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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625872

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the validity and reliability of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) masseter muscle segmentation by comparing with the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) masseter muscle segmentation of the same patients. METHODS: Seventeen volunteers were included in this study. CBCT and MRI scans of the volunteers were taken, respectively, within one month. The masseter muscles in the CBCT scans were segmented by a generative adversarial network (GAN)-based framework combined with manual check. The masseter muscles in the MRI scans were segmented manually. The segmentations were repeated by the first examiner and a second examiner. For cross-sectional area (CSA), paired t-test, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and standard error of measurement (SEM) were calculated to evaluate the validity and reliability of the segmentations. The validity and reliability were also calculated by Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and average Hausdorff distance (aHD) between different segmentations. Seventeen volunteers were included in this study. CBCT and MRI scans of the volunteers were taken, respectively, within one month. The masseter muscles in the CBCT scans were segmented by a generative adversarial network (GAN)-based framework combined with manual check. The masseter muscles in the MRI scans were segmented manually. The segmentations were repeated by the first examiner and a second examiner. For cross-sectional area (CSA), paired t-test, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and standard error of measurement (SEM) were calculated to evaluate the validity and reliability of the segmentations. The validity and reliability were also calculated by Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and average Hausdorff distance (aHD) between different segmentations. RESULTS: Paired t-test showed that there was no significant difference in CSA between CBCT and MRI masseter segmentations. The ICCs were all larger than 0.95 and the SEM was less than 4.85 mm2 for CSA. The DSC was all larger than 0.95 showing over 95% of similarity between CBCT and MRI masseter segmentations. The aHD was all smaller than 0.09 mm showing great consistency of the contour of CBCT and MRI segmentations. CONCLUSION: Masseter muscle segmentation from CBCT scans was not significantly different from the segmentation from MRI scans. CBCT muscle segmentation showed great validity compared with MRI scans, and great reliability in retests.

2.
Med Phys ; 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496039

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to design and evaluate a novel method for the registration of 2D lateral cephalograms and 3D craniofacial cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images, providing patient-specific 3D structures from a 2D lateral cephalogram without additional radiation exposure. METHODS: We developed a cross-modal deformable registration model based on a deep convolutional neural network. Our approach took advantage of a low-dimensional deformation field encoding and an iterative feedback scheme to infer coarse-to-fine volumetric deformations. In particular, we constructed a statistical subspace of deformation fields and parameterized the nonlinear mapping function from an image pair, consisting of the target 2D lateral cephalogram and the reference volumetric CBCT, to a latent encoding of the deformation field. Instead of the one-shot registration by the learned mapping function, a feedback scheme was introduced to progressively update the reference volumetric image and to infer coarse-to-fine deformations fields, accounting for the shape variations of anatomical structures. A total of 220 clinically obtained CBCTs were used to train and validate the proposed model, among which 120 CBCTs were used to generate a training dataset with 24k paired synthetic lateral cephalograms and CBCTs. The proposed approach was evaluated on the deformable 2D-3D registration of clinically obtained lateral cephalograms and CBCTs from growing and adult orthodontic patients. RESULTS: Strong structural consistencies were observed between the deformed CBCT and the target lateral cephalogram in all criteria. The proposed method achieved state-of-the-art performances with the mean contour deviation of 0.41 ± 0.12 mm on the anterior cranial base, 0.48 ± 0.17 mm on the mandible, and 0.35 ± 0.08 mm on the maxilla, respectively. The mean surface mesh ranged from 0.78 to 0.97 mm on various craniofacial structures, and the LREs ranged from 0.83 to 1.24 mm on the growing datasets regarding 14 landmarks. The proposed iterative feedback scheme handled the structural details and improved the registration. The resultant deformed volumetric image was consistent with the target lateral cephalogram in both 2D projective planes and 3D volumetric space regarding the multicategory craniofacial structures. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the deep learning-based 2D-3D registration model enables the deformable alignment of 2D lateral cephalograms and CBCTs and estimates patient-specific 3D craniofacial structures.

