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1.
Food Chem ; 398: 133913, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35964560

RESUMO

This experiment investigated the underlying mechanism of ultrasonic-assisted stewing to enhance the aroma intensity of chicken broth by measuring fat content, oil droplet sizes, zeta potential, viscosity, surface protein loading, lipid oxidation, and aroma compound concentrations. As the thermo-ultrasound time increased, the fat content increased from 0.3 % to 1.2 %, resulting in a milky white appearance. After 1 h of thermo-ultrasound, the broth had the smallest particle size and the highest surface protein load, viscosity, and emulsion stability, as well as the highest total amount of aroma-active compounds of 314.70 ng/mg. With the further extension of thermo-ultrasound time, lipid oxidation increased, but the stability of chicken broth decreased, lowering the content of aroma-active compounds. These outcomes suggested that thermo-ultrasound could enhance the aroma intensity of chicken broth by increasing the fat content and the emulsion stability of the broth.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Odorantes , Animais , Emulsões/química , Lipídeos , Proteínas de Membrana , Odorantes/análise , Ultrassom
2.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 27(10): 296, 2022 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36336865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) is a key part of the apoptotic cascade that is initiated after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury and is very important for research on poststroke rehabilitation. In addition, the unfolded protein response (UPR) plays an important role in ERS because it activates downstream apoptotic signal transduction and induces apoptosis through the glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78)/protein kinase R (PKR)-like ER kinase (PERK)/activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) pathway. The Gua Lou Gui Zhi Decoction (GLGZD) ameliorated neuronal apoptosis of ischemia-reperfusion injury caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) had been proved in our previous study. The present study aims to underly the regulatory ability of GLGZD in ERS-induced apoptosis mediated by the GRP78/PERK/ATF4 pathway. METHODS: GLGZD was analyzed by HPLC. The effects of GLGZD were obversed on MCAO-induced ischemic rats. The cerebral infarct volume was detected by 2,3,5-Triphenyl-2H-Tetrazolium Chloride (TTC) Staining. Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase-Mediated dUTP-Biotin Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) were used to detect apoptosis. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Ca2+ levels and reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection were used to determine the function of endoplasmic reticulum. The GRP78/PERK/ATF4 signaling pathway was assessed by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Our results showed that GLGZD exerted its effects on ischemia-reperfusion injury by significantly promoting the restoration of the quantity and morphology of the rough ER and reducing the neuronal apoptosis rate in the ischemic cortex. Moreover, both of the intracellular ROS and Ca2+ levels in ischemic cortical cells were found significantly reduced by GLGZD. The GLGZD-treated group showed increased levels of phosphorylation in both of PERK and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), activation of cysteinyl aspartate-specific proteinase-3 (Caspase-3), upregulation of the total protein levels of sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic Ca2+ ATPase 2α (SERCA 2α) and B-cell leukemia/lymphoma gene 2 (Bcl-2). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that GLGZD reduces oxidative stress-induced injury and promotes a dynamic calcium balance, thereby inhibiting ERS and exerting an antiapoptotic effect on neuronal ischemic injury, which are closely related to the activation of GRP78/PERK/ATF4 signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Traumatismo por Reperfusão , Animais , Ratos , Fator 4 Ativador da Transcrição/genética , Fator 4 Ativador da Transcrição/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Cálcio , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Apoptose
3.
Front Surg ; 9: 945013, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36338619

