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1.
Nutrition ; 99-100: 111659, 2022 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35594631

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21)-adiponectin axis participates in energy hemostasis and obesity-related syndrome. The present study aimed to investigate whether concentrated fish oil (FO) intervention could alleviate non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) via the regulation of the FGF21-adiponectin axis. METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial, 61 patients with NAFLD, age 55.9 ± 15.6 y, were randomly divided into two groups: FO (3 g/d; n = 30) and corn oil (CO; 3 g/d; n = 31), which served as the control group. RESULTS: After a 3-mo intervention, there were significant net reductions in serum alanine transaminase (-5.4 ± 14.5 U/L vs. -0.25 ± 4.70 U/L; P = 0.001) and triacylglycerol (-0.70 ± 1.10 mmol/L vs. 0.11 ± 1.04 mmol/L; P = 0.018) levels in the FO group compared with the CO group. Furthermore, the mean changes of FGF21 levels (-16.3 ± 20.1 pg/mL vs. 7.2 ± 32.9 pg/mL; P = 0.002) were significantly decreased, but adiponectin levels (1.14 ± 1.53 µg/mL vs. -0.42 ± 2.04 pg/mL; P = 0.011) were significantly increased in the FO group compared with the CO group. In the animal study, the mice fed the high-fat diet demonstrated characteristics of NAFLD. The administration of FO significantly improved high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance, and inflammation compared with the high-fat control group. In addition, FO improved the sensitivity of FGF21, and stimulated the expression levels of adiponectin in the liver. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggested that FO could potentially ameliorate NAFLD through mediating the FGF21-adiponectin axis.

2.
Eur J Nutr ; 61(4): 1931-1942, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35067753

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The present study aimed to investigate fish oil plus vitamin D3 (FO + D) supplementation on biomarkers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: In a 3-month randomized controlled trial, 111 subjects with NAFLD, aged 56.0 ± 15.9 y, were randomized into FO + D group (n = 37), fish oil group (FO, n = 37) or corn oil group (CO, n = 37). The subjects consumed the following capsules (3 g/day), which provided 2.34 g/day of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) + 1680 IU vitamin D3 (FO + D group), or 2.34 g/day of EPA + DHA (FO group), or 1.70 g/d linoleic acid (CO group). RESULTS: Using multivariable-adjusted general linear model, there were significant net reductions in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and triacylglycerol (TAG) and TNF-α levels in the FO + D and FO groups, compared with the control group (P < 0.05). The supplemental FO + D also showed significant reductions in insulin (- 1.58 ± 2.00 mU/L vs. - 0.63 ± 1.55 mU/L, P = 0.050) and IL-1ß (- 6.92 ± 7.29 ng/L vs. 1.06 ± 5.83 ng/L, P < 0.001) in comparison with control group. Although there were no significant differences between FO + D and FO groups regarding biochemical parameters, supplemental FO + D showed decreases in ALT (from 26.2 ± 13.5 U/L to 21.4 ± 9.6 U/L, P = 0.007), aspartate aminotransferase (AST, from 22.5 ± 7.0 U/L to 20.2 ± 4.0 U/L, P = 0.029), HOMA-IR (from 3.69 ± 1.22 to 3.38 ± 1.10, P = 0.047), and TNF-α (from 0.43 ± 0.38 ng/L to 0.25 ± 0.42 ng/L, P < 0.001) levels following the intervention. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that groups supplemented with FO + D and FO had similar beneficial effects on biomarkers of hepatocellular damage and plasma TAG levels in subjects with NAFLD, while in the FO + D group, there were some suggestive additional benefits compared with FO group on insulin levels and inflammation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR1900024866.