3.
Nat Neurosci ; 24(10): 1377-1391, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413513

RESUMO

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by the loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), an RNA-binding protein that can regulate the translation of specific mRNAs. In this study, we developed an FXS human forebrain organoid model and observed that the loss of FMRP led to dysregulated neurogenesis, neuronal maturation and neuronal excitability. Bulk and single-cell gene expression analyses of FXS forebrain organoids revealed that the loss of FMRP altered gene expression in a cell-type-specific manner. The developmental deficits in FXS forebrain organoids could be rescued by inhibiting the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway but not the metabotropic glutamate pathway disrupted in the FXS mouse model. We identified a large number of human-specific mRNAs bound by FMRP. One of these human-specific FMRP targets, CHD2, contributed to the altered gene expression in FXS organoids. Collectively, our study revealed molecular, cellular and electrophysiological abnormalities associated with the loss of FMRP during human brain development.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/patologia , Neurogênese/genética , Prosencéfalo/patologia , Adulto , Encéfalo/patologia , Diferenciação Celular , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Neurológicos , Neurogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/patologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligação Proteica , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Receptores de Glutamato Metabotrópico/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344557

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In this study, we compared achieved and predicted crown movements of maxillary and mandibular first molars, canines, and central incisors in adults after 4 first premolar extraction treatment with Invisalign. METHODS: Seventeen adult patients who received 4 first premolar extraction treatment with Invisalign and completed the first series of aligners were included. Superimposition of pretreatment and actual posttreatment dental models was acquired using registrations of pretreatment and posttreatment craniofacial models on the basis of bone surfaces and registrations of craniofacial and dental models on the basis of dental crown surfaces, respectively. Superimposition of pretreatment and predicted posttreatment models was acquired from ClinCheck software. Achieved and predicted 3-dimensional crown movements of maxillary and mandibular first molars, canines, and central incisors were then compared using the paired t test. RESULTS: Relative to predicted changes, first molars achieved greater mesial displacement, mesial tipping, and buccal inclination in both the maxilla and mandible, greater intrusion in the maxilla, and greater mesial-lingual rotation and less constriction in the mandible. Canines achieved greater distal tipping in both the maxilla and mandible, less retraction in the maxilla, and greater lingual inclination and extrusion in the mandible. Central incisors achieved greater distal tipping and lingual inclination and extrusion in both the maxilla and mandible and less retraction in the maxilla. CONCLUSIONS: Tooth crown movements were not fully achieved as predicted following Invisalign treatment. Differences focused on mesial tipping, buccal inclination, mesial displacement, and intrusion of the first molars, as well as distal tipping, lingual inclination, insufficient retraction, and intrusion of the canines and central incisors.

