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1.
J Exp Biol ; 224(Pt 2)2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33443047

RESUMO

We previously showed that different skeletal muscles in Daurian ground squirrels (Spermophilus dauricus) possess different antioxidant strategies during hibernation; however, the reason for these varied strategies remains unclear. To clarify this issue, we studied REDD1, FOXO4, PGC-1α, FOXO1 and atrogin-1 proteins to determine the potential cause of the different antioxidant strategies in Daurian ground squirrels during hibernation, and to clarify whether different strategies affect atrophy-related signals. Results showed that the soleus (SOL) muscle experienced intracellular hypoxia during interbout arousal, but no oxidative stress. This may be due to increased PGC-1α expression enhancing antioxidant capacity in the SOL under hypoxic conditions. Extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle showed no change in oxidative stress, hypoxia or antioxidant capacity during hibernation. The FOXO1 and PGC-1α results strongly suggested differentially regulated fuel metabolism in the SOL and EDL muscles during hibernation, i.e. enhanced lipid oxidation and maintained anaerobic glycolysis, respectively. Atrogin-1 expression did not increase during hibernation in either the SOL or EDL, indicating that protein synthesis was not inhibited by atrogin-1. Thus, our results suggest that different fuel regulation may be one mechanism related to antioxidant defense strategy formation in different kinds of skeletal muscle fibers of Daurian ground squirrels during hibernation.

2.
Brain Behav ; 11(1): e01922, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation plays an important role in the pathophysiology of stroke. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between various inflammatory risk markers and ischemic stroke outcome and subtype. METHODS: A total of 3,013 ischemic stroke patients who were admitted to our hospital from 01/01/2016 to 12/30/2018 were retrospectively studied. Stroke subtypes were defined by the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) classification. Levels of five common inflammatory markers including white blood cell (WBC) count, neutrophil, lymphocyte, serum C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured, and eleven conventional risk factors were further evaluated in the prediction of overall mortality as well as three functional outcomes defined by the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), and the Barthel Index (BI). Independent predictors of outcome were identified by multivariate logistic regression, and an importance score measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve for each predictor using a Naive Bayes model was reported. RESULTS: Neutrophil and WBC were significantly higher in large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA) and cardioembolism (CE) subtype. In contrast, lymphocyte was significantly higher in small-artery occlusion (SAO). Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and CRP level were the best independent predictors, after adjustment for traditional risk factors and TOAST subtype for all four types of outcomes. CONCLUSION: Inflammatory risk markers including neutrophil, lymphocyte, and CRP may have strong independent prediction values for stroke outcome.

3.
J Hazard Mater ; 406: 124768, 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310327

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate whether genotoxic stress mediates arsenic (As)-induced decline in sperm quality. Mice drank ultrapure water containing NaAsO2 (15 mg/L) for 70 days. The mature seminiferous tubules and epididymal sperm count were reduced in As-exposed mice. Cell proliferation, determined by immunostaining with Ki67, was suppressed in As-exposed seminiferous tubules and GC-1 cells. PCNA, a proliferation marker, was reduced in As-exposed mouse testes. Cell growth index was decreased in As-exposed GC-1 cells. Flow analysis showed that As-exposed GC-1 cells were retarded at G2/M phase. CDK1 and cyclin B1 were reduced in As-exposed GC-1 cells and mouse testes. Additional experiment revealed that p-ATR, a marker of genotoxic stress, was elevated in As-exposed mouse testes and GC-1 cells. Accordingly, p-p53 and p21, two downstream molecules of ATR, were increased in As-exposed GC-1 cells. Excess reactive oxygen species (ROS), measured by immunofluorescence, and DNA-strand break, determined by Comet assay, were observed in As-exposed GC-1 cells. γH2AX, a marker of DNA-strand break, was elevated in As-exposed seminiferous tubules and GC-1 cells. NAC alleviated As-evoked DNA damage, genotoxic stress, cell proliferation inhibition and sperm count reduction. In conclusion, ROS-evoked genotoxic stress mediates As-induced germ cell proliferation inhibition and decline in sperm quality.

4.
Front Physiol ; 11: 562080, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33192559

RESUMO

To explore the possible mechanism of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in the maintenance of cytoplasmic calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis, we studied changes in cytoplasmic Ca2+, SR Ca2+, and Ca2+-handling proteins of slow-twitch muscle (soleus, SOL), fast-twitch muscle (extensor digitorum longus, EDL), and mixed muscle (gastrocnemius, GAS) in different stages in hibernating Daurian ground squirrels (Spermophilus dauricus). Results showed that the level of cytoplasmic Ca2+ increased and SR Ca2+ decreased in skeletal muscle fiber during late torpor (LT) and inter-bout arousal (IBA), but both returned to summer active levels when the animals aroused from and re-entered into torpor (early torpor, ET), suggesting that intracellular Ca2+ is dynamic during hibernation. The protein expression of ryanodine receptor1 (RyR1) increased in the LT, IBA, and ET groups, whereas the co-localization of calsequestrin1 (CSQ1) and RyR1 in GAS muscle decreased in the LT and ET groups, which may increase the possibility of RyR1 channel-mediated Ca2+ release. Furthermore, calcium pump (SR Ca2+-ATPase 1, SERCA1) protein expression increased in the LT, IBA, and ET groups, and the signaling pathway-related factors of SERCA activity [i.e., ß-adrenergic receptor2 protein expression (in GAS), phosphorylation levels of phospholamban (in GAS), and calmodulin kinase2 (in SOL)] all increased, suggesting that these factors may be involved in the up-regulation of SERCA1 activity in different groups. The increased protein expression of Ca2+-binding proteins CSQ1 and calmodulin (CaM) indicated that intracellular free Ca2+-binding ability also increased in the LT, IBA, ET, and POST groups. In brief, changes in cytoplasmic and SR Ca2+ concentrations, SR RyR1 and SERCA1 protein expression levels, and major RyR1 and SERCA1 signaling pathway-related factors were unexpectedly active in the torpor stage when metabolic functions were highly inhibited.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33247789

RESUMO

Phthalates are one of ubiquitous contaminants in the indoor environment. In this study, we analyzed concentrations and profiles of 9 phthalates in dust samples collected from houses and university dormitories in Nanjing, China. The total concentrations of phthalates in house and dormitory dust ranged from 111.4 to 3599.1 µg/g and 86.1 to 1262.3 µg/g, respectively. Phthalates in house was significantly higher than that in dormitory dust (p < 0.01). Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP) were the three predominant compounds and accounted for more than 98% of total phthalates in the two microenvironments. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of phthalates, carcinogenic risk (CR) of DEHP, and hazard index (HI) values of DEHP, DBP and DiBP were estimated. Except for adults, the CR of DEHP for four subgroups (infants, toddlers, children, and teenagers) had exceeded the limitation, implying that they are at the risk of exposure to DEHP through dust ingestion.

6.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 157: 169-184, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120109

RESUMO

The NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2 form a huge plant-specific gene family of NAC TFs that are involved in the growth, development, and regulation of biotic and abiotic stress responses. Although the draft genome of longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) has been published, however the comprehensive data regarding the functions, evolution, and expression patterns of the NAC family are still unavailable. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of the NAC transcription factor family in longan was performed, and a total of 114 NAC genes were found. We investigated the NAC gene family exploring the phylogeny, domain conservation, intron/exon, motifs, cis-regulatory elements, protein-protein interaction, and expression profiles of RNA-seq samples in different tissues and early somatic embryogenesis of longan. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the genes with similar gene structure and motif distribution were clustered in the same group. Cis-element identification indicates the possible role of NAC genes in biological and physiological processes. Protein-protein interaction identified the DlNACs homologous with Arabidopsis proteins. We further investigated the expression pattern of DlNAC genes in different tissues (pulp, stem, large fruit, young fruit, and flower) during somatic embryogenesis at embryogenic callus (EC), incomplete compact pro-embryogenic cultures (ICpEC), and globular embryos (GE) stages. The qRT-PCR results showed that the DlNAC genes were expressed higher at EC and GE stage compared with ICpEC stage. In conclusion, our results provide insight into the evolution, diversity, and characterization of NAC genes in the longan and provide a base for understanding their biological roles and molecular mechanisms in plants.

7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111436, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039867

RESUMO

Several epidemiological studies reported that chronic arsenic exposure increased risk of prostate cancer. This study aimed to investigate whether chronic NaAsO2 exposure elevates stemness and chemoresistance in prostate cancer cells. DU145 (wild-type p53) and PC-3 (p53-null) cells were exposed to NaAsO2 (2 µmol/L) for 30 generations. IC50s to docetaxel and cisplatin were increased in NaAsO2-exposed DU145 and PC-3 cells. The number of tumor spheres was elevated in NaAsO2-exposed DU145 and PC-3 cells. Nanog, SOX-2 and ALDH1A1, three markers of cancer stemness, were upregulated in NaAsO2-exposed PC-3 spheres. Moreover, NaAsO2-exposed DU145 and PC-3 cells were arrested in G2/M phase. Histone H2AX phosphorylation on Ser139, an indicator for DNA double-strand break, was upregulated in NaAsO2-exposed DU145 and PC-3 cells. ATM phosphorylation on Ser1981, a key sensor of genotoxic stress, was rapidly elevated in NaAsO2-exposed DU145 cells. Phosphor-p53, a downstream molecule of ATM signaling, and p21, a direct target of p53, were upregulated in NaAsO2-exposed DU145 cells. Unexpectedly, p21 was also elevated in NaAsO2-exposed p53-null PC-3 cells. Antioxidant NAC alleviated NaAsO2-induced ATM phosphorylation, cell cycle arrest, and subsequent stemness enhancement and chemoresistance in both DU145 and PC-3 cells. These results suggest that ROS-mediated genotoxic stress is involved in NaAsO2-induced cell cycle arrest, stemness enhancement and chemoresistance of prostate cancer cells in a p53-independent manner.

8.
J Clin Transl Hepatol ; 8(3): 246-254, 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33083246

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new respiratory infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (commonly known as SARS-CoV-2) with multiple organ injuries. The aim of this study was to analyze COVID-19-associated liver dysfunction (LD), its association with the risk of death and prognosis after discharge. Methods: Three-hundred and fifty-five COVID-19 patients were recruited. Clinical data were collected from electronic medical records. LD was evaluated and its prognosis was tracked. The association between LD and the risk of death was analyzed. Results: Of the 355 COVID-19 patients, 211 had mild disease, 88 had severe disease, and 51 had critically ill disease. On admission, 223 (62.8%) patients presented with hypoproteinemia, 151(42.5%) with cholestasis, and 101 (28.5%) with hepatocellular injury. As expected, LD was more common in critically ill patients. By multivariate logistic regression, male sex, older age and lymphopenia were three important independent risk factors predicting LD among COVID-19 patients. Risk of death analysis showed that the fatality rate was higher in patients with hypoproteinemia than in those without hypoproteinemia (relative risk=9.471, p<0.01). Moreover, the fatality rate was higher in patients with cholestasis than those without cholestasis (relative risk=2.182, p<0.05). Follow-up observation found that more than one hepatic functional index of two-third patients remained abnormal at 14 days after discharge. Conclusions: LD at early disease stage elevates the risk of death of COVID-19 patients. COVID-19-associated LD does not recover completely by 14 days after discharge.

9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4802, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968080

RESUMO

Blue/deep-blue emission is crucial for organic optoelectronics but remains a formidable challenge in organic afterglow due to the difficulties in populating and stabilizing the high-energy triplet excited states. Here, a facile strategy to realize the efficient deep-blue organic afterglow is proposed via host molecules to sensitize the triplet exciton population of guest and water implement to suppress the non-radiative decays by matrices rigidification. A series of highly luminescent deep-blue (405-428 nm) organic afterglow materials with lifetimes up to 1.67 s and quantum yields of 46.1% are developed. With these high-performance water-responsive materials, lifetime-encrypted rewritable paper has been constructed for water-jet printing of high-resolution anti-counterfeiting patterns that can retain for a long time (>1 month) and be erased by dimethyl sulfoxide vapor in 15 min with high reversibility for many write/erase cycles. These results provide a foundation for the design of high-efficient blue/deep-blue organic afterglow and stimuli-responsive materials with remarkable applications.

10.
Insect Sci ; 2020 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803790

RESUMO

Inducible gene-expression systems play important roles in gene functional assays in the post-genome era. Streptomyces phage-derived phiC31 integrase, which mediates an irreversible site-specific cassette exchange between the phage attachment site (attP) and the bacterial attachment site (attB), provides a promising option for the construction of a controllable gene-expression system. Here, we report a phiC31 integrase-mediated promoter flip system (FLIP) for the inducible expression of target genes in silkworm (Bombyx mori). First, we constructed a FLIP reporter system, in which a BmAct4 promoter with enhanced translational efficiency was flanked by the attB and attP sites in a head-to-head orientation and further linked in a reverse orientation to a DsRed reporter gene. The coexpression of a C-terminal modified phiC31-NLS integrase carrying a simian virus 40 (SV40) nuclear localization signal (NLS) effectively flipped the BmAct4 promoter through an attB/attP exchange, thereby activating the downstream expression of DsRed in a silkworm embryo-derived cell line, BmE. Subsequently, the FLIP system, together with a system continuously expressing the phiC31-NLS integrase, was used to construct binary transgenic silkworm lines. Hybridization between FLIP and phiC31-NLS transgenic silkworm lines resulted in the successful flipping of the BmAct4 promoter, with an approximately 39% heritable transformation efficiency in silkworm offspring, leading to the constitutive and high-level expression of DsRed in silkworms, which accounted for approximately 0.81% of the silkworm pupal weight. Our successful development of the FLIP system offers an effective alternative for manipulating gene expression in silkworms and other lepidopteran species.

11.
Curr Med Sci ; 40(4): 636-641, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767265

RESUMO

This case series aimed to describe the clinical characteristics of severely or critically ill patients with COVID-19 and compare the clinical characteristics of patients who received invasive respiratory support with those of patients who received noninvasive respiratory support. We included all confirmed severe or critical illness cases of COVID-19 admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, a COVID-19-designated hospital, from January 8 to March 12, 2020. Cases were analyzed for epidemiological, demographic, clinical, APACHE II, SOFA, radiological features and laboratory data. Outcomes of all patients were followed up as of March 12, 2020. This newly emerging virus had caused 55 confirmed severe or critical illness cases in ICU of a COVID-19-designated hospital. Most of the infected patients were men; more than half had underlying diseases, including hypertension, coronary artery disease and diabetes. The median age was 63 years old. Common symptoms at onset of illness were fever, fatigue and dry cough. Five (9.1%) hospitalized patients were presumed to have been infected in the hospital, and 4 (7.3%) health care workers were infected in their work. Of the 55 confirmed severe or critical illness cases, 10 (18.2%) patients died during the follow-up period as of March 12 with the median follow-up period of 28 days (interquartile range 16-35). Nine patients received VV-ECMO for severe respiratory failure and 4 (44.4%) patients died. Moreover, 28 patients received invasive respiratory support and 14 (50.0%) patients died. In this single-center study, 55 severely or critically ill ICU patients were confirmed to have COVID-19 in Wuhan and the overall mortality was 29.1%. Totally 28 (50.9%) of severely or critically ill ICU patients received invasive respiratory support and 14 (50.0%) died during the follow-up period.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Terapia Respiratória/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
12.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-10, 2020 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812524