RESUMO

Background: There is no consensus on the best surgery option for thumb carpometacarpal osteoarthritis (CMC OA). The traditional method has the risk of large trauma, obvious metacarpal subsidence, and decreased stability. The aim of this study is to introduce a different technique to restore the function and stability of the first carpal metacarpal joint with minimal trauma, rapid pain relief, reduced complications, and the clinical outcomes in the long-term follow-up was evaluated and statistically analyzed. Methods: This was a retrospective study of 10 patients with a mean age of 51.8 years. The surgery consisted of removing partial trapezium through arthroscopy, reconstructing the stability with flexor carpi radialis suspension and tendon interposition. The subjective assessment included visual analog scale (VAS) of pain, quick disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand (Quick-DASH) score, and patient satisfaction. The range of motion, grip strength, pinch strength, and radiographic assessment, which can reflect stability of the thumb, were objectively evaluated and statistically analyzed. Results: Ten patients were monitored at a mean follow-up of 6.8 years. The mean grip strength improved significantly from 16.64 to 22.57 kg after surgery. Pinch strength improved significantly from 3.72 to 5.71 kg on average. The Kapandji score improved significantly from 5.7 to 8.6 on average. 80% (8/10) of the patients were satisfied with this surgery. On objective indicators, the VAS score decreased significantly from 6.4 to 1.3 on average. The mean Quick-DASH score improved significantly from 6.1 to 28.9. Postoperative x-ray showed slight subsidence and dislocation of the first metacarpal in two patients and did not affect the function by measurement. Conclusion: Arthroscopy-assisted partial trapezium resection combined with ligament reconstruction could be a workable and promising surgical technique in patients with thumb CMC OA. It can offer the advantages of minimizing surgical injury by preserving the first carpal metacarpal joint capsule to protect its stability, with a rapid pain relief, function improvement, and satisfactory results in patients' clinical measurements.

4.
Front Pediatr ; 10: 970646, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36340734

RESUMO

Objective: We aimed to construct and validate machine learning models for endotracheal tube (ETT) size prediction in pediatric patients. Methods: Data of 990 pediatric patients underwent endotracheal intubation were retrospectively collected between November 2019 and October 2021, and separated into cuffed and uncuffed endotracheal tube subgroups. Six machine learning algorithms, including support vector regression (SVR), logistic regression (LR), random forest (RF), gradient boosting tree (GBR), decision tree (DTR) and extreme gradient boosting tree (XGBR), were selected to construct and validate models using ten-fold cross validation in training set. The optimal models were selected, and the performance were compared with traditional predictive formulas and clinicians. Furthermore, additional data of 71 pediatric patients were collected to perform external validation. Results: The optimal 7 uncuffed and 5 cuffed variables were screened out by feature selecting. The RF models had the best performance with minimizing prediction error for both uncuffed ETT size (MAE = 0.275 mm and RMSE = 0.349 mm) and cuffed ETT size (MAE = 0.243 mm and RMSE = 0.310 mm). The RF models were also superior in predicting power than formulas in both uncuffed and cuffed ETT size prediction. In addition, the RF models performed slightly better than senior clinicians, while they significantly outperformed junior clinicians. Based on SVR models, we proposed 3 novel linear formulas for uncuffed and cuffed ETT size respectively. Conclusion: We have developed machine learning models with excellent performance in predicting optimal ETT size in both cuffed and uncuffed endotracheal intubation in pediatric patients, which provides powerful decision support for clinicians to select proper ETT size. Novel formulas proposed based on machine learning models also have relatively better predictive performance. These models and formulas can serve as important clinical references for clinicians, especially for performers with rare experience or in remote areas.

5.
Nat Sci Sleep ; 14: 2033-2045, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36394068

RESUMO

Purpose: This study aimed to propose a novel deep-learning method for automatic sleep apneic event detection and thus to estimate the apnea hypopnea index (AHI) and identify obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in an event-by-event manner solely based on sleep sounds obtained by a noncontact audio recorder. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of participants with habitual snoring or heavy breathing sounds during sleep to train and test a deep convolutional neural network named OSAnet for the detection of OSA based on sleep sounds. Polysomnography (PSG) was conducted, and sleep sounds were recorded simultaneously in a regular room without noise attenuation. The study was conducted in two phases. In phase one, eligible participants were enrolled and randomly allocated into training and validation groups for deep learning algorithm development. In phase two, eligible patients were enrolled in a test group for algorithm assessment. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, unweighted Cohen kappa coefficient (κ) and the area under the curve (AUC) were calculated using PSG as the reference standard. Results: A total of 135 participants were randomly divided into a training group (n, 116) and a validation group (n, 19). An independent test group of 59 participants was subsequently enrolled. Our algorithm achieved a precision of 0.81 and sensitivity of 0.78 in the test group for overall sleep event detection. The algorithm exhibited robust diagnostic performance to identify severe cases with a sensitivity of 95.6% and specificity of 91.6%. Conclusion: Our results showed that a deep learning algorithm based on sleep sounds recorded by a noncontact voice recorder served as a feasible tool for apneic event detection and OSA identification. This technique may hold promise for OSA assessment in the community in a relatively comfortable and low-cost manner. Further studies to develop a tool based on a home-based setting are warranted.

