0.037), regional lymph node metastasis (P = 0.035), and TNM stage (P = 0.022) in CRCs based on the HERACLES criteria. No such association was found based on the GEA criteria. Furthermore, HER2 positive only presented in patients with RAS gene wild type (P = 0.001). Significant difference was only observed between the HER2-positive and HER2-negative groups in terms of disease-free survival for stage II-III CRCs (P = 0.048) according to the HERACLES criteria, but not based on the GEA criteria. Our findings suggest that the frequency of HER2 overexpression or amplification was low in Chinese CRC patients, and provide a rationale for further evaluation of HER2 in CRC based on the HERACLES criteria and the HER2 diagnostic criteria for gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma.

18.
Lancet Oncol ; 20(12): 1645-1654, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Upper gastrointestinal cancers (including oesophageal cancer and gastric cancer) are the most common cancers worldwide. Artificial intelligence platforms using deep learning algorithms have made remarkable progress in medical imaging but their application in upper gastrointestinal cancers has been limited. We aimed to develop and validate the Gastrointestinal Artificial Intelligence Diagnostic System (GRAIDS) for the diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal cancers through analysis of imaging data from clinical endoscopies. METHODS: This multicentre, case-control, diagnostic study was done in six hospitals of different tiers (ie, municipal, provincial, and national) in China. The images of consecutive participants, aged 18 years or older, who had not had a previous endoscopy were retrieved from all participating hospitals. All patients with upper gastrointestinal cancer lesions (including oesophageal cancer and gastric cancer) that were histologically proven malignancies were eligible for this study. Only images with standard white light were deemed eligible. The images from Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center were randomly assigned (8:1:1) to the training and intrinsic verification datasets for developing GRAIDS, and the internal validation dataset for evaluating the performance of GRAIDS. Its diagnostic performance was evaluated using an internal and prospective validation set from Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center (a national hospital) and additional external validation sets from five primary care hospitals. The performance of GRAIDS was also compared with endoscopists with three degrees of expertise: expert, competent, and trainee. The diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of GRAIDS and endoscopists for the identification of cancerous lesions were evaluated by calculating the 95% CIs using the Clopper-Pearson method. FINDINGS: 1 036 496 endoscopy images from 84 424 individuals were used to develop and test GRAIDS. The diagnostic accuracy in identifying upper gastrointestinal cancers was 0·955 (95% CI 0·952-0·957) in the internal validation set, 0·927 (0·925-0·929) in the prospective set, and ranged from 0·915 (0·913-0·917) to 0·977 (0·977-0·978) in the five external validation sets. GRAIDS achieved diagnostic sensitivity similar to that of the expert endoscopist (0·942 [95% CI 0·924-0·957] vs 0·945 [0·927-0·959]; p=0·692) and superior sensitivity compared with competent (0·858 [0·832-0·880], p<0·0001) and trainee (0·722 [0·691-0·752], p<0·0001) endoscopists. The positive predictive value was 0·814 (95% CI 0·788-0·838) for GRAIDS, 0·932 (0·913-0·948) for the expert endoscopist, 0·974 (0·960-0·984) for the competent endoscopist, and 0·824 (0·795-0·850) for the trainee endoscopist. The negative predictive value was 0·978 (95% CI 0·971-0·984) for GRAIDS, 0·980 (0·974-0·985) for the expert endoscopist, 0·951 (0·942-0·959) for the competent endoscopist, and 0·904 (0·893-0·916) for the trainee endoscopist. INTERPRETATION: GRAIDS achieved high diagnostic accuracy in detecting upper gastrointestinal cancers, with sensitivity similar to that of expert endoscopists and was superior to that of non-expert endoscopists. This system could assist community-based hospitals in improving their effectiveness in upper gastrointestinal cancer diagnoses. FUNDING: The National Key R&D Program of China, the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, the Science and Technology Program of Guangdong, the Science and Technology Program of Guangzhou, and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities.

19.
J Immunother Cancer ; 7(1): 264, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623662

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have achieved impressive success in different cancer types, yet responses vary and predictive biomarkers are urgently needed. Growing evidence points to a link between DNA methylation and anti-tumor immunity, while clinical data on the association of genomic alterations in DNA methylation-related genes and ICI response are lacking. METHODS: Clinical cohorts with annotated response and survival data and matched mutational data from published studies were collected and consolidated. The predictive function of specific mutated genes was first tested in the discovery cohort and later validated in the validation cohort. The association between specific mutated genes and tumor immunogenicity and anti-tumor immunity was further investigated in the Cancer Genome Altas (TCGA) dataset. RESULTS: Among twenty-one key genes involving in the regulation of DNA methylation, TET1-mutant (TET1-MUT) was enriched in patients responding to ICI treatment in the discovery cohort (P < 0.001). TET1 was recurrently mutated across multiple cancers and more frequently seen in skin, lung, gastrointestinal, and urogenital cancers. In the discovery cohort (n = 519), significant differences were observed between TET1-MUT and TET1-wildtype (TET1-WT) patients regarding objective response rate (ORR, 60.9% versus 22.8%, P < 0.001), durable clinical benefit (DCB, 71.4% versus 31.6%, P < 0.001), and progression-free survival (PFS, hazard ratio = 0.46 [95% confidence interval, 0.25 to 0.82], P = 0.008). In the validation cohort (n = 1395), significant overall survival (OS) benefit was detected in the TET1-MUT patients compared to TET1-WT patients (hazard ratio = 0.47 [95% confidence interval, 0.25 to 0.88], P = 0.019), which was, importantly, independent of tumor mutational burden and high microsatellite instability; as well as not attributed to the prognostic impact of TET1-MUT (P > 0.05 in both two non-ICI-treated cohorts). In TCGA dataset, TET1-MUT was strongly associated with higher tumor mutational burden and neoantigen load, and inflamed pattern of tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes, immune signatures and immune-related gene expressions. CONCLUSIONS: TET1-MUT was strongly associated with higher ORR, better DCB, longer PFS, and improved OS in patients receiving ICI treatment, suggesting that TET1-MUT is a novel predictive biomarker for immune checkpoint blockade across multiple cancer types.

20.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4695, 2019 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619685

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been implicated in cancer progression through largely unknown mechanisms. Herein, we identify an N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modified circRNA, circNSUN2, frequently upregulated in tumor tissues and serum samples from colorectal carcinoma (CRC) patients with liver metastasis (LM) and predicts poorer patient survival. The upregulated expression of circNSUN2 promotes LM in PDX metastasis models in vivo and accelerates cancer cells invasion in vitro. Importantly, N6-methyladenosine modification of circNSUN2 increases export to the cytoplasm. By forming a circNSUN2/IGF2BP2/HMGA2 RNA-protein ternary complex in the cytoplasm, circNSUN2 enhances the stability of HMGA2 mRNA to promote CRC metastasis progression. Clinically, the upregulated expressions of circNSUN2 and HMGA2 are more prevalent in LM tissues than in primary CRC tissues. These findings elucidate that N6-methyladenosine modification of circNSUN2 modulates cytoplasmic export and stabilizes HMGA2 to promote CRC LM, and suggest that circNSUN2 could represent a critical prognostic marker and/or therapeutic target for the disease.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Carcinoma/secundário , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Proteína HMGA2/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Metiltransferases/genética , /genética , Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Carcinoma/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Células HCT116 , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Camundongos , Metástase Neoplásica , Transplante de Neoplasias , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA