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1.
J Diabetes Investig ; 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787069

RESUMO

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Metabolic syndrome (MS) has been increasing worldwide. The secular change in MS components, however, remains unclear. This study aimed to examine the dynamic change in metabolic health status in Chinese adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three population-based surveys using multistage stratified sampling were performed in Chinese aged 35-74 years in Shanghai in 2002-2003 (n=12,302), 2009 (n=7,400), and 2017 (n=19,023). MS was defined according to the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for Asian-Americans. Generalized Estimating Equations and Cochran-Armitage Trend Test was used to assess the prevalence trend over the years. RESULTS: The prevalence of MS doubled in Chinese adults over the period (p for trend < 0.001). The largest increase occurred in younger men. Among MS components, the prevalence of high waist-circumference (HWC), high blood glucose (HBG) and high blood pressure (HBP) increased in all subjects, whereas the prevalence of high triglycerides (HTG) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LHC) increased in men but decreased in women. The increase in HBP contributed most to elevated MS, followed by HBG and HWC, resulting in the HBP-HBG-HWC the most common cluster of MS components. Metabolically unhealthy overweight also grew over the period. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic health status has been exacerbating in Chinese adults, and may increase burden of non-communicable diseases.

2.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 113(3): 684-694, 2021 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few population-based studies have evaluated the influence of long-term diet on the gut microbiome, and data among Asian populations are lacking. OBJECTIVE: We examined the association of long-term diet quality, comprising 8 food groups (fruit, vegetables, dairy, fish/seafood, nuts/legumes, refined grains, red meat, and processed meat), with gut microbiome among Chinese adults. METHODS: Included were 1920 men and women, enrolled in 2 prospective cohorts (baseline 1996-2006), who remained free of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer at stool collection (2015-2018) and had no diarrhea or antibiotic use in the last 7 d before stool collection. Microbiome was profiled by 16S rRNA sequencing. Long-term diet was assessed by repeated surveys at baseline and follow-ups (1996-2011), with intervals of 5.2 to 20.5 y between dietary surveys and stool collection. Associations of dietary variables with microbiome diversity and composition were evaluated by linear or negative binomial hurdle models, adjusting for potential confounders. False discovery rate (FDR) <0.1 was considered significant. RESULTS: The mean ± SD age at stool collection was 68 ± 1.5 y. Diet quality was positively associated with microbiome α-diversity (P = 0.03) and abundance of Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Tenericutes, and genera/species within these phyla, including Coprococcus, Faecalibacterium/Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Bifidobacterium / Bifidobacterium adolescentis, and order RF39 (all FDRs <0.1). Significant associations were also observed for intakes of dairy, fish/seafood, nuts/legumes, refined grains, and processed meat, including a positive association of dairy with Bifidobacterium and inverse associations of processed meat with Roseburia /Roseburia faecis. Most associations were similar, with or without adjustment for BMI and hypertension status or excluding participants with antibiotic use in the past 6 mo. CONCLUSION: Among apparently healthy Chinese adults, long-term diet quality is positively associated with fecal microbiome diversity and abundance of fiber-fermenting bacteria, although magnitudes are generally small. Future studies are needed to examine if these bacteria may mediate or modify diet-disease relations.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Bactérias/classificação , Dieta/normas , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , População Urbana , Adulto , Idoso , Bactérias/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Fezes/microbiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
3.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 171: 108552, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33242512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term glycemic variation in diabetes patients may have contributed to cancer incidence. AIM: In this study we aimed at the association between annual glycemic variation and the risk of cancer in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: Subjects of this study were from an established population-based cohort of T2DM patients in Minhang District of Shanghai, China. Incident cancer were obtained from the Shanghai Cancer Registry. Glycemic variation was evaluated using the annual fasting glucose coefficient of variation (FG-CV), which was used as a time-dependent variable in a Cox regression model to estimate the associations with the cancer risk. Restricted cubic splines were used to explore potential non-linear associations. RESULTS: A total of 2,140 incident cancers (1100 men and 1040 women) were identified from the 46,202 diabetes patients during 12-year follow-up. The annual FG-CV remained significantly associated with an increased risk of cancer, even after adjusting for the annual mean FG level. A significant non-linear association was found in male T2DM patients, and a significant linear association in female patients. CONCLUSIONS: The positive association of the annual FG-CV with the risk of cancer in T2DM patients indicate the importance to stabilize the FG level.

