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1.
Pharmacol Res ; 153: 104660, 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982489

RESUMO

Multidrug resistance (MDR) represents an obstacle in anti-cancer therapy. MDR is caused by multiple mechanisms, involving ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which reduces intracellular drug levels to sub-therapeutic concentrations. Therefore, sensitizing agents retaining effectiveness against apoptosis- or drug-resistant cancers are desired for the treatment of MDR cancers. The sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) pump is an emerging target to overcome MDR, because of its continuous expression and because the calcium transport function is crucial to the survival of tumor cells. Previous studies showed that SERCA inhibitors exhibit anti-cancer effects in Bax-Bak-deficient, apoptosis-resistant and MDR cancers, whereas specific P-gp inhibitors reverse the MDR phenotype of cancer cells by blocking efflux of chemotherapeutic agents. Here, we unraveled SERCA and P-gp as double targets of the triterpenoid, celastrol to reverse MDR. Celastrol inhibited both SERCA and P-gp to stimulate calcium-mediated autophagy and ATP depletion, thereby induced collateral sensitivity in MDR cancer cells. In vivo studies further confirmed that celastrol suppressed tumor growth and metastasis by SERCA-mediated calcium mobilization. To the best of our knowledge, our findings demonstrate collateral sensitivity in MDR cancer cells by simultaneous inhibition of SERCA and P-gp for the first time.

2.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 20034, 2019 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882989

RESUMO

Resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapy is a significant clinical concern and mechanisms regulating cell death in cancer therapy, including apoptosis, autophagy or necrosis, have been extensively investigated over the last decade. Accordingly, the identification of medicinal compounds against chemoresistant cancer cells via new mechanism of action is highly desired. Autophagy is important in inducing cell death or survival in cancer therapy. Recently, novel autophagy activators isolated from natural products were shown to induce autophagic cell death in apoptosis-resistant cancer cells in a calcium-dependent manner. Therefore, enhancement of autophagy may serve as additional therapeutic strategy against these resistant cancers. By computational docking analysis, biochemical assays, and advanced live-cell imaging, we identified that neferine, a natural alkaloid from Nelumbo nucifera, induces autophagy by activating the ryanodine receptor and calcium release. With well-known apoptotic agents, such as staurosporine, taxol, doxorubicin, cisplatin and etoposide, utilized as controls, neferine was shown to induce autophagic cell death in a panel of cancer cells, including apoptosis-defective and -resistant cancer cells or isogenic cancer cells, via calcium mobilization through the activation of ryanodine receptor and Ulk-1-PERK and AMPK-mTOR signaling cascades. Taken together, this study provides insights into the cytotoxic mechanism of neferine-induced autophagy through ryanodine receptor activation in resistant cancers.

3.
Br J Pharmacol ; 176(16): 2922-2944, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Celastrol exhibits anti-arthritic effects in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but the role of celastrol-mediated Ca2+ mobilization in treatment of RA remains undefined. Here, we describe a regulatory role for celastrol-induced Ca2+ signalling in synovial fibroblasts of RA patients and adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) in rats. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We used computational docking, Ca2+ dynamics and functional assays to study the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase pump (SERCA). In rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASFs)/rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes (RAFLS), mechanisms of Ca2+ -mediated autophagy were analysed by histological, immunohistochemical and flow cytometric techniques. Anti-arthritic effects of celastrol, autophagy induction, and growth rate of synovial fibroblasts in AIA rats were monitored by microCT and immunofluorescence staining. mRNA from joint tissues of AIA rats was isolated for transcriptional analysis of inflammatory genes, using siRNA methods to study calmodulin, calpains, and calcineurin. KEY RESULTS: Celastrol inhibited SERCA to induce autophagy-dependent cytotoxicity in RASFs/RAFLS via Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase-ß-AMP-activated protein kinase-mTOR pathway and repressed arthritis symptoms in AIA rats. BAPTA/AM hampered the in vitro and in vivo effectiveness of celastrol. Inflammatory- and autoimmunity-associated genes down-regulated by celastrol in joint tissues of AIA rat were restored by BAPTA/AM. Knockdown of calmodulin, calpains, and calcineurin in RAFLS confirmed the role of Ca2+ in celastrol-regulated gene expression. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Celastrol triggered Ca2+ signalling to induce autophagic cell death in RASFs/RAFLS and ameliorated arthritis in AIA rats mediated by calcium-dependent/-binding proteins facilitating the exploitation of anti-arthritic drugs based on manipulation of Ca2+ signalling.