5.
Virol J ; 18(1): 147, 2021 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical and virological course of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are lacking. We aimed to describe the clinical and virological characteristics of COVID-19 patients from 10 designated hospitals in 10 cities of Jiangsu province, China. The factors associated with the clearance of SARS-CoV-2 were investigated. METHODS: A total of 328 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were retrospectively recruited. The epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, radiology and treatment data were collected. The associated factors of SARS-CoV-2 clearance were analyzed. RESULTS: The median duration of hospitalization was 16.0 days (interquartile range [IQR] 13.0-21.0 days). On multivariate Cox regression analysis, age > 60 years (hazard ratio [HR] 0.643, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.454-0.911, P = 0.013) was associated with the delayed SARS-CoV-2 clearance, while the atomized inhalation of interferon α-2b could improve the clearance of SARS-CoV-2 (HR, 1.357, 95% CI 1.050-1.755, P = 0.020). Twenty-six (7.9%) patients developed respiratory failure and 4 (1.2%) patients developed ARDS. Twenty (6.1%) patients were admitted to the ICU, while no patient was deceased. CONCLUSIONS: Our study found that age > 60 years was associated with the delayed SARS-CoV-2 clearance, while treated with atomized inhalation of interferon α-2b could promote the clearance of SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , COVID-19/virologia , China/epidemiologia , Duração da Terapia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Adulto Jovem
6.
Med Clin (Barc) ; 2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the impacts of metabolic syndrome (MS) on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We described the clinical features and prognosis of confirmed COVID-19 patients with MS during hospitalization and after discharge. METHODS: Two hundred and thirty-three COVID-19 patients from the hospitals in 8 cities of Jiangsu, China were retrospectively included. Clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients were described and risk factors of severe illness were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Forty-five (19.3%) of 233 COVID-19 patients had MS. The median age of COVID-19 patients with MS was significantly higher than non-MS patients (53.0 years vs. 46.0 years, P=0.004). There were no significant differences of clinical symptoms, abnormal chest CT images, and treatment drugs between two groups. More patients with MS had severe illness (33.3% vs. 6.4%, P<0.001) and critical illness (4.4% vs. 0.5%, P=0.037) than non-MS patients. The proportions of respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome in MS patients were also higher than non-MS patients during hospitalization. Multivariate analysis showed that concurrent MS (odds ratio [OR] 7.668, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.062-19.201, P<0.001) and lymphopenia (OR 3.315, 95% CI 1.306-8.411, P=0.012) were independent risk factors of severe illness of COVID-19. At a median follow-up of 28 days after discharge, bilateral pneumonia was found in 95.2% of MS patients, while only 54.7% of non-MS patients presented bilateral pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: 19.3% of COVID-19 patients had MS in our study. COVID-19 patients with MS are more likely to develop severe complications and have worse prognosis. More attention should be paid to COVID-19 patients with MS.

7.
Orthod Craniofac Res ; 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34310057

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Palatal shape contains a lot of information that is of clinical interest. Moreover, palatal shape analysis can be used to guide or evaluate orthodontic treatments. A statistical shape model (SSM) is a tool that, by means of dimensionality reduction, aims at compactly modeling the variance of complex shapes for efficient analysis. In this report, we evaluate several competing approaches to constructing SSMs for the human palate. SETTING AND SAMPLE POPULATION: This study used a sample comprising digitized 3D maxillary dental casts from 1,324 individuals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Principal component analysis (PCA) and autoencoders (AE) are popular approaches to construct SSMs. PCA is a dimension reduction technique that provides a compact description of shapes by uncorrelated variables. AEs are situated in the field of deep learning and provide a non-linear framework for dimension reduction. This work introduces the singular autoencoder (SAE), a hybrid approach that combines the most important properties of PCA and AEs. We assess the performance of the SAE using standard evaluation tools for SSMs, including accuracy, generalization, and specificity. RESULTS: We found that the SAE obtains equivalent results to PCA and AEs for all evaluation metrics. SAE scores were found to be uncorrelated and provided an optimally compact representation of the shapes. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the SAE is a promising tool for 3D palatal shape analysis, which effectively combines the power of PCA with the flexibility of deep learning. This opens future AI driven applications of shape analysis in orthodontics and other related clinical disciplines.

8.
Cancer Lett ; 519: 2-19, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161791

RESUMO

Melittin's non-specific cytotoxicity and hemolytic activity restrict its clinical use, but polypeptide modification is thoµght to be highly selective and well-tolerated. Here, we synthesized a novel antineoplastic peptide UM-6 based on melittin and explored the mechanism related to its anti-proliferation and metastasis on cervical cancer (CC). In the present study, we demonstrated that UM-6 inhibits viability of CC cell lines Caski and Hela in vitro by inducing apoptosis and autophagy with low toxicity to normal epithelial cells. UM-6 also triggers the Hippo signaling pathway, promoting cytoplasmic retention and phosphorylation-dependent degradation of YAP, as well as inhibiting YAP-TEAD binding and reducing transcriptional activity, suppressing downstream target gene expression. Injection of UM-6 in mice can significantly inhibit the growth of xenograft tumors, and greatly reduce the number, volume, and burden of abdominal tumors in the metastasis models without significant toxicity. These current results suggest that UM-6 has the potential to serve as a new anticancer drug candidate.