6.
Cancer Med ; 2022 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36426411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glucose metabolism disorder is a common feature in cancer. Cancer cells generate much energy through anaerobic glycolysis, which promote the development of tumors. However, long non-coding RNA may play an important role in this process. Our aim is to explore a prognostic risk model based on the glucose metabolism-related lncRNAs which provides clues that lncRNAs predict a clinical outcome through glucose metabolism in breast cancer. METHODS: 1222 RNA-seq were extracted from the TCGA database, and 74 glucose metabolism-related genes were loaded from the GSEA website. Then, 7 glucose metabolism-related lncRNAs risk score model was developed by univariate, Lasso, and multivariate regression analysis. The lncRNA risk model showed that high-risk patients predict a poor clinical outcome with high reliability (P=2.838×10-6). Univariate and multivariate independent prognostic analysis and ROC curve analysis proved that the risk score was an independent prognostic factor in breast cancer with an AUC value of 0.652. Finally, Gene set enrichment analysis showed that cell cycle-related pathways were significantly enriched in a high-risk group. RESULTS: Our results showed that glucose metabolism-related lncRNAs can affect breast cancer progression. 7 glucose metabolism-related lncRNAs prognostic signature was established to evaluate the OS of patients with breast cancer. PICSAR, LINC00839, AP001505.1, LINC00393 were risk factors and expressed highly in the high-risk group. A Nomogram was made based on this signature to judge patients' living conditions and prognosis. CONCLUSION: 7 glucose metabolism-related lncRNAs risk score model had a high prognostic value in breast cancer. PICSAR, LINC00839, AP001505.1, LINC00393 were risk factors. AP001505.1 expression was increased in most triple-negative breast cancer cells treated with high glucose, which may also take part in breast cancer progression and potential therapeutic targets.

7.
Eur Radiol ; 2022 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36418619

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To establish a breast lesion risk stratification system using ultrasound images to predict breast malignancy and assess Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) categories simultaneously. METHODS: This multicenter study prospectively collected a dataset of ultrasound images for 5012 patients at thirty-two hospitals from December 2018 to December 2020. A deep learning (DL) model was developed to conduct binary categorization (benign and malignant) and BI-RADS categories (2, 3, 4a, 4b, 4c, and 5) simultaneously. The training set of 4212 patients and the internal test set of 416 patients were from thirty hospitals. The remaining two hospitals with 384 patients were used as an external test set. Three experienced radiologists performed a reader study on 324 patients randomly selected from the test sets. We compared the performance of the DL model with that of three radiologists and the consensus of the three radiologists. RESULTS: In the external test set, the DL model achieved areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCs) of 0.980 and 0.945 for the binary categorization and six-way categorizations, respectively. In the reader study set, the DL BI-RADS categories achieved a similar AUC (0.901 vs. 0.933, p = 0.0632), sensitivity (90.98% vs. 95.90%, p = 0.1094), and accuracy (83.33% vs. 79.01%, p = 0.0541), but higher specificity (78.71% vs. 68.81%, p = 0.0012) than those of the consensus of the three radiologists. CONCLUSIONS: The DL model performed well in distinguishing benign from malignant breast lesions and yielded outcomes similar to experienced radiologists. This indicates the potential applicability of the DL model in clinical diagnosis. KEY POINTS: • The DL model can achieve binary categorization for benign and malignant breast lesions and six-way BI-RADS categorizations for categories 2, 3, 4a, 4b, 4c, and 5, simultaneously. • The DL model showed acceptable agreement with radiologists for the classification of breast lesions. • The DL model performed well in distinguishing benign from malignant breast lesions and had promise in helping reduce unnecessary biopsies of BI-RADS 4a lesions.