4.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105052

RESUMO

A full-term pregnancy is associated with reduced endometrial cancer risk; however, whether the effect of additional pregnancies is independent of age at last pregnancy is unknown. The associations between other pregnancy-related factors and endometrial cancer risk are less clear. We pooled individual participant data from 11 cohort and 19 case-control studies participating in the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium (E2C2) including 16 986 women with endometrial cancer and 39 538 control women. We used one- and two-stage meta-analytic approaches to estimate pooled odds ratios (ORs) for the association between exposures and endometrial cancer risk. Ever having a full-term pregnancy was associated with a 41% reduction in risk of endometrial cancer compared to never having a full-term pregnancy (OR = 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56-0.63). The risk reduction appeared the greatest for the first full-term pregnancy (OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.72-0.84), with a further ~15% reduction per pregnancy up to eight pregnancies (OR = 0.20, 95% CI 0.14-0.28) that was independent of age at last full-term pregnancy. Incomplete pregnancy was also associated with decreased endometrial cancer risk (7%-9% reduction per pregnancy). Twin births appeared to have the same effect as singleton pregnancies. Our pooled analysis shows that, while the magnitude of the risk reduction is greater for a full-term pregnancy than an incomplete pregnancy, each additional pregnancy is associated with further reduction in endometrial cancer risk, independent of age at last full-term pregnancy. These results suggest that the very high progesterone level in the last trimester of pregnancy is not the sole explanation for the protective effect of pregnancy.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816870

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To compare the performance and the costs of various assumed screening strategies for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among Chinese adults, and identify an optimal one for the population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Two multistage-sampling surveys were conducted in Shanghai, China, in 2009 and 2017. All participants were interviewed, had anthropometry, measured fasting plasma glucose (FPG), hemoglobin A1c (A1c) and/or postprandial glucose. The 1999 WHO diagnostic criteria was used to identify undiagnosed T2DM. A previously developed Chinese risk assessment system and a specific risk assessment system developed in this study were applied to calculate diabetes risk score (DRS) 1 and 2. Optimal screening strategies were selected based on the sensitivity, Youden index and the costs using the 2009 survey data as the training set and the 2017 survey data as the validation set. A twofold cross-validation was also performed. RESULTS: Of numerous assumed strategies, FPG ≥5.6 mmol/L alone performed well (Youden index of 71.8%) and cost least (US$18.4 for each case detected), followed by the strategy of DRS2 ≥8 combining with FPG ≥5.6 mmol/L (Youden index of 71.7% and US$20.2 per case detected) and the strategy of DRS1 ≥17 combining with FPG ≥5.6 mmol/L (Youden index of 72.0% and US$21.6 per case detected). However, FPG alone resulted in more subjects requiring oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) than did combining with DRS. The strategy of FPG ≥5.6 mmol/L combining with A1c ≥4.7% achieved a Youden index of 72.1%, but had a cost as high as US$48.8 for each case identified. Twofold cross-validation also supported the use of FPG alone, but with an optimal cut-off of 6.1 mmol/L. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the use of FPG alone in T2DM screening in Chinese adults. DRS may be used combining with FPG in populations with available electronic health records to reduce the number of OGTT and save costs of screening.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487594