4.
Front Pharmacol ; 8: 388, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28670281

RESUMO

Resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapy remains a significant problem in oncology. Mechanisms regulating programmed cell death, including apoptosis, autophagy or necrosis, in the treatment of cancers have been extensively investigated over the last few decades. Autophagy is now emerging as an important pathway in regulating cell death or survival in cancer therapy. Recent studies demonstrated variety of natural small-molecules could induce autophagic cell death in apoptosis-resistant cancer cells, therefore, discovery of novel autophagic enhancers from natural products could be a promising strategy for treatment of chemotherapy-resistant cancer. By computational virtual docking analysis, biochemical assays, and advanced live-cell imaging techniques, we have identified N-desmethyldauricine (LP-4), isolated from rhizoma of Menispermum dauricum DC as a novel inducer of autophagy. LP-4 was shown to induce autophagy via the Ulk-1-PERK and Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase ß (CaMKKß)-AMPK-mTOR signaling cascades, via mobilizing calcium release through inhibition of SERCA, and importantly, lead to autophagic cell death in a panel of cancer cells, apoptosis-defective and apoptosis-resistant cells. Taken together, this study provides detailed insights into the cytotoxic mechanism of a novel autophagic compound that targeting the apoptosis resistant cancer cells, and new implication on drug discovery from natural products for drug resistant cancer therapy.

5.
Front Pharmacol ; 8: 238, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28529482

RESUMO

Neferine, a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from the green seed embryos of Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn), has been previously shown to have various anti-cancer effects. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of neferine in terms of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibition via in vitro cytotoxicity assays, R123 uptake assays in drug-resistant cancer cells, in silico molecular docking analysis on human P-gp and in silico absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME), quantitative structure activity relationships (QSAR) and toxicity analyses. Lipinski rule of five were mainly considered for the ADME evaluation and the preset descriptors including number of hydrogen bond donor, acceptor, hERG IC50, logp, logD were considered for the QSAR analyses. Neferine revealed higher toxicity toward paclitaxel- and doxorubicin-resistant breast, lung or colon cancer cells, implying collateral sensitivity of these cells toward neferine. Increased R123 uptake was observed in a comparable manner to the control P-gp inhibitor, verapamil. Molecular docking analyses revealed that neferine still interacts with P-gp, even if R123 was pre-bound. Bioinformatical ADME and toxicity analyses revealed that neferine possesses the druggability parameters with no predicted toxicity. In conclusion, neferine may allocate the P-gp drug-binding pocket and prevent R123 binding in agreement with P-gp inhibition experiments, where neferine increased R123 uptake.

6.
Oncotarget ; 8(18): 30077-30091, 2017 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28404910

RESUMO

Cancers illustrating resistance towards apoptosis is one of the main factors causing clinical failure of conventional chemotherapy. Innovative therapeutic methods which can overcome the non-apoptotic phenotype are needed. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is the central regulator of cellular energy homeostasis, metabolism, and autophagy. Our previous study showed that the identified natural AMPK activator is able to overcome apoptosis-resistant cancer via autophagic cell death. Therefore, AMPK is an ideal pharmaceutical target for chemoresistant cancers. Here, we unravelled that the bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid thalidezine is a novel direct AMPK activator by using biolayer interferometry analysis and AMPK kinase assays. The quantification of autophagic EGFP-LC3 puncta demonstrated that thalidezine increased autophagic flux in HeLa cancer cells. In addition, metabolic stress assay confirmed that thalidezine altered the energy status of our cellular model. Remarkably, thalidezine-induced autophagic cell death in HeLa or apoptosis-resistant DLD-1 BAX-BAK DKO cancer cells was abolished by addition of autophagy inhibitor (3-MA) and AMPK inhibitor (compound C). The mechanistic role of autophagic cell death in resistant cancer cells was further supported through the genetic removal of autophagic gene7 (Atg7). Overall, thalidezine is a novel AMPK activator which has great potential to be further developed into a safe and effective intervention for apoptosis- or multidrug-resistant cancers.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos
7.
Int J Oncol ; 49(4): 1576-88, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27498688