3.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 13: 755630, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34867281

RESUMO

Background: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is the prodromal phase of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and has a high risk of progression to AD. Cigarette smoking is one of the important modifiable risk factors in AD progression. Cholinergic dysfunction, especially the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM), is the converging target connecting smoking and AD. However, how cigarette smoking affects NBM connectivity in MCI remains unclear. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the interaction effects of condition (non-smoking vs. smoking) and diagnosis [cognitively normal (CN) vs. MCI] based on the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the NBM. Methods: After propensity score matching, we included 86 non-smoking CN, 44 smoking CN, 62 non-smoking MCI, and 32 smoking MCI. All subjects underwent structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging scans and neuropsychological tests. The seed-based rsFC of the NBM with the whole-brain voxel was calculated. Furthermore, the mixed effect analysis was performed to explore the interaction effects between condition and diagnosis on rsFC of the NBM. Results: The interaction effects of condition × diagnosis on rsFC of the NBM were observed in the bilateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), bilateral supplementary motor area (SMA), and right precuneus/middle occipital gyrus (MOG). Specifically, the smoking CN showed decreased rsFC between left NBM and PFC and increased rsFC between left NBM and SMA compared with non-smoking CN and smoking MCI. The smoking MCI showed reduced rsFC between right NBM and precuneus/MOG compared with non-smoking MCI. Additionally, rsFC between the NBM and SMA showed a significant negative correlation with Wechsler Memory Scale-Logical Memory (WMS-LM) immediate recall in smoking CN (r = -0.321, p = 0.041). Conclusion: Our findings indicate that chronic nicotine exposure through smoking may lead to functional connectivity disruption between the NBM and precuneus in MCI patients. The distinct alteration patterns on NBM connectivity in CN smokers and MCI smokers suggest that cigarette smoking has different influences on normal and impaired cognition.

4.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-20, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34793262

RESUMO

Whole grains (WGs) may have various health benefits, including lowering blood glucose and improving insulin sensitivity. To conduct a meta-analysis of the effects of WGs compared with non-WGs on changes in fasting glucose, fasting insulin, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). A systematic literature search was performed for all published randomized controlled trials on the effects of WG intake on fasting glucose, fasting insulin, HbA1c and HOMA-IR response up to February 2021. Weighted mean differences (WMD) were calculated. Pre-specified subgroup and univariate meta-regression analyses were explored to identify the sources of heterogeneity. Sensitivity analysis and bias analysis were conducted to appraise study quality. Among 12,435 articles screened for eligibility, data were extracted from 48 articles. Meta-analysis of 4,118 participants showed that WG consumption resulted in a significant reduction in fasting glucose by -0.15 mmol/L, fasting insulin by -2.71 pmol/L, HbA1c by -0.44%, and HOMA-IR by -0.28, respectively. Compared with mixed grains, brown rice, and wheat, oats were significantly lower on marker of glycemic. Besides, multiple interventions per day consolidated effectiveness of WGs. WG consumption decreased the levels of fasting glucose, fasting insulin, HbA1c, and HOMA-IR compared with non-WG consumption.

5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(32): 9407-9418, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34369753

RESUMO

The profiles of soluble and insoluble phenolic compounds in 11 commercial red sorghums (B11, B12, B13, B14, J124, J127, J138, J140, J142, J152, and J158) were investigated using ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS) analysis. A total of 48 phenolic compounds including 35 phenolic acids and their derivatives, 12 flavonoids, and 1 proanthocyanidin were identified, and 8 phenolic compounds were reported for the first time in sorghums. Four major 3-deoxyanthocyanidins were also quantified, with their soluble forms accounting for 99.75-99.87% of the total contents. Pearson's correlation analyses indicated that 3-deoxyanthocyanidins significantly contributed to the antioxidant capacities of the red sorghums and that 5-methoxy-luteolinidin showed the strongest correlation. Besides, the soluble phenolic fraction of B13 dose-dependently inhibited the proliferation of Caco-2 cells and the secretion of IL-1ß and NO in RAW264.7 macrophages, which might be attributed to its relatively high total phenolic (TPC), flavonoid (TFC), and proanthocyanidin content (TPAC) values and radical scavenging capacities.


