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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 715: 136859, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about whether exposure to pets influences the association between hypertension and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The current study aims to examine the interaction of pet ownership on ETS exposure and the development of hypertension in children. METHODS: From 2012 to 2013, a total of 9354 children, 5 to 17 years of age, were recruited from 62 schools in seven northeastern cities. BP in children was measured and hypertension was defined as an average diastolic blood pressure (DBP) or systolic blood pressure (SBP) at or above the 95th percentile for that child's age, sex, and height. Pet ownership in three different time periods (in utero, past 2 years, and currently) and ETS exposure data were collected from parents via a questionnaire. Two-level regressions were used for the data analyses. RESULTS: The data show consistent, significant interactions between exposure to pets and effects from ETS. Children who were not exposed to pets experienced stronger effects from ETS on hypertension when compared to those exposed to pets, and the protective effect of pet ownership became stronger with a greater number of pets in the home. Exposure to in utero ETS was associated with hypertension [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13-1.54] only for those children without pet exposure in utero but not for those with pets (aOR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.49-1.15) (pinteraction < 0.05). Moreover, household dog ownership was related to significantly lower effects of current ETS on hypertension (aOR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.61-1.05) compared with children without dogs (aOR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.11-1.44) (pinteraction = 0.001). Interaction associations between ETS and pet ownership were more robust for girls than for boys and for younger than older children. CONCLUSION: This study indicates an inverse relationship between pet ownership and ETS, potentially pointing to pet ownership as protecting against the development of hypertension in children.

2.
Hypertension ; 75(2): 347-355, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838909

RESUMO

Evidence on the associations between airborne particulates of diameter ≤1 µm (PM1) and airborne particulates of diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) and childhood blood pressure (BP) is scarce. To help to address this literature gap, we conducted a study to explore the associations in Chinese children. Between 2012 and 2013, we recruited 9354 children, aged 5 to 17 years, from 62 schools in 7 northeastern Chinese cities. We measured their BP with a mercury sphygmomanometer. We used a spatiotemporal model to estimate daily ambient PM1 and PM2.5 exposures, which we assigned to participants' home addresses. Associations between particulate matter exposure and BP were evaluated with generalized linear mixed regression models. The findings indicated that exposure to each 10 mg/m3 greater PM1 was significantly associated with 2.56 mm Hg (95% CI, 1.47-3.65) higher systolic BP and 61% greater odds for hypertension (odds ratio=1.61 [95% CI, 1.18-2.18]). PM1 appears to play an important role in associations reported between PM2.5 exposure and BP, and we found that the ambient PM1/PM2.5 ratio (range, 0.80-0.96) was associated with BP and with hypertension. Age and body weight modified associations between air pollutants and BP (P<0.01), with stronger associations among younger (aged ≤11 years) and overweight/obese children. This study provides the first evidence that long-term exposure to PM1 is associated with hypertension in children, and that PM1 might be a leading contributor to the hypertensive effect of PM2.5. Researchers and policy makers should pay closer attention to the potential health impacts of PM1.

3.
Environ Res ; 170: 252-259, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30597289

RESUMO

No evidence exists concerning the association between blood pressure and ambient particles with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 1.0 µm (PM1), a major component of PM2.5 (≤ 2.5 µm) particles, and potentially causing more hazardous health effects than PM2.5. We aimed to examine the associations of blood pressure in adults with both PM1 and PM2.5 in China. In 2009, we randomly selected 24,845 participants aged 18-74 years from 33 communities in China. Using a standardized mercuric-column sphygmomanometer, we measured blood pressure. Long-term exposure (2006-08) to PM1 and PM2.5 were estimated using a spatial statistical model. Generalized linear mixed models were used to evaluate the associations between air pollutants and blood pressure and hypertension prevalence, controlling for multiple covariates. A 10-µg/m3 increase in PM1 was significantly associated with an increase of 0.57 (95% CI 0.31-0.83) mmHg in systolic blood pressure (SBP), 0.19 (95% CI 0.03-0.35) mmHg increase in diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and a 5% (OR=1.05; 95% CI 1.01-1.10) increase in odds for hypertension. Similar associations were detected for PM2.5. Furthermore, PM1-2.5 showed no association with blood pressure or hypertension. In summary, both PM1 and PM2.5 exposures were associated with elevated blood pressure levels and hypertension prevalence in Chinese adults. In addition, most of the pro-hypertensive effects of PM2.5 may come from PM1. Further longitudinal designed studies are warranted to validate our findings.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Pressão Sanguínea , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Material Particulado , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , China/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Características de Residência , Adulto Jovem
4.
Environ Pollut ; 229: 696-704, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28711568

