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1.
Gen Physiol Biophys ; 39(1): 49-58, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32039824

RESUMO

As a naturally occurring flavone, luteolin has received much attention due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer functions. In the present study, we investigated the effect of luteolin on colonic motility and its mechanism using isometric muscle recording and the whole-cell patch-clamp technique in mice. Luteolin dose-dependently inhibited colonic smooth muscles motility and CMMC significantly. BayK8644, an L-type Ca2+ channel agonist, significantly attenuated the luteolin-induced inhibition. Moreover, the calcium currents recorded in colonic smooth muscle cells were dramatically inhibited by luteolin. However, no significant changes were found in the luteolin-induced inhibitory effect in the presence of TEA, a nonselective K+ channel blocker, glibenclamide, an ATP-dependent K+ channel blocker, and apamin, a small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel blocker. Additionally, luteolin did not affect potassium currents. Furthermore, TTX, a Na+ channel blocker, L-NAME, an inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthase, ODQ, an inhibitor of NO-sensitive guanylyl cyclase, and Ani9, a specific ANO1 channels blocker, had no effect on the luteolin-induced suppression. These results suggest that luteolin inhibited colonic smooth muscle motility by inhibiting L-type calcium channels in mice but not through potassium channels, the enteric nervous system (ENS), NO signaling pathways or ANO1 channels of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs).

2.
J Diabetes ; 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited data on efficacy of the additional metformin therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) under real-life conditions was available. METHODS: Patients aged ≥18 years and with the duration of T1D for at least 1 year were included in this multicenter and observational study. Patients with insulin combined with metformin therapy (MET group) were compared with those with insulin therapy only (INS group). RESULTS: A total of 76 patients in MET group were compared with 655 patients in INS group. At baseline, patients in MET group were more prevalent with dyslipidemia (17.6% vs 9.0%, P = 0.006) and had higher body mass index (BMI) [(21.7 ± 3.2) kg/m2 vs (20.4 ± 2.6) kg/m2 , P < 0.001] than those in INS group. But HbA1c and daily insulin dose had no significant difference between two groups. After 1-year's follow-up, HbA1c decreased in both groups, while the daily insulin dose deceased in MET group but had no change in INS group (-0.02 IU/kg (-0.16,0.09) vs 0 IU/kg (-0.09,0.09), P = 0.029). The additional metformin therapy led to no change of BMI and weight, while the body weight was increased from (53.7 ± 8.6) kg to (55.0 ± 7.9) kg in INS group (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Metformin was initiated more in T1D patients with dyslipidemia or higher BMI in current practice in China. The addition of metformin was effective in keeping weight and reducing the insulin dosage without improving of glycemic control in patients with T1D. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 137, 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054452

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important pathogens worldwide, especially for methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infection. However, few reports referred to patients' MRSA infections in Yunnan province, southwest China. METHODS: In this study, we selected representative MRSA strains from patients' systemic surveillance in Yunnan province of China, performed the genomic sequencing and compared their features, together with some food derived strains. RESULTS: Among sixty selective isolates, forty strains were isolated from patients, and twenty isolated from food. Among the patients' strains, sixteen were recognized as community-acquired (CA), compared with 24 for hospital-acquired (HA). ST6-t701, ST59-t437 and ST239-t030 were the three major genotype profiles. ST6-t701 was predominated in food strains, while ST59-t437 and ST239-t030 were the primary clones in patients. The clinical features between CA and HA-MRSA of patients were statistical different. Compared the antibiotic resistant results between patients and food indicated that higher antibiotic resistant rates were found in patients' strains. Totally, the average genome sizes of 60 isolates were 2.79 ± 0.05 Mbp, with GC content 33% and 84.50 ± 0.20% of coding rate. The core genomes of these isolates were 1593 genes. Phylogenetic analysis based on pan-genome and SNP of strains showed that five clustering groups were generated. Clustering ST239-t030 contained all the HA-MRSA cases in this study; clustering ST6-t701 referred to food and CA-MRSA infections in community; clustering ST59-t437 showed the heterogeneity for provoking different clinical diseases in both community and hospital. Phylogenetic tree, incorporating 24 isolates from different regions, indicated ST239-t030 strains in this study were more closely related to T0131 isolate from Tianjin, China, belonged to 'Turkish clade' from Eastern Europe; two groups of ST59-t437 clones of MRSA in Yunnan province were generated, belonged to the 'Asian-Pacific' clone (AP) and 'Taiwan' clone (TW) respectively. CONCLUSIONS: ST239-t030, ST59-t437 and ST6-t701 were the three major MRSA clones in Yunnan province of China. ST239-t030 clonal Yunnan isolates demonstrated the local endemic of clone establishment for a number of years, whereas ST59-t437 strains revealed the multi-origins of this clone. In general, genomic study on epidemic clones of MRSA in southwest China provided the features and evolution of this pathogen.