8.
Neurosci Bull ; 2022 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36422797

RESUMO

Cortical interneurons can be categorized into distinct populations based on multiple modalities, including molecular signatures and morpho-electrical (M/E) properties. Recently, many transcriptomic signatures based on single-cell RNA-seq have been identified in cortical interneurons. However, whether different interneuron populations defined by transcriptomic signature expressions correspond to distinct M/E subtypes is still unknown. Here, we applied the Patch-PCR approach to simultaneously obtain the M/E properties and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of >600 interneurons in layer V of the mouse somatosensory cortex (S1). Subsequently, we identified 11 M/E subtypes, 9 neurochemical cell populations (NCs), and 20 transcriptomic cell populations (TCs) in this cortical lamina. Further analysis revealed that cells in many NCs and TCs comprised several M/E types and were difficult to clearly distinguish morpho-electrically. A similar analysis of layer V interneurons of mouse primary visual cortex (V1) and motor cortex (M1) gave results largely comparable to S1. Comparison between S1, V1, and M1 suggested that, compared to V1, S1 interneurons were morpho-electrically more similar to M1. Our study reveals the presence of substantial M/E variations in cortical interneuron populations defined by molecular expression.

9.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 851, 2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36401193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kangaroo mother care (KMC) is an evidence-based intervention that reduces morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. However, it has not yet been fully integrated into health systems around the world. The aim of this study is to provide a cogent summary of the evidence base of the key barriers and facilitators to implementing KMC. METHODS: An umbrella review of existing reviews on KMC was adopted to identify systematic and scoping reviews that analysed data from primary studies. Electronic English databases, including PubMed, Embase, CINAHL and Cochrane Library, and three Chinese databases were searched from inception to 1 July 2022. Studies were included if they performed a review of barriers and facilitators to KMC. Quality assessment of the retrieved reviews was performed by at least two reviewers independently using the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) critical appraisal checklist and risk of bias was assessed with the Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for Systematic Reviews (ROBIS) tool. This umbrella review protocol was documented in the PROSPERO registry (CRD42022327994). RESULTS: We generated 531 studies, and after the removal of duplicates and ineligible studies, six eligible reviews were included in the analysis. The five themes identified were environmental factors, professional factors, parent/family factors, access factors, and cultural factors, and the factors under each theme were divided into barriers or facilitators depending on the specific features of a given scenario. CONCLUSIONS: Support from facility management and leadership and well-trained medical staff are of great significance to the successful integration of KMC into daily medical practice, while the parents of preterm infants and other family members should be educated and encouraged in KMC practice. Further research is needed to propose strategies and develop models for implementing KMC.


Assuntos
Método Canguru , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Criança , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Programas Governamentais
10.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6549, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36319657

RESUMO

The second near-infrared (NIR II) response photon up-conversion (UC) materials show great application prospects in the fields of biology and optical communication. However, it is still an enormous challenge to obtain efficient NIR II response materials. Herein, we develop a series of Er3+ doped ternary sulfides phosphors with highly efficient UC emissions under 1532 nm irradiation. ß-NaYS2:Er3+ achieves a visible UC efficiency as high as 2.6%, along with high brightness, spectral stability of lights illumination and temperature. Such efficient UC is dominated by excited state absorption, accompanied by the advantage of long lifetimes (4I9/2, 9.24 ms; 4I13/2, 30.27 ms) of excited state levels of Er3+, instead of the well-recognized energy transfer UC between sensitizer and activator. NaYS2:Er3+ phosphors are further developed for high-performance underwater communication and narrowband NIR photodetectors. Our findings suggest a novel approach for developing NIR II response UC materials, and simulate new applications, eg., simultaneous NIR and visible optical communication.