RESUMO

Drug resistance of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is highly correlated to the mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Although EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are available clinically, the molecular complexity of NSCLC has made it necessary to search for alternative therapeutic approaches to overcome the drug resistance of NSCLC. In the present study, we identified a triterpene molecule derived from the herbal plant Tripterygium wilfordii, celastrol, as a novel autophagy inducer. We demonstrate that celastrol exhibited selective cytotoxic effect towards EGFR mutant NSCLCs. In addition, celastrol also facilitated the autophagic degradation of Hsp90 client protein including EGFR and Akt on both EGFR wild-type and mutant NSCLCs via calcium-mediated autophagy. Blockage of celastrol-induced autophagic degradation of EGFR by autophagic inhibitor or calcium chelator decreased celastrol-mediated cell death in gefitinib-resistant NSCLCs. Overall, our findings suggest that celastrol may be developed as an effective anticancer agent for treatment of gefitinib-resistant NSCLC in the future.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Quinazolinas/farmacologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Western Blotting , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores ErbB/efeitos dos fármacos , Citometria de Fluxo , Gefitinibe , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
8.
Pharmacol Res ; 111: 546-555, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27450294

RESUMO

Traditional biotechnology has been utilized by human civilization for long in wide aspects of our daily life, such as wine and vinegar production, which can generate new phytochemicals from natural products using micro-organism. Today, with advanced biotechnology, diverse applications and advantages have been exhibited not only in bringing benefits to increase the diversity and composition of herbal phytochemicals, but also helping to elucidate the treatment mechanism and accelerate new drug discovery from Chinese herbal medicine (CHM). Applications on phytochemical biotechnologies and microbial biotechnologies have been promoted to enhance phytochemical diversity. Cell labeling and imaging technology and -omics technology have been utilized to elucidate CHM treatment mechanism. Application of computational methods, such as chemoinformatics and bioinformatics provide new insights on direct target of CHM. Overall, these technologies provide efficient ways to overcome the bottleneck of CHM, such as helping to increase the phytochemical diversity, match their molecular targets and elucidate the treatment mechanism. Potentially, new oriented herbal phytochemicals and their corresponding drug targets can be identified. In perspective, tighter integration of multi-disciplinary biotechnology and computational technology will be the cornerstone to accelerate new arena formation, advancement and revolution in the fields of CHM and world pharmaceutical industry.


Assuntos
Descoberta de Drogas , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Animais , Pesquisa Biomédica , Biotecnologia , Biologia Computacional , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
9.
Oncotarget ; 7(7): 8090-104, 2016 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26811496

RESUMO

Drug resistance hinder most cancer chemotherapies and leads to disease recurrence and poor survival of patients. Resistance of cancer cells towards apoptosis is the major cause of these symptomatic behaviours. Here, we showed that isoquinoline alkaloids, including liensinine, isoliensinine, dauricine, cepharanthine and hernandezine, putatively induce cytotoxicity against a repertoire of cancer cell lines (HeLa, A549, MCF-7, PC3, HepG2, Hep3B and H1299). Proven by the use of apoptosis-resistant cellular models and autophagic assays, such isoquinoline alkaloid-induced cytotoxic effect involves energy- and autophagy-related gene 7 (Atg7)-dependent autophagy that resulted from direct activation of AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK). Hernandezine possess the highest efficacy in provoking such cell death when compared with other examined compounds. We confirmed that isoquinoline alkaloid is structurally varied from the existing direct AMPK activators. In conclusion, isoquinoline alkaloid is a new class of compound that induce autophagic cell death in drug-resistant fibroblasts or cancers by exhibiting its direct activation on AMPK.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzilisoquinolinas/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/patologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Western Blotting , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Embrião de Mamíferos/citologia , Embrião de Mamíferos/efeitos dos fármacos , Embrião de Mamíferos/enzimologia , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/enzimologia , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas , Camundongos , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Neoplasias/enzimologia , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
10.
Sci Rep ; 5: 16348, 2015 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26542098