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients with diabetes in China have low health literacy, which likely leads to poor clinical outcomes. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of health literacy and exercise interventions on clinical measurements in Chinese adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted from February 2015 through April 2017 in Shanghai, China. 799 patients with T2DM aged 18 years or older recruited from eight Community Healthcare Centers were randomized into one control arm and three intervention arms receiving 1-year health literacy intervention, exercise intervention or both as the comprehensive intervention. Propensity score matching was employed to minimize potential imbalance in randomization. The intervention-attributable effects on main clinical outcomes were estimated using a difference-in-difference regression approach. RESULTS: After propensity score matching, 634 patients were included in the analysis. The three intervention groups had decreased hemoglobin A1c (A1c) level after 12 months of intervention. The largest adjusted decrease was observed in the health literacy group (-0.95%, 95% CI: -1.30 to -0.59), followed by the exercise group (-0.81%, 95% CI: -1.17 to -0.45). However, A1c was observed to increase in the health literacy and the comprehensive groups from 12 to 24 months. No obvious changes were observed for other measurements including high-density and low-density lipoprotein cholesterols, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures. CONCLUSIONS: Health literacy and exercise-focused interventions improve glycemic control in Chinese patients with diabetes after 12 months of intervention, and the health literacy intervention shows the greatest effect. Our results suggest that the interventions may have the potential to improve diabetes self-management and reduce diabetes burden in China. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN76130594.

7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8578, 2020 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32444672

RESUMO

To estimate the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in Chinese diabetes patients and to evaluate the effect of blood glucose on PTB risk, a retrospective cohort study was built based on the diabetes management system in Shanghai and included 240,692 adults aged 35 or above. Incidences of PTB in all diabetes patients and by subgroups were calculated and compared. Multivariable Cox regression models with restricted cubic splines were used to evaluate the association of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) with the risk of PTB. A total of 439 incident PTB cases were identified in the cohort after an average of 3.83 years of follow-up. The overall PTB incidence rate was 51.3/100,000 in diabetes patients, and annual incidence remained higher than that in general population. The PTB incidence rate of diabetes patients was higher in men than in women (86.2 vs. 22.1 per 100,000) and was highest in patients with body mass index (BMI) < 18.5 kg/m2 (215.2/100,000) or FPG ≥ 10 mmol/L (143.2/100,000). Our results suggest that the risk of tuberculosis may be greater at higher levels of FPG in diabetes patients of normal weight. Specific tuberculosis screening strategies for different characteristic diabetes population should be provided to prevent and control tuberculosis in China.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tuberculose Pulmonar/metabolismo , Tuberculose Pulmonar/patologia
8.
Ann Transl Med ; 8(5): 229, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32309376

RESUMO

Background: Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are more prevalent in Asian populations, and have been associated with increased risk of stroke, dementia and mortality. So far, risk factors for CMBs other than hypertension were merely known. Previous studies have shown that polymorphisms at aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) gene were independently associated with the risk of stroke. Its role in CMBs, however, remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the associations of ALDH2 gene polymorphisms with CMBs in Chinese elderly. Methods: Using bio-specimen and data collected at baseline survey of the population-based Taizhou Imaging Study (TIS) (phase I), we genotyped the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at ALDH2 among 549 individuals aged 55-65 years, and rs671 was used as surrogate marker of ALDH2. CMBs were detected on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and further categorized as strictly lobar or as deep/mixed. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the associations of the variants at ALDH2 and CMBs. Results: CMBs were present in 103 individuals (18.8%). Forty-one point three percent participants were with ALDH2 *2 allele and 5.1% had ALDH2 *2/*2 genotype. Subjects with ALDH2 *1 allele were more likely to be drinker, have hypertension or CMBs than those with *2 allele (all P<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression model showed that the ALDH2 *1/*1 genotype was independently associated with CMBs (P=0.013), particularly for deep/mixed CMBs (P=0.008), and the association was more pronounced in men, non-drinkers or hypertension patients. Conclusions: The results suggest that Han Chinese with ALDH2 *1/*1 genotype may be more susceptible to CMBs than those with ALDH2 *2 allele.