9.
Eur J Orthod ; 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34180974

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Quantification and visualization of the location and magnitude of facial asymmetry is important for diagnosis and treatment planning. The objective of this study was to analyze the asymmetric features of the face for skeletal Class III patients using spatially-dense geometric morphometrics. METHODS: Three-dimensional facial images were obtained for 86 skeletal Class III patients. About 7160 uniformly sampled quasi-landmarks were automatically identified on each face using template mapping technique. The pointwise surface-to-surface distance between original and mirror face was measured and visualized for the whole face after robust Procrustes superimposition. The degree of overall asymmetry in an individual was scored using a root-mean-squared-error. Automatic partitioning of the face was obtained, and the severity of the asymmetry compared among seven facial regions. RESULTS: Facial asymmetry was mainly located on, but not limited to, the lower two-thirds of the face in skeletal Class III patients. The lower cheek and nose asymmetry were detected to have more extensive and of a greater magnitude of asymmetry than other facial anatomical regions but with various individual variations. The overall facial asymmetry index and the regional facial asymmetry indices were higher in males and patients with chin deviation. CONCLUSIONS: Soft tissue asymmetry is predominately presented in the lower-third of the face in skeletal Class III patients and with various variations on other facial anatomical regions. Morphometric techniques and computer intensive analysis have allowed sophisticated quantification and visualization of the pointwise asymmetry on the full face.

10.
Orthod Craniofac Res ; 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34169645

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To develop and evaluate a geometric deep-learning network to automatically place seven palatal landmarks on digitized maxillary dental casts. SETTINGS AND SAMPLE POPULATION: The sample comprised individuals with permanent dentition of various ethnicities. The network was trained from manual landmark annotations on 732 dental casts and evaluated on 104 dental casts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A geometric deep-learning network was developed to hierarchically learn features from point-clouds representing the 3D surface of each cast. These features predict the locations of seven palatal landmarks. RESULTS: Repeat-measurement reliability was <0.3 mm for all landmarks on all casts. Accuracy is promising. The proportion of test subjects with errors less than 2 mm was between 0.93 and 0.68, depending on the landmark. Unusually shaped and large palates generate the highest errors. There was no evidence for a difference in mean palatal shape estimated from manual compared to the automatic landmarking. The automatic landmarking reduces sample variation around the mean and reduces measurements of palatal size. CONCLUSIONS: The automatic landmarking method shows excellent repeatability and promising accuracy, which can streamline patient assessment and research studies. However, landmark indications should be subject to visual quality control.

11.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 159(5): e389-e397, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931225

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Determination of improvement in orthodontic treatment may depend on the measurement method used and the purpose. METHODS: Improvement after orthodontic treatment (from T1 to T2 [beginning to end of treatment]) was assessed 3 ways from a set of 98 patient records: (1) calculated by subtracting judges' assessments at T2 from T1 for records presented in random order, (2) judged as a holistic impression viewing T1 and T2 records side by side, and (3) determined from proxies (American Board of Orthodontics Discrepancy Index, the American Board of Orthodontics Objective Grading System, and the Peer Assessment Rating index). RESULTS: High levels of intramethod consistency were observed, with intraclass correlation coefficient clustering around an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.900, and distributions were normal. Calculated and judged improvements correlated at r = 0.606. Calculated or judged improvements were correlated at a lower level with proxies. Calculated improvement was significantly associated with "challenge" (T1) scores and judged improvement associated with "results" (T2) scores. Common method bias was observed, with higher correlations among similar indexes than among indexes at the same time that used various methods. Relative to differences in Peer Assessment Rating scores, calculated improvement overestimated low scores and underestimated high ones. The same effect, but statistically greater, was observed using direct judgment of improvement. CONCLUSIONS: These findings are consistent with decision science and measurement theory. In some circumstances, such as third-party reimbursement and research, operationally defined measures of occlusion are appropriate. In practice, the determination of occlusion and improvement are best performed by judgment that naturally corrects for biases in proxies and incorporates background information.