Assuntos
Sorghum , Antioxidantes , Células CACO-2 , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/análise , Humanos , Fenóis , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
6.
J Food Sci ; 86(3): 1058-1065, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33590526

RESUMO

The ratio n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) has been caused widespread discussion. However, the best ratio and mechanism of n-6/n-3 PUFA in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are largely unknown. This study investigated the effects of different ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFA diets on brown adipose tissue (BAT) and T2DM in mice. Results showed that compared with high ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFA (50:1) diet, lower ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFA (1:1 and 5:1) diets significantly increased BAT mass by 67.55% and 60.49%, decreased the fasting blood glucose (24.87% and 20.64%), total cholesterol (32.9% and 23.84%), triglyceride (33.51% and 29.62%), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (19.23% and 17.38%), and increased glucose tolerance by 21.99% and 15.52%. Further, qRT-PCR analyses indicated that lower ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFA diets activated BAT, increased the expression of Ucp1, ß-3AR, PPAR-γ, cAMP, GLU1, HSL, LPL, and PGC-1α, further improved lipid and glucose metabolism in T2DM mice. In conclusion, this study substantiated that the lower ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFA (1:1 and 5:1) improve symptoms associated with T2DM via activating BAT. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Dietary ratio of n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is essential for the improvement of chronic diseases. Our current study showed that 1:1 or 5:1 ratio of n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids had better efficiency for type 2 diabetes mellitus via activating brown adipose tissue when compared with 1:50. This finding provided useful guidance for the daily diet of patients with diabetes.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/dietoterapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/metabolismo , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/administração & dosagem , Glucose/metabolismo , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
7.
Food Chem ; 340: 128123, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010645

RESUMO

Six commercial red sorghum varieties (Tong Za 117, 141, 142 and 143, Chi Za 109 and 101) were investigated for their triacylglycerol (TAG) profiles, soluble and bound phenolics, and radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory activities. A total of 21 TAGs were identified in red sorghum oils for the first time. Total phenolic (TPC) and flavonoid contents (TFC) in the soluble or bound phenolic fractions differed among red sorghums. Significant correlation among TPC, TFC and DPPH radical scavenging activities was observed in both fractions. Except for caffeic acid, most of phenolic acids in red sorghums are in the bound form. Soluble 3-deoxyanthocyanidins contents (2.12-57.14 µg/g) were significantly higher than those of bound forms (0.01-0.18 µg/g) regardless of sorghum varieties and types of 3-deoxyanthocyanidins. Moreover, the stronger anti-inflammatory capacity of soluble phenolic fraction in Tong Za 117 correlated with its higher TPC, TFC and radical scavenging activity than those of its bound counterpart.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Sorghum/química , Triglicerídeos/análise , Triglicerídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Antioxidantes/química , Ácidos Cafeicos/análise , Ácidos Cafeicos/química , Diterpenos/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/química , Hidrólise , Hidroxibenzoatos/análise , Hidroxibenzoatos/química , Camundongos , Fenóis , Extratos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Células RAW 264.7
8.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 61(17): 2894-2910, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643951