RESUMO

Renal fibrosis is common especially in the elderly population. Recently, we found that vitamin D deficiency caused prostatic hyperplasia. This study aimed to investigate whether vitamin D deficiency promotes renal fibrosis and functional impairment. All mice except controls were fed with vitamin D-deficient (VDD) diets, beginning from their early life. The absolute and relative kidney weights on postnatal week 20 were decreased in VDD diet-fed male pups but not in female pups. A mild pathological damage was observed in VDD diet-fed male pups but not in females. Further analysis showed that VDD-induced pathological damage was aggravated, accompanied by renal dysfunction in 40-week-old male pups. An obvious collagen deposition was observed in VDD diet-fed 40-week-old male pups. Moreover, renal α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), a marker of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and Tgf-ß mRNA were up-regulated. The in vitro experiment showed that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 alleviated transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1)-mediated down-regulation of E-cadherin and inhibited TGF-ß1-evoked up-regulation of N-cadherin, vimentin and α-SMA in renal epithelial HK-2 cells. Moreover, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 suppressed TGF-ß1-evoked Smad2/3 phosphorylation in HK-2 cells. These results provide experimental evidence that long-term vitamin D deficiency promotes renal fibrosis and functional impairment, at least partially, through aggravating TGF-ß/Smad2/3-mediated EMT in middle-aged male mice.

13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 9165, 2020 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32514063

RESUMO

The surface and grain boundary scattering impact on the electrical and thermal conduction in the thin metallic films coated on organic substrates has not been studied thoroughly. In this work, we study heat and electron transport in the 6.4 nm thin Au films supported by polyimide (PI) substrate using the transient electro-thermal technique. Thermal and electrical conductivities of 6.4 nm thin Au film are much smaller than bulk value. The thermal and electrical conductivities of 6.4 nm Au film deposited on the PI fiber are reduced by 59.3% and 76.8% in the comparison with the value of bulk Au. For PI film, the reduction of thermal and electrical conductivities is 47.9% and 46.3%. Lorenz numbers of 6.4 nm Au film supported by PI fiber and PI film are 4.51 × 10-8 WΩK-2 and 2.12 × 10-8 WΩK-2, respectively. The thermal conductivities of PI fiber and PI film are 0.87 Wm-1K-1 and 0.44 Wm-1K-1. The results reveal that PI is a suitable substrate material in the flexible electronic devices field.

14.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 104(6): 846-851, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385521

RESUMO

Concentrations and sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a rural atmosphere near industrial zones in Jiangsu, China were determined and the associated risks were assessed. The concentrations of ΣPCDD/Fs, ΣPCBs, and ΣPAHs ranged from 11.9-57.7 pg·m-3, 0.58-2.71 pg m-3, and 11-18 ng m-3, respectively. Principal component analysis suggested that the contamination of air with PCDD/Fs and PCBs mainly originated from industrial activities and combustion processes. In contrast, the major source of PAHs was the combustion of petroleum, coal, and biomass. These data were used to estimate the exposure of the population living nearby to these persistent organic pollutants and to evaluate the non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks associated with their inhalation. Our study are likely to be helpful for developing and implementing regulation strategies for PCDD/Fs, dl-PCBs, and PAHs in the atmosphere around industrial and surrounding residential areas.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Atmosfera/química , China , Humanos , Indústrias , Medição de Risco , População Rural
15.
J Insect Sci ; 20(3)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32458992