4.
Gene ; 737: 144411, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006596

RESUMO

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury nowadays. Herein, we uncovered the function and underlying mechanism of the lncRNA Rian in cerebral I/R injury. The oxygen-glucose deprivation model in N2a cells was offered to mimic cerebral I/R injury in vitro. Trypan blue staining, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and caspase-3 activity were used to evaluate cell apoptosis. Then, middle cerebral artery occlusion was conducted to evaluate the function of lncRNA Rian in mice. Real-time PCR and western blotting were performed to determine the expression of lncRNA Rian, miR-144-3p, GATA binding protein 3 (GATA3), caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2. The results showed that both Rian and GATA3 were downregulated, and miR-144-3p was upregulated in cerebral I/R injury in vitro and in vivo. Overexpression of Rian could inhibit the cell apoptosis induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation. Furthermore, overexpression of Rian distinctly reduced the infarct size, and it also improved the neurological score. Overexpression of Rian could abolish miR-144-3p-mediated I/R injury in vitro and in vivo. Besides, GATA3 was the target of miR-144-3p and GATA3 could be regulated co-operatively by miR-144-3p and Rian. Consequently, these findings showed that the Rian/miR-144-3p/GATA3 axis is an essential signaling in cerebral I/R injury. The lncRNA Rian may serve as a potential target for novel treatment in patients with ischemic stroke.

5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; : 112660, 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061912

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cardiac hypertrophy is a key pathologic process in heart failure. Songling Xuemaikang Capsule (SXC), is a formulae of Chinese Medicine commonly used in China to treat hypertension and heart failure. However, its mechanism of effects on cardiac hypertrophy is still unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aims of the present study were to investigate the cardio-protection roles and detailed mechanisms of SXC on cardiac hypertrophy in vivo and in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A rat model of cardiac hypertrophy was constructed by isoproterenol (ISO) intraperitoneal injection (i.p), 10 mg/kg/day for 3 days, and 4 groups were compared: CON (n = 8), ISO (n = 8), MET (metoprolol, positive drug treatment, n = 7), and SXC (SXC treatment, n = 6). Cardiac structure and function were evaluated with echocardiography in vivo. Dose-dependent curve was obtained with SXC different concentrations. In addition, H9C2 rat cardiomyocytes were cultured in vitro and the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38, JNK, AKT, and protein expression of CaN, CaMKIIδ, GATA4 were detected with Western blot test. RESULTS: The results showed that SXC reduced diastolic thickness of left ventricular posterior wall, while did not change ejection fraction and fraction shortening significantly (P > 0.05). SXC inhibit ISO-induced cardiac hypertrophy dose-dependently with 50% inhibiting concentration (IC50) is 0.504 g/kg/day. Moreover, SXC inhibited the protein expression of CaMKIIδ, and the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, so inhibiting protein expression of GATA4 in nucleus, and brain natriuretic peptide in serum (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The mechanism of SXC in the treatment of heart diseases involves SXC dose-dependently inhibited the ISO-induced cardiac hypertrophy via inhibiting CaMKIIδ and ERK1/2/GATA4 signaling pathway.