9.
Front Oncol ; 9: 375, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179238

RESUMO

Background: An electronic health record (e-HR) system has been developed in Minhang District of Shanghai, China, since 2005, making it convenient for local health institutions to provide integrative and comprehensive health care and management for major diseases. Methods: In 2008, an e-HR-based cancer prevention program was initiated to screen multiple cancers, including colorectal, gastric, liver, lung, cervical, and breast cancers, and provide subsequent health education and health management to cancer patients and high-risk individuals. This study was designed in prospective analysis, based on the constructive analysis of key information, observation of cancer screening and healthcare processes and organizations, and stages of cancers detected by the e-HR-based programs. Results: From 2008 to 2016, health education was conducted for over 5 million attendances, and more than 3 million screening tests were performed for eligible residents over 40 years old. A total of 2,948 cancer cases were detected, accounting for 13.3% of all newly diagnosed cancers in the district during the 9-year period. Thirty point seven percent detected cancer cases were at the early stage, significantly higher than the 22.9% in cases identified by e-HR-based follow-up and 13.8% in cases diagnosed due to signs or symptoms. More than 136,000 residents were identified as individuals at high risk of cancer and subject to sustainable clinical follow-up and health management. Conclusions: The successful application of e-HR system in cancer prevention and control in Minhang district of Shanghai, China, implies that the system may act as an extendable and sustainable infrastructure for comprehensive health care and services for a broad spectrum of diseases and health events.

10.
Front Oncol ; 9: 399, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31214488

RESUMO

Background: Parallel test of risk stratification and two-sample qualitative fecal immunochemical tests (FITs) are used to screen colorectal cancer (CRC) in Shanghai, China. This study was designed to identify an optimal initial screening modality based on available data. Methods: A total of 538,278 eligible residents participated in the program during the period of January 2013 to June 2017. Incident CRC was collected through program reporting system and by record linkage with the Shanghai Cancer Registry up to December 2017. Logistic regression model was applied to identify significant factors to calculate risk score for CRC. Cutoff points of risk score were determined based on Youden index and defined specificity. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive values (PPVs) were computed to evaluate validity of assumed screening modalities. Results: A total of 446 CRC were screen-detected, and 777 interval or missed cases were identified through record linkage. The risk score system had an optimal cutoff point of 19 and performed better in detecting CRC and predicting long-term CRC risk than did the risk stratification. When using a cutoff point of 24, parallel test of risk score, and FIT were expected to avoid 56 interval CRCs with minimal decrease in PPV and increase in colonoscopy. However, the observed detection rates were much lower than those expected due to low compliance to colonoscopy. Conclusions: Risk score is superior to risk stratification used in the program, particularly when combined with FIT. Compliance to colonoscopy should be improved to guarantee the effectiveness of CRC screening in the population.

11.
EClinicalMedicine ; 17: 100211, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31891144

RESUMO

Background: The diabetes patients in China have low health literacy and low levels of physical activities which may result in the poor glycemic control and other clinical outcomes. This study is designed to evaluate the effectiveness of health literacy and exercise-focused interventions on clinical outcomes among Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Methods: In this cluster randomized controlled trial, 799 T2DM patients with the most recent A1c ≥ 7·5% (58 mmol/mol, or fasting glucose level ≥10 mmol/L) were recruited from 35 clinics in 8 communities in Shanghai, China, and randomized into one standard care (control) arm and three intervention arms receiving interventions focused on health literacy, exercise or both. A1c (primary outcome), blood pressure and lipids (secondary outcomes) were measured at baseline, 3-, 6-, 12-months of intervention period and 12-months after completion of the interventions. This trial is registered with the International Standard RCT Number Register, number ISRCTN76130594. Findings: The three intervention groups had more reductions in A1c than the control group, with 0·90% reduction in the health literacy, 0·83% in the exercise and 0·54% in the comprehensive group at 12-months (p<0·001) and these improvements remained even after a 1-year follow-up period post intervention. The risk of suboptimal A1c (≥7·0% or 53 mmol/mol) was also significantly lower in three intervention groups than control group at each follow-up visit, with adjusted risk ratios (RR) ranging from 0.06 to 0.16. However, the control group has greater reductions in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) than the health literacy group from baseline to 12-months (ß=0·55, p<0·0001) and from baseline to 24-months (ß=0·62, p<0·0001). A higher risk of abnormal LDL was also observed for the health literacy group at 12-months [adjusted risk ratio (RR): 2·22, 95%CI: 1·11-4·44] and 24-months [adjusted risk ratio (RR): 2·37, 95%CI: 1·16-4·87] compared to the control group. No significant benefits in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and low-density lipoprotein (HDL) were observed from the interventions compared to the usual care. Interpretation: The health literacy and exercise interventions result in significant improvements in A1c. However, no significant benefits in blood pressure and lipids control were observed. These effective interventions may have potential of scaling up in China and other countries to help diabetes patients manage their blood glucose levels. Funding: This Study was supported by the China Medical Board (CMB) Open Competition Project (No.13-159) and the Social Science Fund of China National Ministry of Education (No.14YJAZH092).