RESUMO

Aggressive behavior is widely observed in animal species for acquiring important resources and usually includes both dangerous and nondangerous fighting patterns. Only a few species show dangerous fighting patterns that are defined by fights ending with contestants being severely injured or killed. Prior experience, an important factor in many species, has been demonstrated to affect a contestant's subsequent fighting behavior. Few studies have focused on the effect of experience on aggression involving dangerous fighting patterns. Here, an egg parasitoid wasp, Anastatus disparis, which shows extreme and dangerous fighting behavior to acquire mating opportunities, was used as an experimental model. Our results showed that the fighting intensity of the winning males significantly decreased subsequent fighting behavior, which was inconsistent with general predictions. Transcriptomic analyses showed that many genes related to energy metabolism were downregulated in winners, and winners increased their fighting intensity after dietary supplementation. Our study suggested that fighting in A. disparis is a tremendous drain on energy. Thus, although males won at combat, significant reductions in available energy constrained the intensity of subsequent fights and influenced strategic decisions. In addition, winners might improve their fighting skills and abilities from previous contests, and their fighting intensity after dietary supplementation was significantly higher than that of males without any fighting experience. Generally, in A. disparis, although winners increased their fighting ability with previous experience, the available energy in winners was likely to be a crucial factor affecting the intensity and strategic decisions in subsequent fights.


Assuntos
Comportamento Sexual Animal , Vespas/fisiologia , Agressão , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Masculino
16.
Reprod Toxicol ; 94: 40-47, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330513

RESUMO

Gestational vitamin D deficiency is associated with pulmonary diseases. This study aimed to investigate the effect of gestational vitamin D deficiency on fetal lung development in mice. Absolute and relative weights of fetal lungs were reduced in vitamin D deficient (VDD) group. Incrassate mesenchyme, measured by septal wall thickness, accompanied by lessened saccular space, was shown in VDD group. Numerous immature type II pneumocytes, as determined by PAS staining, were observed in VDD group. Moreover, increased Ki67-positive cells, a marker of cell proliferation, was detected in VDD group. The additional experiments showed that Sftpa, Sftpb, Sftpc and Sftpd, four surfactant genes, were downregulated and pro-surfactant protein B was reduced in VDD group. FoxA1, FoxA2 and TTF-1, three transcription factors that regulate surfactant genes, and VEGF, a key regulator for pulmonary maturation, were downregulated in VDD group. These results suggest that gestational vitamin D deficiency impairs fetal lung development partially through suppressing type II pneumocyte differentiation.

17.
Front Physiol ; 11: 37, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32116753

RESUMO

As the most common post-translational protein modification, glycosylation is intimately linked to muscle atrophy. This study aimed to investigate the performance of protein glycosylation in the soleus muscle (SOL) in Daurian ground squirrels (Spermophilus dauricus) and to determine the potential role of protein glycosylation in the mechanism underlying disuse muscle atrophy prevention. The results showed that (1) seven glycan structures comprising sialic acid α2-3 galactose (SAα2-3Gal) were altered during hibernation; (2) alterations in the SAα2-3Gal structure during hibernation were based on changes in the expression levels of beta-galactoside alpha-2 and 3-sialyltransferases; and (3) α2-3-linked sialylated modifications of heat shock cognate 70 and pyruvate kinase and expression of 14-3-3 epsilon protein were oscillatorily changed during hibernation. Our findings indicate that the skeletal muscles of hibernating Daurian ground squirrels maintain protein sialylation homeostasis by restoring sialylation modification during periodic interbout arousal, which might protect the skeletal muscles against disuse atrophy.

18.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 82: 106346, 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32120344