6.
Bioresour Technol ; 303: 122940, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044649

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate algal growth, lipid production, and nutrient removal in chicken farm flushing wastewater (CFFW). The excessive ammonia nitrogen (EAN) content in the CFFW wastewater represented a major factor limiting the algal growth. A strategy of mixing CFFW with municipal wastewater (MW) that contained less ammonia nitrogen was adopted. The results showed that the mixed wastewaters reduced ammonia nitrogen content, balanced nutrient profile, and promoted biomass production. The residual nutrients in mixed wastewaters were significantly reduced due to the algal absorption. Furthermore, alga grown on mixed wastewaters accumulated a higher level of total lipids and monounsaturated fatty acids that can be used for biodiesel production. The key issue of low biomass yield of algal grown on CFFW due to the inhibition of EAN was efficiently resolved by mitigating limiting factor to algal growth basing on mixing strategy, and accordingly the nutrients in the wastewater were significantly removed.

7.
Food Chem ; 316: 126303, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045813

RESUMO

As the accumulation of mercury ions has a detrimental impact on human health, the design and development of a new type of biosensor that can rapidly, sensitively and selectively detect Hg2+ in aqueous solutions are essential. In this study, we have developed an exonuclease III (ExoIII) and Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) dependent isothermal amplification (ETDA) colorimetric biosensor. The template sequence is a hairpin where -NH2 is labeled at the 3'-end and both termini are T-rich sequences. In the presence of Hg2+, the template formed a blunt end, and the catalytic activity of ExoIII was activated with cleavage of the -NH2 at the 3'-end. TdT enzyme activity was initiated with the formation of a large number of G-rich nucleic acid sequences. G-rich sequences incubated with iron (III)-hemin mimicked peroxidase-like activity, catalyzing the oxidation of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) in the presence of H2O2. The biosensor constructed in this paper had a good linear range, 1-25 nmol/L. Its detection limit was 0.41 nmol/L (3σ), and recovery rates were between 100.5% and 103%. In conclusion, combined with the colorimetric biosensor and double enzyme cyclic amplification reaction, an ultra-sensitivity and strong specificity detection method was developed to detect Hg2+. At the same time, this method also expands the detection method of Hg2+ available in the literature.

9.
Nanoscale ; 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022069

RESUMO

9-Nitro-20(S)-camptothecin (9-NC) is a broad-spectrum antitumor drug used in tumor treatments, but its clinical applications and antitumor efficacy are limited by its structural instability, poor solubility, and extremely low drug utilization in tumor tissues. In this study, enzyme-sensitive nuclear-targeted dual-functional polymeric micelles were developed for 9-NC delivery with a high drug loading content (12.93 ± 0.88%), steady-state circulation, and a rapid attack at the "heart" of tumor cells. Briefly, chrysin (CHR) as a π-conjugated moiety was immobilized on the PCL terminal in the TAT-PCL amphiphiles and combined with the ALAL peptide as a linker on HA chains to yield the ultimate CHR-PCL-TAT-ALAL-HA (HATPC) amphiphiles. Spherical 9-NC-loaded micelles were obtained from the self-assembly of the dual-functional amphiphiles comprising HATPC and 9-NC with uniform nanosize (121.6 ± 5.79 nm), well-distributed morphology (PDI: 0.256), and negative surface charge (-23.2 ± 0.5 mV), yielding high stability during blood circulation. In this drug delivery system, HA acts as an active tumor-targeting instrument via CD44-receptor-mediated endocytosis; further, the ALAL peptide could be cutoff in the lysosomes of the tumor cells due to the high expression of cathepsin B, leading to lysosomal escape, while the secondary polymeric micelles targeted the tumor cell nucleus via the exposed TAT peptide. The enzyme sensitivity and nuclei targetability of the 9-NC/HATPC micelles were confirmed by dynamic light scattering and confocal laser scanning microscopy analyses. As compared to free 9-NC and traditional mPEG2k-PCL2k polymeric micelles, 9-NC/HATPC micelles were the most concentrated in the tumor cell nucleus; therefore, they exhibited the highest cytotoxicity against SKOV3 tumor cells both in vitro (IC50 = 0.03 µg mL-1) and in vivo. This enzyme-sensitive nuclear-targeted dual-functional drug delivery system involving HATPC provided a new and promising strategy for enhanced 9-NC delivery and antitumor efficacy.