Assuntos
Má Oclusão , Ortodontia , Assistência Odontológica , Oclusão Dentária , Humanos , Julgamento , Má Oclusão/terapia , Ortodontia Corretiva , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Head Face Med ; 17(1): 9, 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 3D facial scanning has changed the way facial aesthetic is evaluated and has numerous advantages for facial analysis. The specific relationship between lip vermilion morphological changes after orthodontic extraction treatment has not been fully explained. The objective of this study was to evaluate 3D morphological changes after orthodontic extraction treatment in lip vermilion of adult females with dentoalveolar protrusion using a structured light-based scanner. METHODS: Forty-two female subjects (25.2 ± 1.9 years) were recruited as the treatment group; these patients had undergone extraction treatment and achieved better sagittal profiles. Twenty female subjects (25.5 ± 2.1 years) were enrolled in the non-treatment group; these patients did not require any orthodontic treatment. The follow up time for the treatment group was more than 24 months and for the non-treatment group was more than 12 months. 3D facial scans were captured using 3D CaMega. Six landmarks (Ls, Li, R.Chp, L.Chp, R.Ch, and L.Ch), three linear measurements (mouth height, philtrum width, and mouth width), and three area measurements (upper, lower, and total vermilion area) were measured. The spatial deviations of three volumetric measurements (upper, lower, and total vermilion) were constructed for quantitative analysis. Color-coded displacement map were constructed for visualization of the soft-tissue displacement as qualitative evaluation. RESULTS: Mouth height and philtrum width decreased (-0.93 mm and - 1.08 mm, respectively) significantly (p = 0.008 and p = 0.027, respectively), and no significant (p = 0.488) change in mouth width was observed in the treatment group. The lower and total vermilion surface areas decreased (-51.00mm2 and - 69.82mm2, respectively) significantly (p = 0.003 and p = 0.031, respectively) in the treatment group, but no statistically significant (p = 0.752) change was detected in the upper vermilion. In the treatment group, significant retractions were observed in the color-coded displacement map, and three volumetric measurements of vermilion changed significantly (p = 0.012, p = 0.001 and p = 0.004, respectively). Significant differences were found between the treatment group and the non-treatment group in the linear, area and volumetric measurements. CONCLUSIONS: This study established a method for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the lip vermilion. Significant 3D retraction of the lip vermilion after the extraction treatment was found, with morphological variation between upper and lower vermilion.


Assuntos
Face , Lábio , Adulto , Cefalometria , Feminino , Humanos , Lábio/anatomia & histologia , Lábio/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Longitudinais , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 159(5): e423-e437, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653638

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The objective of this research was to evaluate the correlation between 3-dimensional (3D) lip vermilion (LV) morphology and skeletal patterns as well as incisor measurements in young Chinese adults. METHODS: In all, 240 young adults were enrolled; these included 80 patients each with skeletal Class I, Class II, and Class III malocclusions, respectively. Each sagittal skeletal pattern included 40 male and 40 female subjects. Twenty-two 3D LV measurements were obtained from 3D facial scans. Skeletal and incisor measurements were evaluated on lateral cephalograms. Correlation and regression analysis were performed between soft and hard tissue measurements. RESULTS: Six of 22 LV measurements showed significant differences between male and female subjects. The 3D LV morphology showed significant differences with respect to different skeletal patterns and sex. Adults with skeletal Class III malocclusion tended to have thinner upper vermilion and fuller lower vermilion than subjects with skeletal Class II and III malocclusion. The mandibular plane angle negatively correlated with the upper-lower vermilion midsagittal curve length and surface area ratio in adults with skeletal Class I and II malocclusion, yet the vertical facial skeletal type showed no correlation in adults with skeletal Class III malocclusion. The vermilion angle, central bow angle, vermilion height, vermilion midsagittal curve length, vermilion height and width ratio, and vermilion surface area showed a significant correlation with incisor measurements. Regression analysis found that the ANB angle was an important factor affecting the upper and lower vermilion midsagittal curve length and surface area ratio. Further, the vermilion height and height and width ratio were closely correlated with the interincisal (U1/L1) angle, whereas the central bow angle was closely correlated with the maxillary incisor torque. CONCLUSIONS: Most LV morphology variables were correlated to skeletal patterns and incisor measurements. Skeletal Class III malocclusion showed significant differences in vermilion morphology. Both the sagittal and vertical skeletal pattern have effects on vermilion proportion. The incisor torque was closely correlated to vermilion shape and central bow angle and might influence the vermilion esthetics. However, the proportion of the upper and lower vermilion was mainly affected by the ANB angle.