RESUMO

Numerous studies have evaluated the effects of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution on hypertension. However, little information exists regarding its effects on prehypertension, a very common, but understudied cardiovascular indicator. We evaluated data from 24,845 adults (ages 18-74 years) living in three Northeastern Chinese cities in 2009. Blood pressure (BP) was measured by trained observers using a standardized mercuric-column sphygmomanometer. Three-year (from 2006 to 2008) average concentrations of particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxides (NO2), and ozone (O3) were calculated using data from monitoring stations. Effects were analyzed using generalized additive models and two-level regression analyses, controlling for covariates. We found positive associations of all pollutants with prehypertension (e.g. odds ratio (OR) was 1.17 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-1.25) per interquartile range (IQR) of PM10) in a fully adjusted model, as compared to normotensive participants. These associations were stronger than associations with hypertension (e.g. OR was 1.03 (95% CI, 1.00, 1.07) per IQR of PM10). We have also found positive associations of all studied pollutants with systolic and diastolic BP: e.g., associations with PM10 per IQR were 1.24 mmHg (95% CI, 1.03-1.45) for systolic BP and 0.47 mmHg (95% CI, 0.33-0.61) for diastolic BP. Further, we observed that associations with BP were stronger in women and in older participants (systolic BP only). In conclusion, long-term exposure to ambient air pollution was more strongly associated with prehypertension than with hypertension, especially among females and the elderly. Thus, interventions to reduce air pollution are of great significance for preventing future cardiovascular events, particularly among individuals with prehypertension.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Pressão Sanguínea , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Razão de Chances , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Saúde Pública , Análise de Regressão , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise
5.
Environ Pollut ; 224: 698-705, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28259583

RESUMO

The impact of ambient air pollution on health causes concerns in China. However, little is known about the association of short-term air pollution exposure with blood pressure (BP) in children. The goal of present study was to assess the association between short-term air pollution and BP in children from a highly polluted area in China. This study enrolled 9354 children in 24 elementary and middle schools (aged 5-17 years) from the Seven Northeast Cities (SNEC) study, respectively, during the period of 2012-2013. Ambient air pollutants, including particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤10 µm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) on the days (1-5 days) preceding BP examination were collected from local air monitoring stations. Generalized additive models and two-level regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationship between air pollution and BP after adjusting for other covariates. Results showed that with an interquartile range (IQR) increase in PM10 (50.0 µg/m3) and O3 (53.0 µg/m3) level during the 5-day mean exposure, positive associations with elevated BP were observed, with an odds ratio of 2.17 (95% CI, 1.61-2.93) for PM10 and 2.77 (95% CI, 1.94-3.95) for O3. Both systolic BP and diastolic BP levels were positively associated with an IQR increase of four air pollutants at different lag times. Specifically, an IQR increase in the 5-day mean of PM10 and O3 was associated with elevation of 2.07 mmHg (95% CI, 1.71-2.44) and 3.29 mmHg (95% CI, 2.86-3.72) in systolic BP, respectively. When stratified by sex, positive relationships were observed for elevated BP with NO2 exposure only in males. This is the first report on the relationship between ambient short-term air pollution exposure and children BP in China. Findings indicate a need to control air pollutants and protect children from heavy air pollution exposure in China.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar , Pressão Sanguínea , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Criança , China , Cidades , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Razão de Chances , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Análise de Regressão , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise
6.
Environ Int ; 102: 1-8, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28297681

RESUMO

Prior investigations on the associations of polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) with fetal growth are mixed. Moreover, little research has accrued pertaining to the association between isomers of PFASs with gestational age and birth weight. To address this gap and present novel information, we conducted a study including 321 pairs of mothers and their infants recruited from Guangzhou, China. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was utilized to analyze isomers of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) along with other PFAS levels in cord serum samples. Mothers' and infants' characteristics were gathered from medical records. The resulting data revealed that higher PFOS, PFOA and isomers of PFOS were associated with lower birth weight. Per ln-unit (ng/mL) increase in cord serum total branched PFOS isomers was associated with a 126.3g (95% CI: -195.9, -56.8) reduction in the weight of infants at birth, while an ln-unit (ng/mL) increase of serum linear PFOS isomers (n-PFOS) was associated with a 57.2g (95% CI: -103.1, -11.3) reduction in the weight of infants at birth upon the subsequent adjustment for potential confounding variables. Notably, the association between cord PFAS level and birth weight was more pronounced in male infants. Furthermore, a positive association among branched PFOS isomers (1m-PFOS and 3+4+5m-PFOS) and gestational age was found. No associations could be found among other PFASs in conjunction with gestational age or birth weight. In conclusion, this investigation suggests that higher PFAS concentrations are associated with lower birth weight, and branched PFOS isomers show greater impact on infant birth weight than linear PFOS.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/sangue , Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Sangue Fetal/química , Fluorcarbonetos/sangue , Adulto , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/química , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/toxicidade , China , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Estudos de Coortes , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/química , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluorcarbonetos/química , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Isomerismo , Masculino , Registros Médicos , Fatores Sexuais
7.
Environ Res ; 155: 15-21, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28171771