RESUMO

To investigate the effect of ALA intake on blood lipid profiles, including triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL-C) and ratio of TC to HDL-C. We systematically searched randomized controlled trials of ALA intervention on PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library and related references up to March 2018. The final values were calculated as weighted mean difference (WMD) by using a random effects model. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression were used to explore the source of heterogeneity. Generalized least square was performed for dose-response analysis. Forty-seven studies with 1305 individuals in the ALA arm and 1325 individuals in the control arm were identified. Compared with control group, dietary intake of ALA significantly reduced the concentrations of TG (WMD -0.101 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.158 to -0.044 mmol/L; P = 0.001), TC (WMD -0.140 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.224 to -0.056 mmol/L; P = 0.001), LDL-C (WMD -0.131 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.191 to -0.071 mmol/L; P < 0.001), VLDL-C (WMD -0.121 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.170 to -0.073 mmol/L; P < 0.001), TC/HDL-C ratio (WMD -0.165 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.317 to -0.013 mmol/L; P = 0.033) and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio (WMD -0.158 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.291 to -0.025 mmol/L; P = 0.02). There is no effect of ALA intake on HDL-C (WMD 0.008 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.018 to 0.034 mmol/L; P = 0.541). Dose-response analysis indicated that 1 g per day increment of ALA was associated with a 0.0016 mmol/L, 0.0071 mmol/L, 0.0015 and 0.0061 mmol/L reduction in TG (95% CI: -0.0029 to -0.0002 mmol/L), TC (95% CI: -0.0085 to -0.0058 mmol/L), HDL-C (95% CI: -0.0020 to -0.0011 mmol/L) and LDL-C (95% CI: -0.0073 to -0.0049 mmol/L) levels, respectively. The effects of ALA intake on TG, TC and LDL-C concentrations were more obvious among Asian participants, and also more obvious on patients with hyperlipidemia or hyperglycemia compared to healthy individuals. Dietary ALA intervention improves blood lipid profiles by decreasing levels of TG, TC, LDL and VLDL-C. Our findings add to the evidence that increasing ALA intake could potentially prevent risk of cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Lipídeos , Ácido alfa-Linoleico , HDL-Colesterol , LDL-Colesterol , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Triglicerídeos
9.
Hormones (Athens) ; 20(4): 697-706, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33123975

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of low-ratio n-6/n-3 PUFA on blood lipid levels. METHODS: We searched the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases for randomized controlled trials of n-6/n-3 PUFA interventions up to March 2019. The change values were calculated as weighted mean differences (WMDs) by using a random-effect model. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression were used to explore the source of heterogeneity. RESULTS: A total of 30 randomized controlled trials with 1368 participants were identified. Compared with control, low-ratio n-6/n-3 PUFA significantly reduced triglyceride (TG) concentration (WMD: - 0.079 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval (CI): - 0.148 mmol/L to - 0.009 mmol/L, p = 0.026) and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration (WMD: 0.033 mmol/L, 95% CI: 0.007 to 0.058 mmol/L, p = 0.012). Subgroup analysis revealed that the effects of low-ratio n-6/n-3 PUFA on blood lipid levels were better for a longer time. The effects of α-linolenic acid on total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations were more obvious among participants. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) had more significant effects on TG and HDL-C concentrations. No significant publication bias was observed for TG and HDL-C, as suggested by the results of Begg's test and Egger's test. CONCLUSION: Low-ratio n-6/n-3 PUFA significantly reduced TG concentration and increased HDL-C concentration. The beneficial effects of low-ratio n-6/n-3 PUFA on TG, TC, HDL-C, and LDL-C concentrations were enhanced with time. However, n-3 PUFA derived from plants significantly reduced TC and LDL-C concentrations, and n-3 PUFA derived from EPA and DHA significantly reduced TG concentration and increased HDL-C concentration.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6 , Lipídeos , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/farmacologia , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Triglicerídeos/sangue
10.
Food Funct ; 11(11): 9789-9800, 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079126

RESUMO

Potato resistant starch (RS) was prepared by microwave-toughening treatment (MTT). This study investigated the beneficial effects of RS on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hyperlipidemia in C57BL/6J mice by evaluating changes in the gut microbiota. The mice were fed low-fat diet with corn starch, HFD with corn starch, HFD with potato starch (HFP), or HFD with RS (HFR) for 6 weeks. The results showed that the HFR group had lower body weight and total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels compared with the HFP group. Moreover, the brown adipose tissue levels of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1), ß3-adrenoceptor (ß3-AR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), and PPAR-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) were increased. Our results showed that RS supplementation increased the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio and the abundance of short-chain fatty acid-producing Allobaculum, Ruminococcus, and Blautia. Our data suggest that RS prepared by MTT may be used as a prebiotic agent to prevent gut dysbiosis and obesity-related chronic diseases, such as hyperlipidemia, and obesity.