10.
J Nat Prod ; 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031812

RESUMO

Eight new dammarane-type triterpenoids (1-8), together with a related known analogue (9), were isolated from the roots of Rhus chinensis, a traditional Chinese medicine for treating coronary artery heart disease, guided by LC-MS analysis. Their structures were elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic analysis and quantum chemical calculations. Notably, compounds 1-7 and 9 possess an unusual 17α-side chain, and 1-4, 6, and 9 contain an uncommon 3-methyl-5,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-2-one moiety in the side chain. Compounds 1-5 and 9 have a 3,19-hemiketal bridge in the A ring. In an in vivo bioassay, 1, 2, and 4-6 exhibited significant preventive effects on zebrafish heart failure at 0.5 µg/mL, improving heart dilatation, venous congestion, cardiac output, blood flow velocity, and heart rate. Compound 5, displaying the most promising heart failure preventive activities, showed even better effects on increasing cardiac output (72%) and blood flow velocity (83%) than six first-line heart failure therapeutic drugs. Moreover, 1, 2, and 6 prevented the formation of thrombosis in zebrafish at 0.5 µg/mL. The present investigation suggests that the new dammarane triterpenoids might be partially responsible for the utility of R. chinensis in treating coronary artery heart disease.

11.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043505

RESUMO

A new atomic structure of chiral thiolate-protected gold nanocluster Au22(SR)17- is predicted on the basis of the new ligand-binding strategy, namely, redistributing the Au-S "staple" motifs on the well-known Au10 core from previously laboratory-determined Au21(SR)15 crystal structure. Density functional theory calculations show that this structure is very likely the realistic structure for the synthesized Au22(SR)17-.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011796

RESUMO

Aggregation-induced emission (AIE) provides an efficient strategy to synthesize highly luminescent metal nanoclusters (NCs), however, rational control of emission energy and intensity of metal NCs is still challenging. This communication reveals the impact of surface Au(I)-thiolate motifs on the AIE properties of Au NCs, by employing a series of water-soluble glutathione (GSH)-coordinated Au complexes and NCs as a model (i.e., [Au10SR10], [Au15SR13], [Au18SR14], and [Au25SR18]-, where SR denotes thiolate ligand). Detailed spectroscopic investigations manifest that the emission wavelength of Au NCs is adjustable in a broad spectrum from visible to near-infrared II (NIR-II) regime by controlling the length of the Au(I)-SR motifs on NC surface. More interestingly, reducing the length of Au(I)-SR motifs also changes the origin of cluster luminescence from AIE-type phosphorescence to Au(0)-core-dictated fluorescence. This effect becomes more prominent when the degree of aggregation of Au NCs increases in solution. The findings revealed in this study not only provide fundamental insights into the emission origin of metal NCs, but also offer guiding principles in rational design of luminescent metal NCs.