RESUMO

Previous studies have demonstrated associations between serum levels of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and asthma or asthma related-biomarkers. However, no studies have reported a possible relationship between PFASs exposure and lung function among children. The objective of the present study is to test the association between PFASs exposure and lung function in children from a high exposure area by using a cross-sectional case-control study, which included 132 asthmatic children and 168 non-asthmatic controls recruited from 2009 to 2010 in the Genetic and Biomarkers study for Childhood Asthma. Structured questionnaires were administered face-to-face. Lung function was measured by spirometry. Linear regression models were used to examine the influence of PFASs on lung function. The results showed that asthmatics in our study had significantly higher serum PFAS concentrations than healthy controls. Logistic regression models showed a positive association between PFASs and asthma, with adjusted odds ratios (ORs) ranging from 0.99 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.80-1.21) to 2.76 (95% CI: 1.82-4.17). Linear regression modeling showed serum PFASs levels were significantly negatively associated with three pulmonary function measurements (forced vital capacity: FVC; forced expiratory volume in 1s: FEV1; forced expiratory flow 25-75%: FEF25-75) among children with asthma, the adjusted coefficients between lung function and PFASs exposure ranged from -0.055 (95%CI: -0.100 to -0.010) for FVC and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) to -0.223 (95%CI: -0.400 to -0.045) for FEF25-75 and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). PFASs were not, however, significantly associated with pulmonary function among children without asthma. In conclusion, this study suggests that serum PFASs are associated with decreased lung function among children with asthma.


Assuntos
Asma/fisiopatologia , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Fluorcarbonetos/sangue , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Asma/sangue , Asma/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Fluorcarbonetos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Função Respiratória , Taiwan/epidemiologia
8.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 13(4): 565-574, 2017 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28095972

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Existing studies on sleep quality and associated obesity are inconsistent, and few studies have prospectively evaluated the association between sleep quality and abdominal obesity among Chinese individuals. To fill this void, the current study aimed to assess the association between sleep quality and abdominal obesity in a rural Chinese population. METHODS: A representative sample of 9,404 adults aged 20-93 years in northeastern China was selected between 2012 and 2013 by a multistage cluster and random sampling method. Sleep quality was evaluated by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), where a score of 6 or higher indicated sleep disorder. Abdominal obesity was measured by waist circumference (WC), with abdominal obesity defined as WC > 90 cm for men and WC > 80 cm for women. RESULTS: Male participants with abdominal obesity had higher global PSQI scores in addition to higher subscores in almost all of the elements compared to normal values. The odds ratios of abdominal obesity among participants with sleep disorders were 1.64 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.39-1.95) and 1.14 (95% CI: 0.98-1.32) for males and females compared to the reference group. The risk in all sleep elements was significantly increased, with odds ratios ranging from 1.28 (95% CI: 1.08-1.51) to 5.81 (95% CI: 3.54-9.53) for males. The risk only in four elements was significantly increased, from 1.28 (95% CI: 1.12-1.47) to 2.27 (95% CI: 1.36-3.80) for females. CONCLUSIONS: Poor sleep quality was associated with abdominal obesity in Chinese. Furthermore, effects in males were larger than those in females.


Assuntos
Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Hypertens ; 35(2): 259-265, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28005698

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is little information about how exposure to pets impacts blood pressure (BP) in children. The objective of the present study was to investigate the association between pet exposure and BP in children. METHODS: A total of 9354 children, aged 5-17 years, from 24 elementary schools and 24 middle schools in the Seven Northeastern Cities were evaluated during 2012-2013. BP measurements were taken using a mercury sphygmomanometer. Hypertension in children was defined as having an average DBP or SBP in the 95th percentile or higher for the child's sex, age, and height. RESULTS: Overall, 2127 of the 9354 participants (22.7%) had current exposures to pets, with 989 of all participants having dogs (10.6%). Pet exposure was negatively associated with hypertension and BP in men and women. Keeping dogs in the home was related to a significantly lower prevalence of hypertension in men [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.68; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49-0.94] and women (aOR = 0.66; 95% CI: 0.48-0.90). When the analysis was stratified by sex, in-utero exposure to pets was negatively associated with hypertension in men (aOR = 0.66; 95% CI: 0.45-0.97), and the associations with lower BP strengthened with higher levels of current pet exposure. As for BP, the associations between pet exposure and DBP were detected more in women; estimated decreases in mean DBP was 1.10 mmHg (95% CI: -1.75 to -0.45) for current pet exposure. CONCLUSION: Pet ownership reduces the odds of hypertension and elevated BP in children.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Animais de Estimação , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Propriedade , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores Sexuais
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