Assuntos
Solanum tuberosum , Amido/farmacologia , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Animais , Culinária , Alimento Funcional , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hiperlipidemias/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Prebióticos , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Amido/administração & dosagem , Amido/metabolismo , Proteína Desacopladora 1/metabolismo
11.
Food Sci Nutr ; 8(9): 4730-4738, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994934

RESUMO

This study aimed to optimize the microencapsulation method for a functional oil using high amylose corn starch (HACS) and assessed its structure and antioxidant capacity. The results showed that the optimal microencapsulation condition is achieved by using 28.5% of functional oil, 15.75% of HACS, and 57.86% of proportion of monoglyceride in emulsifier with 94.86% microencapsulation efficiency. Scanning electron microscopy and particle size measurement showed that the functional oil microcapsules were uniform size, smooth surface, spherical shape, and without cracks in the wall of the capsules. In vitro oil release of microencapsulates results showed that microencapsulated functional oil containing HACS has a better sustained release effect. The microcapsules containing HACS exhibited a lower lipid oxidation rate during storage. In conclusion, microencapsulation of HACS as wall material improved the stability of functional oil and this formulation of microcapsules was satisfactorily applied in powdered food for diabetic patients.

12.
Clin Nutr ; 39(9): 2675-2685, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effects of low-protein diet (LPD) on kidney function and nutrition in nephropathy are so far unclear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of LPD on kidney function and nutrition. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library up to January 2019 and references of retrieved relevant articles. RESULT: Twenty-nine studies with 1784 individuals in the LPD arm and 1782 individuals in the normal protein diet were identified. Compared with normal protein diet, LPD significantly reduced BUN (WMD -20.756 mg/dl; 95% CI: -33.969 to -7.544 mg/dl; P = 0.002), UREA (WMD -1.400 g/24 h; 95% CI: -1.713 to -1.088 mmol/L; P < 0.001), proteinuria (WMD -0.416 g/24 h; 95% CI: -0.715 to -0.117 g/24 h; P = 0.006), body weight (WMD -2.757 kg; 95% CI: -3.890 to 1.623 kg; P < 0.001) and BMI (WMD -0.646 kg/m2; 95% CI: -1.068 to -0.223 kg/m2; P = 0.003). Dose-response analysis showed that reduction of protein intake by 0.1 g/kg/d was associated with a 0.68009 kg, 0.08771 kg/m2, 0.27147 g/L and 0.00309 g/24 hS reduction in body weight, BMI, ALB and Proteinuria, associated with a 0.135289 ml/min/1.73 m2 increase in GFR. The effects of LPD were more obvious on aged, obesity, moderate or severe renal impairment and DN patients. CONCLUSION: Low-protein diet was significantly associated with improvement of nephropathy, but LPD increases the risk of malnutrition such as BMI. The present meta-analysis provides evidence that LPD was associated with malnutrition, and high-quality RCTs with multi-center and large simple-size should be performed to confirm the present findings.


Assuntos
Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/efeitos adversos , Nefropatias/terapia , Rim/fisiopatologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Nefropatias/fisiopatologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco
13.
Food Funct ; 10(8): 4557-4565, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292599