13.
Cell Host Microbe ; 27(1): 115-128.e8, 2020 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917956

RESUMO

Antiviral immunity in insects is mediated by the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. Viruses evade antiviral RNAi by expressing virulence factors known as viral suppressors of RNAi (VSR). Here, we report the identification of VINR, a Drosophila VSR-interacting long non-coding (lnc) RNA that activates non-canonical innate immune signaling upon detection of the dsRNA-binding VSR of Drosophila C virus (DCV). VINR is required for the induction of antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes but dispensable for antiviral RNAi. VINR functions by preventing the ubiquitin proteasome-dependent degradation of Cactin, a coiled-coil and arginine-serine-rich domain-containing protein that regulates a non-cannonical antimicrobial pathway for AMP induction. CRISPR-Cas9 knockout of VINR in Drosophila cells enhances DCV replication independently of antiviral RNAi, and VINR-knockout adult flies exhibit enhanced disease susceptibility to DCV and bacteria. Our findings reveal a counter counter-defense strategy activated by a lncRNA in response to the viral suppression of the primary antiviral RNAi immunity.

14.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 145(2): 382e-390e, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine what craniometric changes occur to both orbits of unicoronal craniosynostosis patients undergoing fronto-orbital advancement and remodeling, and which of these changes are associated with new onset of postoperative strabismus. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed of the preoperative and postoperative orbits of 24 unicoronal craniosynostosis patients and the orbits of 24 control subjects, totaling 144 orbits. Eight parameters were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. One of the parameters was modified orbital index, an indicator of severity of harlequin deformity. RESULTS: Significant differences in orbital dimensions and angles were present bilaterally in unicoronal craniosynostosis orbits when compared to controls. Fronto-orbital advancement and remodeling increased the ipsilateral unicoronal craniosynostosis orbital volume from 13,184 ± 2003 mm to 16,220 ± 2323 mm (p < 0.001). Ipsilateral horizontal cone angles were increased from 48 ± 5 degrees to 54 ± 7 degrees (p = 0.004). Ipsilateral vertical cone angles were decreased from 73 ± 8 degrees to 66 ± 10 degrees (p = 0.003). Ipsilateral modified orbital index improved from 0.83 ± 0.06 to 0.88 ± 0.06 (p = 0.003). Three of the 19 unicoronal craniosynostosis patients developed transient postoperative strabismus. Logistic regression analysis displayed a strong significant association between new-onset strabismus and a change in modified orbital index with a coefficient of 30.84 ± 14.51 (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The orbital dysmorphology in unicoronal craniosynostosis is bilateral in nature, and it is not wholly treated with conventional fronto-orbital advancement and remodeling. The severity of ipsilateral orbital dysmorphology is correlated with the incidence of postoperative strabismus following conventional fronto-orbital advancement and remodeling. Future research is needed to develop strategies to mitigate the risk of development of strabismus in this group of patients. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Risk, III.


Assuntos
Craniossinostoses/complicações , Osso Frontal/cirurgia , Órbita/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Estrabismo/etiologia , Estrabismo/cirurgia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Órbita/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estrabismo/patologia
15.
Eur J Cancer ; 127: 1-11, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31962197

RESUMO

Although immune checkpoint inhibitors have become the standard of care for many tumours, the majority of patients fail to achieve sustained benefit, often owing to the lack of a T-cell inflamed tumour microenvironment (TME). Directly injected intratumoural therapies present a potential strategy to induce T-cell inflammation and convert a 'cold' immune-inert TME into a 'hot' immune-inflamed TME. Various approaches including chemoablation, oncolytic viral therapy, cytokines and agents targeting innate immunity such as Toll-like receptor agonists and stimulator of interferon genes agonists are in clinical development. Thus far, melanoma has led the way in intratumoural drug development owing to its relative immunogenicity and propensity for cutaneous metastasis easily amenable to injections. However, intratumoural therapies are moving to other tumour types and advances in endoscopic and interventional radiological techniques are allowing these agents to be injected into visceral lesions. This review provides an overview of the current status of intratumoural therapies in oncology, as well as future directions regarding therapeutic niches and appropriate trial design for intratumoural agents.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931332