Assuntos
Má Oclusão Classe III de Angle , Má Oclusão Classe II de Angle , Cefalometria , China , Estética Dentária , Feminino , Humanos , Lábio/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Má Oclusão Classe II de Angle/diagnóstico por imagem , Má Oclusão Classe III de Angle/diagnóstico por imagem , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
14.
Eur J Orthod ; 43(1): 113-119, 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32255178

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Growth and development might lead to anchorage loss during orthodontic treatment, such as the mesial drift of molars, the compensation characteristics of upper molars following mandibular growth, or the angulation of molars before treatment. Different anchorage reinforcement devices have been developed to prevent mechanical anchorage loss, but the anchorage loss resulting from physiological factors should also be taken into account. OBJECTIVE: To explore the efficacy of a new strategy to control physiologic anchorage compared with that of the conventional straight-wire appliance. TRIAL DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial (RCT). METHODS: Participants of Han ethnicity were randomized into the physiologic anchorage spee-wire system (PASS) group or McLaughlin-Bennett-Trevisi (MBT™) straight-wire group by minimization random allocation. The eligibility criteria were patients with a Class I or II molar relationship, permanent dentition (11-35 years old), fixed appliances involving the extraction of at least two upper first premolars, and medium or maximum anchorage requirements. Pre-treatment and post-treatment dental casts were scanned into digital casts and measured using a blinded method. Mesial displacements of the upper first molars were considered as the primary outcome for evaluating anchorage control. Measurements were taken for subgroups based on age. RESULTS: Data from 60 participants were analysed. The baseline characteristics were not significantly different between groups. Mesial displacement of the upper first molar (in mm) was 2.96 ± 1.52 in the PASS group and 2.70 ± 1.66 in the MBT group (P = 0.521). The variation in incisor torque was -6.94 ± 6.35 degree in the PASS group and -11.76 ± 7.65 degree in the MBT group (P = 0. 010). The incisor retraction (in mm) was 4.24 ± 1.99 and 5.67 ± 2.27 in the PASS and MBT groups, respectively (P = 0.012). Adverse effects were not documented in any patient. LIMITATION: The study was a single-centre study. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the MBT group, the PASS group without additional anchorage devices could attain well anchorage control by considering the dentoalveolar compensation of anchor teeth. REGISTRATION: This RCT was registered at the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (Chictr.org.cn) ChiCTR-TRC-13003260.

15.
J Med Virol ; 93(6): 3305-3311, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33174624

RESUMO

We aimed to describe liver injury and identify the risk factors of liver injury in coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients without chronic liver diseases (CLD). The clinical data of 228 confirmed COVID-19 patients without CLD were retrospectively collected from ten hospitals in Jiangsu, China. Sixty-seven (29.4%) of 228 patients without CLD showed abnormal liver function on admission, including increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (25 [11.0%]) U/L, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) 30 [13.2%]) U/L, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) 28 [12.4%]) U/L, total bilirubin (Tbil) 16 [7.0%] µmol/L, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) 10 [4.5%]) U/L. During hospitalization, 129 (56.3%) of 228 patients showed abnormal liver function, including elevated ALT (84 [36.8%]), AST (58 [25.4%]), GGT (67 [29.5%]), and Tbil (59 [25.9%]). Age over 50 years (odds ratio [OR], 2.086; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.030-4.225; p = .041), male sex (OR, 2.737; 95% CI, 1.418-5.284; p = .003), and lopinavir-ritonavir (OR, 2.504; 95% CI, 1.187-5.283; p = .016) were associated with higher risk of liver function abnormality, while the atomized inhalation of interferon α-2b (OR, 0.256; 95% CI 0.126-0.520; p < .001) was associated with reduced risk of liver function abnormality during hospitalization. Mild to moderate liver injury was common in COVID-19 patients in Jiangsu, China. Age over 50 years, male sex, and lopinavir-ritonavir were the independent risk factors of liver impairment in COVID-19 patients during hospitalization.