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of increasing dietary low-ratio n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake on blood glucose and other related indicators. METHODS: We systematically searched randomized controlled trials of low-ratio n-6/n-3 PUFA intervention on PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library and related references up to August 2018. The change values were calculated as the weighted mean difference (WMD) by using a random-effect model. RESULTS: Eleven randomized controlled trials were included. No significant effect of dietary low-ratio n-6/n-3 PUFA supplementation was observed on fasting blood glucose (WMD: 0.057 mmol L-1; 95% CI: -0.090 to 0.204 mmol L-1), insulin (WMD: -0.757 mIU L-1; 95% CI: -2.419 to 0.904 mIU L-1), insulin resistance index (WMD: -0.201; 95% CI: -0.566 to 0.165), and glycosylated hemoglobin (WMD: -0.063%; 95% CI: -0.061 to 0.186%). Subgroup analysis showed that the effect of low-ratio n-6/n-3 PUFA on the reduction of the plasma insulin level in North America (WMD: -3.473 mIU L-1; 95% CI: -5.760 to -1.185 mIU L-1) was more obvious than that in Asian countries (WMD: -0.797 mIU L-1; 95% CI: -2.497 to 0.902 mIU L-1) and European countries (WMD: -0.063 mIU L-1; 95% CI: -0.061 to 0.186 mIU L-1). In the subgroup of diabetic subjects, low-ratio n-6/n-3 PUFA supplementation can decrease the plasma insulin level (WMD: -3.010 mIU L-1; 95% CI: -5.371 to -0.648 mIU L-1) and insulin resistance index (WMD: -0.460; 95% CI: -0.908 to -0.012). When the intervention period was longer than 8 weeks, low-ratio n-6/n-3 PUFA supplementation could also decrease the plasma insulin level (WMD: -2.782 mIU L-1; 95% CI: -4.946 to -0.618 mIU L-1). No significant publication bias was observed for all blood glucose and other related indicators as suggested by Begg's test and Egger's test. CONCLUSION: Our meta-analysis found that low-ratio n-6/n-3 PUFA supplementation could improve the glucose metabolism by reducing the insulin and insulin resistance in the diabetic patients. Low-ratio n-6/n-3 PUFA supplementation could reduce the plasma insulin level when the supplementation duration was longer than 8 weeks.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/análise , Síndrome Metabólica/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
14.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 131: 601-607, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898596

RESUMO

Chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) has multiple biological properties and is hence promising in the modification of proteins through Mallard reaction. Its susceptibility to the reaction with soybean protein isolate (SPI) was evaluated by comparing with glucose (Glu). Conjugation with COS led to milder color change, less furosine and hydroxymethyl furfural formation, and fewer lysine/arginine consumption than with Glu, implying that COS was less susceptible to the Maillard reaction with SPI than Glu. Intrinsic fluorescence analysis indicated that different intermediate products were generated in the SPI-Glu and SPI-COS conjugates and the former intermediates were more prone to condensation to brown pigments. SDS-PAGE illustrated that COS inclined to conjugate with the small subunits of SPI. Conjugation with COS caused SPI unfolding and improved its emulsifying activity. Hence, COS has great potential in the modification of proteins through Maillard reaction and other attributes of the resultant conjugates, such as antioxidant and antibacterial activities, deserve further study.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Glucose/química , Reação de Maillard , Oligossacarídeos/química , Proteínas de Soja/química , Aminoácidos/análise , Emulsões , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Análise Espectral
15.
Eur J Nutr ; 58(7): 2625-2638, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30120538

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Previous studies have shown that industrially originated trans-fatty acids (iTFAs) are associated with several chronic diseases, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Because gut microbiota play a critical role in human health, diet competent induced gut microbiota dysbiosis may contributing to disease pathogenesis. Therefore, the present study examined the impact of iTFA on gut microbiota, help understanding the underling mechanism of iTFA-associated chronic diseases. METHODS: Forty male 8-week-old mice were divided into 4 groups and randomly assigned to diets containing soybean oil (non-iTFA) or partially hydrogenated soybean oil (iTFA). The intervention groups were: (1) low soybean oil (LS); (2) high soybean oil (HS); (3) low partially hydrogenated oil (LH) and (4) high partially hydrogenated oil (HH). The gut microbiota profiles were determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Physiological parameters and the inflammatory status of the small intestine and other tissues were analyzed. Short-chain fatty acid levels in feces were measured using gas chromatography. RESULTS: The intake of iTFA increased the abundance of well-documented 'harmful' bacteria, such as Proteobacteria and Desulfovibrionaceae (P < 0.05), whereas it decreased relative abundance of 'beneficial' bacteria, such as Bacteroidetes, Lachnospiraceae, Bacteroidales S24-7 (P < 0.05). Surprisingly, the intake of iTFA increased the abundance of the probiotic Lactobacillaceae (P < 0.05). Additionally, the intake of iTFA induced increase of inflammatory parameters, as well as a numerical decrease of fecal butyric acid and valeric acid. CONCLUSIONS: This study, to our knowledge, is the first to demonstrate that the consumption of iTFA resulted in a significant dysbiosis of gut microbiota, which may contribute to the development of chronic diseases associated with iTFA.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos trans/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos trans/efeitos adversos , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Óleo de Soja/administração & dosagem
16.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 123: 436-445, 2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30439438