Assuntos
Transferência de Energia , Temperatura
11.
Tissue Cell ; 79: 101965, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36371843

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To explore the regulation of SOCS3 in the JAK2/STAT3 pathway during vocal fold fibroblast activation after vocal fold injury. METHODS: Normal vocal fold fibroblasts (VFFs), injured VFFs, and simulated injured VFFs (normal VFFs supplemented with transforming growth factor beta [TGF-ß]) were treated with a JAK2 inhibitor (AG490), and SOCS3 was overexpressed in each group. Type I collagen (COL1), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), SOCS3, JAK2, and STAT3 were detected using immunofluorescence, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and western blotting. RESULTS: Compared with normal VFFs, expression of SOCS3 was lower, but p-JAK/p-STAT3 and JAK2/STAT3 were higher in injured and simulated injured VFFs. After the addition of AG490, COL1 and α-SMA expressions did not change significantly in normal VFFs but was significantly decreased in the other two groups. The protein and mRNA expression levels of SOCS3 were significantly increased, while those of p-JAK/p-STAT3 and JAK2/STAT3 were significantly decreased. When SOCS3 was overexpressed, the COL1 and α-SMA expression levels in normal VFFs were not altered significantly, whereas they were significantly decreased in injured and simulated injured VFFs. The expression of p-JAK2/p-STAT3 significantly decreased when SOCS3 was overexpressed in injured and simulated injured VFFs. CONCLUSION: SOCS3 may regulate the activation of JAK2/STATA3 pathway after vocal fold injury. In addition, SOCS3 may inhibit excessive activation of vocal fold fibroblasts by downregulating JAK2/STAT3 in the early stages of vocal fold injury.


Assuntos
Tirfostinas , Prega Vocal , Fibroblastos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta
12.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(11): 2923-2935, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36384826

RESUMO

Calculation of forest biomass is the basis for global carbon stock estimation, which has been included in national forest inventory projects. The volume-derived biomass method is generally used for trees with diameter at breast height (DBH) larger than 5 cm in most forest carbon sink measurement, which omits young trees (diameter at breast height <6 cm, height >0.3 m) and thus may underestimate ecosystem carbon sink capacity. Based on the biomass data of 137 young trees in five typical plantations on the Tibetan Plateau, independent biomass models were developed using the weighted generalized least squares method, with basic diameter as the predictor instead of DBH. Additive biomass models of controlling directly by proportion functions and controlling by the sum of equations were selected. Additive biomass models for the whole plant and each component were developed by applying weighted nonlinear seemingly uncorrelated regression. The results showed that the binary additive biomass model (R2 reached 0.90-0.99) performed better than the monadic biomass models and independent biomass models for the estimation of total biomass. For different tree species, two forms of the additive models had their own advantages, with neglectable difference in accuracy. From the perspective of forestry production, models of controlling directly by proportion functions were more practical. From the perspective of predictors extraction by remote sensing technology, suitable young tree biomass models were developed for remote sensing estimation. In this study, the additive model had high overall fitting accuracy and could accurately estimate the whole plant and component biomass of young trees in similar climatic environments.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Árvores , Biomassa , Tibet , China
13.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(11): 3097-3104, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36384844

RESUMO

Decapterus maruadsi is an important economic pelagic fish in the southern coastal area of Zhejiang. According to the bottom trawl surveys conducted in May, August, November 2020 and January 2021, the feeding habits of D. maruadsi in the southern coastal area of Zhejiang were examined by both stable isotope (carbon, δ13C, and nitrogen, δ15N) and stomach content analyses. Results showed that the δ13C value of D. maruadsi ranged from -17.76‰ to -15.25‰, with a mean of (-16.55±0.60)‰, while the δ15N value ranged from 9.06‰ and 13.03‰, with a mean of (11.76±0.88)‰. There was a significant negative correlation between the δ13C values and fork length, and a positive relationship between the δ15N with fork length. Results from stomach content analysis showed that the main prey groups of D. maruadsi were fish, shrimp, crabs, Cephalopod, Polychaete, and small crustaceans. As for the stable isotope analysis, the nutritional contribution rate of shrimp was the highest (40%-84%) among all prey groups, followed by Polychaete, small crustaceans, crabs, Cephalopods and fish. Significant ontogenetic dietary changes were found for D. maruadsi. As the fork length of D. maruadsi increased, it tended to eat prey from higher trophic levels.