12.
J Diabetes ; 11(1): 55-64, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29893042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low birth weight (LBW) has been associated with subsequent risks of obesity and certain chronic diseases, but evidence for the associations is limited for the Chinese population. METHODS: In this study we analyzed data from two population-based prospective cohort studies, the Shanghai Women's Health Study and the Shanghai Men's Health Study, to examine the associations between LBW and the risk of obesity and chronic diseases. Birth weight was self-reported at baseline; anthropometric measurements were made at study enrollment. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) diagnoses were self-reported, whereas hypertension diagnoses were based on self-report and blood pressure measurements at baseline and follow-up surveys. RESULTS: Birth weight was available for 11 515 men and 13 569 women. Non-linear associations were observed for birth weight with baseline body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist: hip ratio (WHR), and waist: height ratio (WHtR; P < 0.05 for non-linearity), and LBW was linked with lower BMI, smaller WC, and larger WHR and WHtR. An excess risk of T2DM was observed for LBW (<2500 g) versus birth weight 2500-3499 g since baseline (hazard ratio [HR] 1.17; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.92-1.49) and since birth (HR 1.29; 95% CI 1.07-1.54), whereas the HRs for hypertension since baseline and birth were 1.13 (95% CI 1.01-1.27) and 1.20 (95% CI 1.11-1.30), respectively. The risk of the diseases decreased as birth weight increased up to ~4000 g; further increases in birth weight did not convey additional benefits. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that LBW, an index of poor intrauterine nutrition, may affect health risks later in life in the Chinese population.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , China , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hipertensão/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/etnologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
13.
Int J Epidemiol ; 47(6): 1887-1896, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30169796

RESUMO

Background: Epidemiological evidence on the association between tea consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is inconsistent. This study prospectively investigated whether green tea drinking affects the risk of T2D. Methods: This study included participants from the Shanghai Women's Health Study (N = 67 058) and the Shanghai Men's Health Study (N = 52 315) without diabetes at study enrolment. Details of tea consumption, including types and amounts, were collected at the baseline and follow-up survey. Incident T2D was identified through follow-up surveys. Plasma level of caffeine metabolite was measured in a nested case-control study involving 592 diabetes case-control pairs. Cox regression analysis, with tea drinking as a time-dependent variable and covariates adjusted for by a propensity score, was applied to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for T2D risk. Logistic regression analysis was applied to evaluate the association between caffeine metabolites and T2D risk. Results: Current green tea drinkers had an increased risk of T2D compared with non-current drinkers [HR = 1.20 (95% CI = 1.14-1.27)], and a dose-response relationship was observed for duration of drinking tea and the amount of tea consumed [P for trend <0.001]. The increased risk associated with green tea drinking was observed in both women and men, across the entire period of follow-up, with HR (95% CI) of 1.08 (0.97-1.19) within 5 years of follow-up, 1.22 (1.12-1.32) during the period of 5-10 years of follow-up and 1.16 (1.03-1.30) after 10 years of follow-up. This association did not vary significantly by body mass index, waist-to-hip circumference ratio or smoking status. Plasma level of caffeine was also associated with increased diabetes risk (P = 0.03), confirming the results based on self-reported tea drinking. Conclusions: Green tea drinking was associated with an increased risk of T2D in Chinese adults. The mechanisms underlying the association need to be elucidated.