RESUMO

Carboxymethyl konjac glucomannan (CMKGM) shows potential in the construction of colon-targeted delivery systems through electrostatic interaction-based techniques. Its coacervation with chitosan (CHI) was investigated as a function of degree of substitution (DS). CMKGMs displayed the same optimum coacervation conditions of pH 6.5 and mass ratio 1:1 with CHI, but the coacervate yield was positively related to their DS. The coacervation was weakened by the presence of NaCl, but was not affected in temperatures 25-75 °C and total biopolymer concentrations 0.05-0.15% (w/v). Both electrostatic interaction and hydrogen bonding were involved in the coacervation and a higher DS contributed a denser network structure, a smaller particle size, and greater elasticity. The coacervates maintained their structures in simulated gastrointestinal fluids, but could be degraded by the ß-mannanase in simulated colonic fluid. Hence, CMKGMs could be used in colon-targeted and enzyme-triggered delivery systems and the delivery performance could be tailored by varying their DS.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Portadores de Fármacos , Mananas , Líquidos Corporais/metabolismo , Quitosana/química , Quitosana/farmacocinética , Colo/metabolismo , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Portadores de Fármacos/farmacocinética , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Mananas/química , Mananas/farmacocinética , Eletricidade Estática
17.
Biomed Res Int ; 2018: 4398086, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29744358

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate the effect of Chinese diet pattern of fat content (30% or 36.06%), n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio (5 : 1 or 9 : 1), and cholesterol content (0.04 or 0.057 g/kg total diet) on lipid profile using a rat model. Results showed that rats' body weights (BWs) were controlled by the simultaneous intakes of cholesterol level of 0.04 g/kg total diet and n-6/n-3 ratio of 5 : 1. In addition, under high-fat diet, increased cholesterol feeding led to increased total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and decreased triacylglycerols (TG) in rats' plasma. However, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level and the ratios of HDL-C/LDL-C and HDL-C/TC in rats' plasma increased in response to simultaneous intakes of low n-6/n-3 ratio (5 : 1) and cholesterol (0.04 g/kg total diet) even under high-fat diet. Moreover, as the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in the diet decreased, the proportion of n-3 PUFAs increased in plasma, liver, and muscle and resulted in the decrease of n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Ratos , Triglicerídeos/sangue
18.
Carbohydr Polym ; 192: 299-307, 2018 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29691025

RESUMO

Potato starch was treated by microwaving, toughening, and low-temperature aging to prepare resistant starch (RS). The functional properties of the resultant RS were evaluated and the effects of this microwave-toughening treatment (MTT) on the amylose content, RS content, digestive properties, pasting properties, morphological observation, crystal structure, and thermal performance of potato starch were determined. The optimal MTT parameters were microwaving at 300 W for 100 s, toughening at 55 °C for 16 h, and low-temperature aging at 4 °C for 18 h. After MTT, the amylose and RS contents of potato starch had increased from 26.08% and 11.54% to 35.06% and 27.09%, respectively. Furthermore, the pasting temperature increased from 66.8 °C to 76.36 °C, while the peak viscosity, trough viscosity, and final viscosity decreased significantly. After MTT, the potato starch surface had also changed significantly, and the crystallinity had increased from 32.43% to 51.36%. MTT starch had beneficial effects on fasting blood glucose, body weight, and organ index in mice. Furthermore, it had a protective effect on subcutaneous abdominal fat and liver tissue.