Assuntos
Ecologia , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal , Animais , Peixes , Isótopos , Crustáceos
15.
Adv Mater ; : e2207970, 2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36413559

RESUMO

Highly efficient emission has been a long-lasting pursuit for carbon dots (CDs) owing to their enormous potential in optoelectronic applications. Nevertheless, their room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) performance still largely lags behind their outstanding fluorescence emission, especially in the blue spectral region. Herein, high-efficiency blue RTP CDs have been designed and constructed via a simple molecular engineering strategy, enabling CDs with an unprecedented phosphorescence quantum efficiency of to 50.17% and a long lifetime of 2.03 s. This treating route facilitates the formation of high-density (n, π*) configurations in the CD π-π conjugate system through the introduction of abundant functional groups, which can evoke a strong spin-orbit coupling and further promote the intersystem crossing from singlet to triplet excited states and radiative recombination from triplet excited states to ground state. With blue phosphorescent CDs as triplet donors, green, red, and white afterglow composites are successfully fabricated via effective phosphorescence Förster resonance energy transfer. Importantly, the color temperature of the white afterglow emission can be widely and facilely tuned from cool white to pure white and warm white. Moreover, advanced information encryption, light illumination, and afterglow/dynamic visual display have been demonstrated when using these multicolor-emitting CD-based afterglow systems. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

16.
Neurogastroenterol Motil ; : e14499, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36377810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peripheral corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) has been reported to affect gastrointestinal motility through corticotropin-releasing factor receptor located in enteric nervous system (ENS), but less is known about of the relationship between peripheral CRF and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). METHODS: Mice were intraperitoneally injected with CRF receptor agonists to determine their effects on colonic ICC. Chronic heterotypic stress (CHeS) was applied to mice to determine endogenous CRF-CRF receptor signaling on colonic ICC. RESULTS: We found that stressin1, a selective CRF receptor 1 (CRF1 ) agonist, significantly increased the expression of CRF1 but had no effect on the expression of CRF2 in the smooth muscles of murine colon. The protein expression of c-Kit, Anoctamin-1 (ANO1), and stem cell factor (SCF) in the colonic smooth muscles was significantly decreased in stressin1-treated mice. Accordingly, 2-(4-Chloro-2-methylphenoxy)-N'-(2-methoxybenzylidene) acetohydrazide (Ani 9), a selective ANO1 blocker, had a less significant inhibitory effect on CMMC in stressin1-treated mice compared to the saline-treated ones. Similarly, we also found that ICC and ANO1 were reduced in the colonic smooth muscles of mice by treatment with sauvagine (ip), a CRF2 agonist. However, different with stressin1, sauvagine decreased the expression of CRF2 besides increasing CRF1 expression in the colonic smooth muscles. Similar results of CRF1 and c-Kit expressions were also obtained from the colon of CHeS-treated mice. CONCLUSION: All these results suggest that CRF may be involved in the abnormality of colonic motility through peripheral CRF1 to decrease the number and function of ICC, which provides a potential target for treating stress-induced gastrointestinal motility disorder.

17.
Foods ; 11(21)2022 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360156

RESUMO

Evidence suggests that the immunomodulatory property of polyphenols may also contribute to the reduction of cardiovascular risk. In the present study, we investigated the polyphenol extraction (PE) from Syzygium brachythyrsum, a functional food resource in south China, regarding the protective effect on inhibiting foam cell formation and the underlying molecular mechanism based on an ox-LDL-induced RAW264.7 macrophage model. The results of Oil Red O staining, Dil-ox-LDL fluorescent staining, and cholesterol efflux experiments showed that PE, and its two phenolics brachythol B (BB) and ethyl gallate (EG), significantly inhibited the foam cell formation, which may be associated with reducing the expression of SR-A1 and CD36 while increasing expression of SR-B1, ABCG1, and PPARγ. In addition, BB and EG also reduce the inflammatory response by down-regulating the expression of NF-κB and MAPK signal pathway proteins, thereby inhibiting the expression of inflammatory factors. Altogether, PE and its two components BB and EG attenuated foam cell formation and macrophage inflammation response.