Assuntos
Cafeína/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Chá/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
14.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 795, 2018 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30081866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity and diabetes are two risk factors for cancer. To evaluate the association of body mass index (BMI) with cancer risk in diabetic patients may improve current understanding of potential mechanisms. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in 51,004 newly diagnosed T2DM patients derived from an electronic health record (EHR) database of Minhang district in Shanghai, China. Incident cancer cases and all-cause deaths occurred before September 30, 2015 were identified by linking with the Shanghai Cancer Registry and the Shanghai Vital Statistics. To examine the potential non-linear and linear relationships of BMI and cancer risk, Cox proportional hazard models with and without restricted cubic spline functions were used, respectively. RESULTS: A non-linear association was observed between BMI and overall cancer incidence in men younger than 60 years old (p for non-linearity = 0.009). Compared with those having BMI of 25.0 kg/m2, the cancer risk increased in those with either lower or higher BMI. In women older than 60 years old, linear dose-response relationships were observed between BMI and the risk of both overall cancer and breast cancer. As each unit increase in BMI, the overall cancer risks elevated by 3% (95%CI: 1-5%) and the breast cancer risks increased by 7% (95%CI: 1-13%). No significant association was observed between BMI and other common cancer sites. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that the effect of BMI on cancer risk in Chinese patients with T2DM may vary by gender, age and cancer subtypes, suggesting different underlying biological mechanisms.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Nutrients ; 10(7)2018 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30037138

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies are inconclusive regarding the association between dietary fiber intake and endometrial cancer risk. Thus, we aimed to conduct a meta-analysis to clarify the association between dietary fiber and endometrial cancer risk. We searched the PubMed and ISI Web databases for relevant studies through March 2018. The association between dietary fiber and endometrial cancer risk was evaluated by conducting a meta-analysis including 3 cohort and 12 case⁻control studies. A significant negative association was observed between total dietary fiber intake and endometrial cancer risk in 11 case⁻control studies (odds ratios (OR) 0.76, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.64⁻0.89, I² = 35.2%, p = 0.117), but a marginal positive association was observed in three cohort studies (relative risk (RR) 1.22, 95% CI: 1.00⁻1.49, I² = 0.0%, p = 0.995). Particularly, a negative association was observed in North America (OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.59⁻0.83, I² = 8.9%, p = 0.362). In addition, a positive association was observed in cereal fiber (RR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.03⁻1.52, I² = 0.0%, p = 0.530, 3 cohort studies) and a negative association was observed in vegetable fiber (OR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.58⁻0.94, I² = 0.0%, p = 0.445, 3 case⁻control studies). In conclusion, negative associations with endometrial cancer risk were observed for higher total dietary fiber intake and higher vegetable fiber intake in the case⁻control studies. However, results from the cohort studies suggested positive relationships of higher total fiber intake and higher cereal fiber intake with endometrial cancer risk.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias do Endométrio/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias do Endométrio/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
17.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 39(3): 357-362, 2018 Mar 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29609254