19.
Lipids ; 53(3): 335-344, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29701264

RESUMO

Compared with triacylglycerol (TAG), dietary 1,3-diacylglycerol (1,3-DAG) is associated with reduced serum lipid and glucose levels. We investigated the metabolism of 1,3-DAG by assaying its intermediate metabolites during digestion and absorption in the rat small intestine. After gavage with TAG emulsion, TAG was digested mainly to 2-monoacylglycerol (2-MAG) and unesterified fatty acid (FFA) in the rat small intestinal lumen. 2-MAG was directly absorbed into the small intestinal epithelial cells and esterified to 1,2(2,3)-DAG, and further esterified to TAG. After gavage with 1,3-DAG emulsion, 1,3-DAG was digested mainly to 1(3)-MAG and FFA in the rat small intestinal lumen with subsequent significant increase of 1-MAG and 1,3-DAG concentrations in small intestinal mucosal epithelial cells, and the 2-MAG, 1,2(2,3)-DAG, and TAG concentrations in mucosal epithelial cells were not significantly different after 1,3-DAG than after TAG gavage, suggesting that the metabolic pathway of 1,3-DAG is different from that of TAG. In intestinal mucosal epithelial cells, we further assayed enzyme levels and gene expression of proteins in the phosphatidic acid (PtdOH) pathway. The glycerol kinase, phosphatidate phosphatase, and diacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 expression and the relative expression of mRNA of enzymes were significantly increased in the 1,3-DAG group compared with the TAG group, suggesting that TAG synthesis from dietary 1,3-DAG was mainly via PtdOH pathways, which may partially account for the effect of dietary DAG on postprandial serum TAG.


Assuntos
Diglicerídeos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Monoglicerídeos/metabolismo , Ácidos Fosfatídicos/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Biotransformação , Diacilglicerol O-Aciltransferase/genética , Diacilglicerol O-Aciltransferase/metabolismo , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Diglicerídeos/administração & dosagem , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicerol Quinase/genética , Glicerol Quinase/metabolismo , Absorção Intestinal/fisiologia , Intestino Delgado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Fosfatidato Fosfatase/genética , Fosfatidato Fosfatase/metabolismo , Período Pós-Prandial , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Triglicerídeos/administração & dosagem
20.
Lipids ; 53(2): 189-203, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29578285

RESUMO

Trans fatty acid (TFA), a group of unsaturated fats with at least one double bond in the trans configuration, plays a role in lipid metabolism, the structure of the cell membrane phospholipids, and apoptosis. Previous studies demonstrated that TFA was associated with coronary heart disease, obesity, and insulin resistance. Herein, a quantitative proteomics approach estimated the relative abundance of proteins in human umbilical vein endothelial cells treated with TFA (two different TFA structural isomers: 9t-18:1 and 9t,12t-18:2). The results revealed that 174 identified proteins were significantly altered with respect to expression. Furthermore, based on the cutoff values, 35 proteins were differentially expressed in the 9t-18:1 group as compared to the control group, 69 proteins were differentially expressed in 9t,12t-18:2 group as compared to the control group, and 120 proteins were differentially expressed in the 9t,12t-18:2 group as compared to the 9t-18:1 group. Based on the bioinformatics analysis, we found that TFA could alter the structural constitution of the cytoskeleton through protein interactions, localization into the cell membrane, and incorporation into the phospholipid of the cell. In addition, 17 differential apoptosis-related proteins, including cell division cycle 42, superoxide dismutase 1, glyoxalase I, and macrophage migration inhibitory factor were also identified. Together, these results might emphasize the need for studying TFA-induced biological processes.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas/análise , Proteômica , Ácidos Graxos trans/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Biologia Computacional , Humanos , Proteínas/metabolismo , Estereoisomerismo , Ácidos Graxos trans/química
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