18.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 520, 2022 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36352400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Species in genus Amomum always have important medicinal and economic values. Classification of Amomum using morphological characters has long been a challenge because they exhibit high similarity. The main goals of this study were to mine genetic markers from cp genomes for Amomum species identification and discover their evolutionary history through comparative analysis. RESULTS: Three species Amomum villosum, Amomum maximum and Amomum longipetiolatum were sequenced and annotated for the complete chloroplast (cp) genomes, and the cp genomes of A. longipetiolatum and A. maximum were the first reported. Three cp genomes exhibited typical quadripartite structures with 163,269-163,591 bp in length. Each genome encodes 130 functional genes including 79 protein-coding, 26 tRNAs and 3 rRNAs genes. 113-152 SSRs and 99 long repeats were identified in the three cp genomes. By designing specific primers, we amplified the highly variable loci and the mined genetic marker ccsA exhibited a relatively high species identification resolution in Amomum. The nonsynonymous and synonymous substitution ratios (Ka/Ks) in Amomum and Alpinia showed that most genes were subjected to a purifying selection. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the evolutionary relationships of Amomum and Alpinia species and proved that Amomum is paraphyletic. In addition, the sequenced sample of A. villosum was found to be a hybrid, becoming the first report of natural hybridization of this genus. Meanwhile, the high-throughput sequencing-based ITS2 analysis was proved to be an efficient tool for interspecific hybrid identification and with the help of the chloroplast genome, the hybrid parents can be also be determined. CONCLUSION: The comparative analysis and mined genetic markers of cp genomes were conducive to species identification and evolutionary relationships of Amomum.


Assuntos
Amomum , Genoma de Cloroplastos , Genoma de Cloroplastos/genética , Amomum/genética , Filogenia , Marcadores Genéticos , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Cloroplastos/genética
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361829

RESUMO

A metabolic illness known as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), affects more than one-quarter of the world's population. Bile acids (BAs), as detergents involved in lipid digestion, show an abnormal metabolism in patients with NAFLD. However, BAs can affect other organs as well, such as the brain, where it has a neuroprotective effect. According to a series of studies, brain disorders may be extrahepatic manifestations of NAFLD, such as depression, changes to the cerebrovascular system, and worsening cognitive ability. Consequently, we propose that NAFLD affects the development of brain disease, through the bile acid signaling pathway. Through direct or indirect channels, BAs can send messages to the brain. Some BAs may operate directly on the central Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and the G protein bile acid-activated receptor 1 (GPBAR1) by overcoming the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Furthermore, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 19 are released from the intestine FXR and GPBAR1 receptors, upon activation, both of which send signals to the brain. Inflammatory, systemic metabolic disorders in the liver and brain are regulated by the bile acid-activated receptors FXR and GPBAR1, which are potential therapeutic targets. From a bile acid viewpoint, we examine the bile acid signaling changes in NAFLD and brain disease. We also recommend the development of dual GPBAR1/FXR ligands to reduce side effects and manage NAFLD and brain disease efficiently.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Humanos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fígado/metabolismo , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Encefalopatias/metabolismo
20.
J Chromatogr A ; 1685: 463564, 2022 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323098

RESUMO

An analytical method for the detection of glucose in human exhaled breath by non-invasive condensation collection coupled with ion chromatography was developed. A self-designed exhaled breath condensation device was constructed, through which human exhaled breath was condensed and collected. And the glucose in collected human exhaled breath condensate (EBC) was analyzed by ion chromatography with a pulsed amperometric instrument. The standard EBC collection method was established, and the key factors such as cooling temperature and sampling flow rate during condensation collection were investigated deeply, and a good linear correlation between blood glucose levels and exhaled breath glucose levels was obtained. The intra-day precision was 3.37%, and the inter-day precision was 3.83%. Furthermore, EBC from healthy people and diabetic patients was collected in fasting state and after meal. We found the breath glucose level in healthy volunteers was 0.11-2.34 ng/L and that in diabetic patients was 0.23-135.92 ng/L. In after meal samples, the breath glucose level is 10-100 times higher than that of healthy subjects, which offering the prospect of a non-invasive approach to the monitoring of diabetes.


Assuntos
Testes Respiratórios , Glucose , Humanos , Testes Respiratórios/métodos , Expiração , Cromatografia , Temperatura , Biomarcadores/análise
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