RESUMO

Calcium is a second messenger which is required for regulation of many cellular processes. However, excessive elevation or prolonged activation of calcium signaling would lead to cell death. As such, selectively regulating calcium signaling could be an alternative approach for anti-cancer therapy. Recently, we have identified an effective analogue of resveratrol, (Z)3,4,5,4'-trans-tetramethoxystilbene (TMS) which selectively elevated the intracellular calcium level in gefitinib-resistant (G-R) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. TMS exhibited significant inhibitory effect on G-R NSCLC cells, but not other NSCLC cells and normal lung epithelial cells. The phosphorylation and activation of EGFR were inhibited by TMS in G-R cells. TMS induced caspase-independent apoptosis and autophagy by directly binding to SERCA and causing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and AMPK activation. Proteomics analysis also further confirmed that mTOR pathway, which is the downstream of AMPK, was significantly suppressed by TMS. JNK, the cross-linker of ER stress and mTOR pathway was significantly activated by TMS. In addition, the inhibition of JNK activation can partially block the effect of TMS. Taken together, TMS showed promising anti-cancer activity by mediating calcium signaling pathway and inducing apoptosis as well as autophagy in G-R NSCLC cells, providing strategy in designing multi-targeting drug for treating G-R patients.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Quinazolinas/farmacologia , Estilbenos/farmacologia , Adenilato Quinase/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Enzimática , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Gefitinibe , Humanos , Estilbenos/química
11.
Sci Rep ; 4: 5510, 2014 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24981420

RESUMO

Resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapy is a significant problem in oncology, and the development of sensitising agents or small-molecules with new mechanisms of action to kill these cells is needed. Autophagy is a cellular process responsible for the turnover of misfolded proteins or damaged organelles, and it also recycles nutrients to maintain energy levels for cell survival. In some apoptosis-resistant cancer cells, autophagy can also enhance the efficacy of anti-cancer drugs through autophagy-mediated mechanisms of cell death. Because the modulation of autophagic processes can be therapeutically useful to circumvent chemoresistance and enhance the effects of cancer treatment, the identification of novel autophagic enhancers for use in oncology is highly desirable. Many novel anti-cancer compounds have been isolated from natural products; therefore, we worked to discover natural, anti-cancer small-molecule enhancers of autophagy. Here, we have identified a group of natural alkaloid small-molecules that function as novel autophagic enhancers. These alkaloids, including liensinine, isoliensinine, dauricine and cepharanthine, stimulated AMPK-mTOR dependent induction of autophagy and autophagic cell death in a panel of apoptosis-resistant cells. Taken together, our work provides novel insights into the biological functions, mechanisms and potential therapeutic values of alkaloids for the induction of autophagy.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/fisiologia , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/fisiologia , Células HeLa , Humanos , Peso Molecular
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 14(11): 22618-41, 2013 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24248062

RESUMO

Emerging evidence indicates important protective roles being played by autophagy in neurodegenerative disorders through clearance of aggregate-prone or mutant proteins. In the current study, we aimed to identify autophagy inducers from Chinese medicinal herbs as a potential neuroprotective agent that enhances the clearance of mutant huntingtin and α-synuclein in PC-12 cells. Through intensive screening using the green fluorescent protein-light chain 3 (GFP-LC3) autophagy detection platform, we found that the ethanol extracts of Radix Polygalae (Yuan Zhi) were capable of inducing autophagy. Further investigation showed that among three single components derived from Radix Polygalae--i.e., polygalacic acid, senegenin and onjisaponin B--onjisaponin B was able to induce autophagy and accelerate both the removal of mutant huntingtin and A53T α-synuclein, which are highly associated with Huntington disease and Parkinson disease, respectively. Our study further demonstrated that onjisaponin B induces autophagy via the AMPK-mTOR signaling pathway. Therefore, findings in the current study provide detailed insights into the protective mechanism of a novel autophagy inducer, which is valuable for further investigation as a new candidate agent for modulating neurodegenerative disorders through the reduction of toxicity and clearance of mutant proteins in the cellular level.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/química , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/tratamento farmacológico , Saponinas/administração & dosagem , Triterpenos/administração & dosagem , alfa-Sinucleína/química , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Humanos , Proteína Huntingtina , Doença de Huntington/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Huntington/genética , Mutação , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Saponinas/química , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Triterpenos/química , alfa-Sinucleína/genética
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