Assuntos
COVID-19/patologia , Hepatopatias/virologia , Adulto , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hepatopatias/epidemiologia , Hepatopatias/patologia , Testes de Função Hepática , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Ritonavir , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores de Protease Viral/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Protease Viral/uso terapêutico
16.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 133: 110972, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254021

RESUMO

Recent studies have shown that the innate immune cyclic GMP-AMP synthase-stimulator of interferon genes (cGAS-STING) pathway may play an important role in antitumor immunity. Additionally, the cGAS-STING pathway promotes the senescence of cancer cells, induces apoptosis of cancer cells, and increases the protective effect of cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity. We believe that the combination of the cGAS-STING signaling pathway with other therapeutic methods provides a new perspective from which to overcome obstacles in the application of this review. Further, we highlight the antitumor mechanism of the cGAS-STING signaling pathway and the latest advances in monotherapy and combination therapy with related agonists.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunoterapia , Proteínas de Membrana/agonistas , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Nucleotidiltransferases/metabolismo , Animais , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Senescência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Transdução de Sinais
17.
Cancer Manag Res ; 12: 10841-10848, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33149689

RESUMO

Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics and management of malignant ovarian tumors during pregnancy, as well as the feto-maternal outcomes and analyze the influential factors on the pregnancy outcomes. Patients and Methods: Eighty-five patients with ovarian malignancies during pregnancy treated at 12 tertiary hospitals between 2009 and 2019 were analyzed in this study. The clinical features, histopathological characteristics, clinical management, and maternal and perinatal outcomes were retrospectively analyzed. The clinical features and managements were compared between abortion group and live birth group. Results: The following diagnoses were made: 41 (48.24%) patients with borderline ovarian tumors, 18 (21.18%) patients with epithelial ovarian cancers, 17 (20.00%) patients with non-epithelial ovarian malignancies and 9 (10.59%) patients with metastatic ovarian tumors. Thirty-six (42.45%) patients underwent conservative surgical treatment. Thirty-four (40.00%) patients opted for fertility-sparing surgery, and fifteen (17.56%) patients received radical surgery. Chemotherapy was administered to 32.94% of the patients. The proportion of ovarian malignancies diagnosed in the first trimester in the abortion group was higher than that in the live birth group (P<0.05). However, tumor diameter, reproductive history, stage and surgical indications showed no significant differences between groups. A total of 67 live babies were recorded in this study, including 19 premature babies and 1 full-term newborn who died of respiratory distress. All of the BOTs were diagnosed with stage I, among whom 38 (92.68%) patients exhibited disease-free survival. Twenty-eight ovarian cancers were in stage I-II and 26 of them had disease-free survival with the longest follow-up time of 10 years. Five of the sixteen patients in advanced stage (stage III-IV) died, four of whom had metastatic tumors. Conclusion: Pregnant women with early-stage malignant ovarian tumors appear to have favorable outcomes. Conservative surgery is acceptable for early-stage borderline ovarian tumors during pregnancy. The gestational age of ovarian malignancy detection is key for pregnancy outcomes.