RESUMO

A rapid, simple, and generic analytical method that could simultaneously determine 291 undesirable low molecular weight chemical contaminants from different drug families in protein powder, such as veterinary drugs and pesticides, etc, had been developed. This method comprised the extraction with acetonitrile-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), clean-up through dispersive solid phase extraction (D-SPE) and low temperature filtration, and analysis by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry at multiple-reaction monitoring mode. Acetonitrile-DMSO was more generic than acetonitrile or methanol for the extraction of large-scale organic chemical contaminants with different polarities in protein powder. Most interferences in the extract were eliminated by the combination of D-SPE and low temperature filtration, which simultaneously provided satisfactory recoveries of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic analytes. In particular, besides the purification function, the sorbent of D-SPE also played an important role in grinding samples to improve extraction efficiency during homogenization. This streamlined approach allowed the processes of extraction and the main purification were carried out in one-step, and dramatically reduced sample preparation turnaround times and solvent consumption. For quantification, matrix-fortified calibration curves showed competent linearity for most of the target compounds with linear regression coefficients (r) higher than 0.9900, except for two analytes. The limits of quantification ranged from 0.1 µg/kg to 50 µg/kg, which was usually sufficient to verify the compliance of products with legal tolerances. The average recoveries for spiked protein powder ranged from 65.6% to 142.2% with associated RSD values between 0.5% and 28.5%. For over 90% of the analytes, the recoveries were between 70% and 120% with RSD values in the range of 1%-15%. Applying this method in routine monitoring programs would drastically reduce both effort and time.

17.
Sleep Breath ; 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31938990

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop an automated framework for sleep stage scoring from PSG via a deep neural network. METHODS: An automated deep neural network was proposed by using a multi-model integration strategy with multiple signal channels as input. All of the data were collected from one single medical center from July 2017 to April 2019. Model performance was evaluated by overall classification accuracy, precision, recall, weighted F1 score, and Cohen's Kappa. RESULTS: Two hundred ninety-four sleep studies were included in this study; 122 composed the training dataset, 20 composed the validation dataset, and 152 were used in the testing dataset. The network achieved human-level annotation performance with an average accuracy of 0.8181, weighted F1 score of 0.8150, and Cohen's Kappa of 0.7276. Top-2 accuracy (the proportion of test samples for which the true label is among the two most probable labels given by the model) was significantly improved compared to the overall classification accuracy, with the average being 0.9602. The number of arousals affected the model's performance. CONCLUSION: This research provides a robust and reliable model with the inter-rater agreement nearing that of human experts. Determining the most appropriate evaluation parameters for sleep staging is a direction for future research.

18.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(2): 536-540, 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31903767

RESUMO

A fundamental understanding of the structural growth of thiolate-protected gold nanoclusters not only benefits experimental synthesis but also will advance the methodology for structural predictions and for rational design of highly stable nanoclusters. Herein, we report numerous new structures (11 total) of thiolate-protected gold nanoclusters predicted from theoretical modulation of the double-helical cores of experimentally determined nanoclusters. Among these newly predicted structures, Au32(SR)22, Au40(SR)26, and Au48(SR)30 are obtained by adding a defective layer containing 4 gold atoms on a structural sequence of experimentally crystallized nanoclusters, namely, Au28(SR)20, Au36(SR)24, and Au44(SR)28. The generic growth pattern underlying this sequence of nanoclusters can be viewed as adding the highly stable tetrahedral Au4 unit on the double-helical cores. Likewise, the other eight newly predicted structures, including two groups of isomeric structures corresponding to the sequence of experimentally determined Au28(SR)20, Au36(SR)24, Au44(SR)28, and Au52(SR)32 nanoclusters, are successfully predicted. Density functional theory calculations show that these 11 newly predicted nanoclusters exhibit large highest occupied molecular orbital-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital gaps and all-positive harmonic vibrational frequencies, suggesting their high chemical stabilities. Additional analyses on the structures and properties suggest that these newly predicted nanoclusters are very likely to be synthesized in the laboratory. Confirmation by experiments would validate the new strategy for structural prediction of thiolate-protected gold nanoclusters by taking advantage of a large structure database of crystallized ligand-protected gold nanoclusters with a variety of gold cores.