RESUMO

Increasing evidence suggests that infection promotes the initiation and progression of prostate cancer. This study investigated the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major component of Gram-negative bacilli, on proliferation, migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells and the protective effects of 1α,25(OH)2D3 (calcitriol). PC-3 and DU145 cells were stimulated with LPS (2.0 µg/mL) in the presence or absence of 1α,25(OH)2D3 (100 nM). Our results shown that 1α,25(OH)2D3 reduced the proportion of S phase cells in LPS-stimulated PC-3 and DU145 cells, and down-regulated the nuclear protein levels of Cyclin D1 and PCNA in LPS-stimulated PC-3 cells. In addition, 1α,25(OH)2D3 inhibited migration and invasion, as determined by wound healing and transwell assay, in LPS-stimulated PC-3 and DU145 cells. Of interest, we observed that 1α,25(OH)2D3 inhibits NF-κB activation and subsequent synthesis and secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 by promoting VDR and NF-κB p65 interaction. Surprisingly, 1α,25(OH)2D3 blocks nuclear translocation of pSTAT3 by promoting physical interaction between VDR and pSTAT3 (Tyr705) in LPS-stimulated PC-3 and DU145 cells. These results suggest that 1α,25(OH)2D3 inhibits LPS-induced proliferation, migration and invasion in prostate cancer cells by directly and indirectly blocking STAT3 signal transduction.

19.
Nanoscale ; 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32129391

RESUMO

Temperature dependent Raman intensity of 2D materials features very rich information about the material's electronic structure, optical properties, and nm-level interface spacing. To date, there still lacks rigorous consideration of the combined effects. This renders the Raman intensity information less valuable in material studies. In this work, the Raman intensity of four supported multilayered WS2 samples are studied from 77 K to 757 K under 532 nm laser excitation. Resonance Raman scattering is observed, and we are able to evaluate the excitonic transition energy of B exciton and its broadening parameters. However, the resonance Raman effects cannot explain the Raman intensity variation in the high temperature range (room temperature to 757 K). The thermal expansion mismatch between WS2 and Si substrate at high temperatures (room temperature to 757 K) make the optical interference effects very strong and enhances the Raman intensity significantly. This interference effect is studied in detail by rigorously calculating and considering the thermal expansion of samples, the interface spacing change, and the optical indices change with temperature. Considering all of the above factors, it is concluded that the temperature dependent Raman intensity of the WS2 samples cannot be solely interpreted by its resonance behavior. The interface optical interference impacts the Raman intensity more significantly than the change of refractive indices with temperature.

20.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(5): 104767, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32173229

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Left atrial enlargement is associated with increased risk for stroke. However, few studies that evaluated the correlation between left atrial size and ischemic stroke severity. In this study, we aim to evaluate the association between left atrial size and stroke severity, especially with cardioembolic and cryptogenic stroke in the Chinese population. METHODS: A total of 1271 patients with acute ischemic stroke were included in this study. Echocardiographic left atrial diameter was measured and indexed to height. Stroke severity was assessed at admission with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). Moderate-to-severe neurologic deficit was defined as NIHSS greater than or equal to 5. Patients were divided into mild, moderate, or severe abnormal left atrial size by tertile distribution. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of severe stroke after adjustment. RESULTS: Among all enrolled patients, 328 (25.8%) were classified into moderate-to severe stroke severity (NIHSS ≥ 5). In the multivariable model, compared with the lowest tertile of left atrial size, the odds ratio for moderate-to-severe neurologic deficit was 0.902 (95% CI, 0.644-1.264, P = .550) when left atrial size was the highest tertile. Of all patients, 190 patients were further categorized as cardioembolic and cryptogenic subtypes, and 70 (36.8%) were classified into moderate-to-severe stroke severity. After adjusting for confounders, compared with the lowest tertile, the top tertile of left atrial size was significantly associated with moderate-to-severe stroke (3.156, 95% CI, 1.143-8.711, P = .027). CONCLUSION: Left atrial enlargement was associated with more severe initial neurologic deficits of embolic subtypes (cardioembolic and cryptogenic stroke) in patients with acute ischemic stroke.


Assuntos
Função do Átrio Esquerdo , Remodelamento Atrial , Átrios do Coração/fisiopatologia , Cardiopatias/complicações , Embolia Intracraniana/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , China , Avaliação da Deficiência , Ecocardiografia , Átrios do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatias/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Embolia Intracraniana/diagnóstico , Embolia Intracraniana/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia
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