18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 19384, 2020 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168909

RESUMO

Superimposition of 3D maxillary digital dental models of different time points based on palatal vault region has been used to evaluate tooth movement during orthodontic treatment. This study evaluated the accuracy and reliability of 3D maxillary digital model (MDM) superimposition in adults by comparing it with CBCT maxillary superimposition. In CBCT maxillary superimposition, voxel-based superimposition was firstly conducted, and MDMs were matched with corresponding CBCT models (CBCT-MDM superimposition). MDM superimposition (palatal vault regional superimposition) were performed on another pair of pre- and posttreatment MDMs. The position and orientation of upper first molars (U6s) and upper central incisors (U1s) on the posttreatment MDMs were compared to assess the accuracy of the MDM superimposition methods. The reliability was validated in both MDM superimposition and CBCT maxillary superimposition. In terms of accuracy, the average linear deviations in U6 and U1 positions were less than ± 0.3 mm, the average angular deviations of U6s and U1s were less than ± 0.2°, both have no significant difference from zero. The ICCs for MDM superimposition ranged from 0.85 to 0.99. The ICCs for CBCT-MDM superimposition were larger than 0.99 in all items. MDM superimposition was an efficient, accurate and reliable method for evaluating teeth movement in adults, although its reliability is slightly lower than CBCT maxillary superimposition.


Assuntos
Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Imageamento Tridimensional , Incisivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Maxila/diagnóstico por imagem , Dente Molar/diagnóstico por imagem , Técnicas de Movimentação Dentária , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
19.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(10): 880, 2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082313

RESUMO

Autophagy is a dynamic circulatory system that occurs in all eukaryotic cells. Cytoplasmic material is transported to lysosomes for degradation and recovery through autophagy. This provides energy and macromolecular precursors for cell renewal and homeostasis. The Hippo-YAP pathway has significant biological properties in controlling organ size, tissue homeostasis, and regeneration. Recently, the Hippo-YAP axis has been extensively referred to as the pathophysiological processes regulating autophagy. Understanding the cellular and molecular basis of these processes is crucial for identifying disease pathogenesis and novel therapeutic targets. Here we review recent findings from Drosophila models to organisms. We particularly emphasize the regulation between Hippo core components and autophagy, which is involved in normal cellular regulation and the pathogenesis of human diseases, and its application to disease treatment.


Assuntos
Autofagia/fisiologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Drosophila/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos
20.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 889: 173556, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941927

RESUMO

The impact of corticosteroid treatment on virological course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the association between corticosteroid and viral clearance in COVID-19. The clinical data of COVID-19 patients from 10 hospitals of Jiangsu, China, were retrospectively collected. Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier analysis were used to analyze the adverse factors of virus clearance. Of the 309 COVID-19 patients, eighty-nine (28.8%) patients received corticosteroid treatment during hospitalization. Corticosteroid group showed higher C-reactive protein (median 11.1 vs. 7.0 mg/l, P = 0.018) and lower lymphocytes (median 0.9 vs. 1.4 × 109/l, P < 0.001) on admission. Fever (93.3% vs. 65.0%, P < 0.001) and cough (69.7% vs. 57.3%, P = 0.043) were more common in corticosteroid group. The proportions of patients with severe illness (34.8% vs. 1.8%, P < 0.001), respiratory failure (25.8% vs. 1.4%, P < 0.001), acute respiratory distress syndrome (4.5% vs. 0%, P = 0.002), and admission to ICU (20.2% vs. 0.9%, P < 0.001) were significantly higher in corticosteroid group than non-corticosteroid group. The duration of virus clearance (median 18.0 vs. 16.0 days, P < 0.001) and hospitalization (median 17.0 vs. 15.0 days, P < 0.001) were also significantly longer in corticosteroid group than non-corticosteroid group. Treated with corticosteroid (Hazard ratio [HR], 0.698; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.512 to 0.951; P = 0.023) was an adverse factor of the clearance of SARS-CoV-2, especially for male patients (HR, 0.620; 95% CI, 0.408 to 0.942; P = 0.025). The cumulative probability of SARS-CoV-2 clearance was lower in corticosteroid group (P < 0.001). Corticosteroid treatment may delay the SARS-CoV-2 clearance of COVID-19 patients and should be used with cautions.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/virologia , Metilprednisolona/efeitos adversos , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Fatores Sexuais
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