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the effect of health literacy and exercise-focused interventions on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in China. Methods: In this cluster randomized controlled trial, a total of 799 T2DM patients with most recent hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥ 7.5% (or fasting plasma glucose level ≥10 mmol/L) were recruited from 8 communities in Minhang and Changning districts of Shanghai, and randomized into a health literacy intervention group, an exercise intervention group, a comprehensive intervention group and a control group. After baseline survey and examination, a one-year intervention and 3 times (at 3(rd), 6(th), and 12(th) month) follow-up surveys were conducted. Results: The follow-up rates for all the subjects were 99.4%, 98.4% and 95.2%, respectively, at 3(rd), 6(th) and 12(th) month. Patients in intervention groups were more likely to achieve a goal HbA1c level (HbA1c <7.0%) than those in control group, with the highest glycemic control rate (25.3%) observed in comprehensive intervention group at 3(rd) month and then in exercise intervention group (25.3% and 34.6%) respectively, at 6(th) month and 12(th) month. The average levels of HbA1c in three intervention groups were lower at each follow-up time point than those at baseline survey. However, the decreases in HbA1c were obvious only at 6(th) month (P<0.001), with ls-mean (95%CI) of -0.48% (-0.71%, -0.25%), -0.33% (-0.55%, -0.11%) and -0.70% (-0.92%, -0.48%), respectively, in comprehensive, health literacy and exercise intervention groups, but it increased slightly by 0.03% (-0.19%, 0.25%) in control group. Compared with control group, the interventions were significantly associated with the decrease of HbA1c level, with the most improvement observed in comprehensive group (ß=-0.47, 95% CI: -0.73, -0.20) at 3(rd) month, and in exercise intervention group at 6(th) month (ß=-0.73, 95%CI: -0.98, -0.47) and at 12(th) month (ß=-0.75, 95%CI: -1.05, -0.45) of follow-up. Stratified analyses showed that patients with lower health literacy level could benefit from any intervention, while those with higher numeracy skill benefited more from exercise intervention. Conclusion: Both health literacy and exercise-focused interventions may decrease HbA1c level in patients with T2DM, which would be helpful in reducing the risks of complications and deaths in diabetes patients.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Exercício Físico , Letramento em Saúde , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Glicemia/análise , China , Seguimentos , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Autocuidado , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Global Health ; 13(1): 91, 2017 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29262849

RESUMO

China and Japan share numerous similarities other than their geographical proximity. Facing the great challenges of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), China and Japan have developed different preventive strategies and systems. While Japan has made great progress in primary prevention of NCDs through strong legislation, the 'Specific Health Check and Guidance System' and a unique licensed health professional system, China is attempting to catch up by changing its strategies in NCDs control. In this manuscript, we compared disease burden of NCDs, health care systems and preventive strategies against NCDs between China and Japan. In this light, we summarized the points that the two countries can learn from each other, and proposed recommendations for the two countries in NCDs control.


Assuntos
Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia
19.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 6996, 2017 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28765555

RESUMO

Obesity has been well studied in relation to breast cancer survival. However, the associations of post-diagnosis obesity and late outcomes (≥5 years after diagnosis) have been much less studied. A total of 4062 5-year disease-free patients were recruited from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Survival Study, a longitudinal study of patients diagnosed during 2002-2006. Cox proportional hazard model with restricted cubic spline were used to evaluate the potential non-linear associations of post-diagnosis body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with late all-cause mortality and late recurrence. While no significant association was observed for post-diagnosis BMI or WHR with late recurrence; a U-shaped association was observed for the two measures with late all-cause death. Women with BMI of 25.0 kg/m2 or WHR of 0.83 were at the lowest risk of late all-cause mortality, whereas those with BMI beyond the range of 22.1-28.7 kg/m2 or WHR beyond the range of 0.81-0.86 had a higher risk. ER, stage or menopausal status did not modify the effect of post-diagnosis BMI or WHR on the outcomes. In conclusion, post-diagnosis BMI and WHR, as indicators of overall and central obesity respectively, were associated with late all-cause mortality in U-shaped pattern among long-term breast cancer survivors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Obesidade/complicações , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/mortalidade , Recidiva , Medição de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Relação Cintura-Quadril
20.
Onco Targets Ther ; 10: 1199-1206, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28280354

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal malignancies with a 5-year survival rate of <7%. Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) are often used to predict the outcome of the malignancy independently. However, the joint prognostic effect of the two tumor biomarkers has not been well determined. The study assessed the joint role of preoperative CA19-9 and CEA in the prognostic prediction of resectable PDAC in a large cohort of patients. The study enrolled 460 eligible patients who were ready to undergo surgery for PDAC. Restricted cubic spline and direct-adjusted survival curve revealed the nonlinear association between the biomarker levels and prognosis of patients. Combination of preoperative CA19-9 and CEA effectively improved the prognostic prediction. About 100 U/mL of CA19-9 and 10 µg/mL of CEA were revealed as potential assistant index for prognostic prediction in patients with resectable PDAC and may be used as one of the criteria to assess the resectability of PDAC.

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