19.
mSphere ; 5(1)2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915228

RESUMO

The cell wall-targeting echinocandin antifungals, although potent and well tolerated, are inadequate in treating fungal infections due to their narrow spectrum of activity and their propensity to induce pathogen resistance. A promising strategy to overcome these drawbacks is to combine echinocandins with a molecule that improves their activity and also disrupts drug adaptation pathways. In this study, we show that puupehenone (PUUP), a marine-sponge-derived sesquiterpene quinone, potentiates the echinocandin drug caspofungin (CAS) in CAS-resistant fungal pathogens. We have conducted RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis, followed by genetic and molecular studies, to elucidate PUUP's CAS-potentiating mechanism. We found that the combination of CAS and PUUP blocked the induction of CAS-responding genes required for the adaptation to cell wall stress through the cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway. Further analysis showed that PUUP inhibited the activation of Slt2 (Mpk1), the terminal mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in this pathway. We also found that PUUP induced heat shock response genes and inhibited the activity of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90). Molecular docking studies predicted that PUUP occupies a binding site on Hsp90 required for the interaction between Hsp90 and its cochaperone Cdc37. Thus, we show that PUUP potentiates CAS activity by a previously undescribed mechanism which involves a disruption of Hsp90 activity and the CWI pathway. Given the requirement of the Hsp90-Cdc37 complex in Slt2 activation, we suggest that inhibitors of this complex would disrupt the CWI pathway and synergize with echinocandins. Therefore, the identification of PUUP's CAS-potentiating mechanism has important implications in the development of new antifungal combination therapies.IMPORTANCE Fungal infections cause more fatalities worldwide each year than malaria or tuberculosis. Currently available antifungal drugs have various limitations, including host toxicity, narrow spectrum of activity, and pathogen resistance. Combining these drugs with small molecules that can overcome these limitations is a useful strategy for extending their clinical use. We have investigated the molecular mechanism by which a marine-derived compound potentiates the activity of the antifungal echinocandin caspofungin. Our findings revealed a mechanism, different from previously reported caspofungin potentiators, in which potentiation is achieved by the disruption of Hsp90 activity and signaling through the cell wall integrity pathway, processes that play important roles in the adaptation to caspofungin in fungal pathogens. Given the importance of stress adaptation in the development of echinocandin resistance, this work will serve as a starting point in the development of new combination therapies that will likely be more effective and less prone to pathogen resistance.

20.
BMC Geriatr ; 20(1): 9, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that poor sleep quality or abnormal sleep duration may be associated with frailty. Here we test the associations of sleep disturbances with both frailty and pre-frailty in an elderly population. METHODS: Participants included 1726 community-dwelling elders aged 70-87 years. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to assess sleep disturbances. Frailty was defined using phenotype criteria. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratio of the associations. RESULTS: The average PSQI score was 5.4 (SD, 3.1). Overall 43.6% of the participants had poor sleep quality (PSQI> 5), 8.2% had night sleep time ≤ 5 h, and 27.8% had night sleep time ≥ 9 h. The prevalence of frailty and pre-frailty was 9.2 and 52.8%, respectively. The proportions of PSQI> 5 increased with the severity of frailty status (robust: pre-frail: frail, 34.5%: 48%: 56.1%, P < 0.001). After adjustment for multiple potential confounders, poor sleep quality (PSQI> 5) was associated with higher odds of frailty (OR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.19-2.66) and pre-frailty (OR = 1.51, 95% CI 1.20-1.90). Sleep latency, sleep disturbance, and daytime dysfunction components of PSQI measurements were also associated with frailty and pre-frailty. In addition, sleep time 9 h/night was associated with higher odds of frailty and pre-frailty. CONCLUSIONS: We provided preliminary evidences that poor sleep quality and prolonged sleep duration were associated with being frailty and pre-frailty in an elderly population aged 70-87 years. The associations need to be validated in other elderly populations.

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