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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32026373

RESUMO

In order to understand the transport mechanism of solute through naturally fractured rocks, it is important to quantitatively characterize the influence of varying surface roughness on fluid flow and solute transport. Rough-walled fracture geometry models with different joint roughness coefficients (JRC) were generated based on MATLAB pixel analyses of ten standard Barton profiles. Fluid flow and solute transport in the 2D rough-walled fractures were simulated by solving the Navier-Stokes-equation (NSE) and the transport equation for different pressure drops (i.e., 5, 10, and 20 Pa). The simulation results show that the evolution of the solute-concentration field within rough-walled fractures is significantly dependent on surface roughness. Analysis of the breakthrough curves (BTCs) and residence time distributions (RTDs) indicated that rough fracture surfaces with large JRCs played a significant role in weakening the non-Fickian transport characteristics (i.e., early arrival and long tail) under the same pressure drop. It was found that the solute-concentration-distribution index (CDI), i.e., a metric for quantifying the longevity of the tail, increased with the JRCs and decreased with an increase in pressure drops. This result demonstrates that decreasing the surface roughness increases the Péclet number (Pe) and enhances advection process in solute transport, resulting in an increase in the non-uniform concentration distribution and shortened the long tail. Inverse modeling of the BTCs shows that rough fracture surfaces with large JRCs decrease the effective dispersion coefficient and Pe, suggesting that rough fracture surfaces decrease the advection and dispersion processes and delay the early arrival. These results provide more comprehensive understanding of the role of surface roughness in solute transport through fractures. Based on the relationships between JRC value and effective dispersion coefficient, a prediction method was established to predict the non-Fickian transport and the JRC value, and the practical cases further proved the feasibility of the prediction method.

2.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(1): 286-294, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638312

RESUMO

Reversible oxygen conversion is important for various green energy technologies. Herein we synthesize a series of bimetallic coordination polymers by varying the Ni/Co ratio and using HITP (HITP=2,3,6,7,10,11-hexaiminotriphenylene) as the ligand, to interrogate the role of metal centres in modulating the activity of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Co3 HITP2 and Ni3 HITP2 are compared. Unpaired 3d electrons in Co3 HITP2 result in less coplanarity but more radical character. Thus, despite of a reduced crystallinity and conductivity, the best ORR activity, comparable to 20 % Pt/C, is obtained for Co3 HITP2 , showing the 3d orbital configuration of the metal centre promotes ORR. Experimental and DFT studies show a transition of ORR pathway from four-electron for Co3 HITP2 to two-electron for Ni3 HITP2 . Rechargeable zinc-air batteries using Co3 HITP2 as the air cathode catalyst demonstrate excellent energy efficiency and stability.

4.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 97: 351-358, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31874297

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary Scenedesmus ovalternus on the growth and disease resistance of gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) during overwintering. Gibel carp (initial body weight: 90.39 ± 0.33 g) were fed with diets containing 0% or 4% Scenedesmus ovalternus (DS0 and DS4) for 4 weeks during the early overwintering period, and then all fish were left unfed during the late overwintering period. A bacterial challenge test using Aeromonas hydrophila was subsequently conducted. The 4% Scenedesmus ovalternus diet had no effect on the growth of gibel carp (P > 0.05), but did improve the survival rate after the challenge (P ≤ 0.05). In the DS0 group, the bacterial challenge decreased the contents of complement 3 (C3), immunoglobulin M (IgM), interleukin 2 (IL2) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) in fish (P < 0.05); in the DS4 group, the challenge increased total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity but decreased IL2 and TNFα contents (P < 0.05). The activities of MPO and contents of C3, IgM and TNFα were higher in the DS4 group than that fed the DS0 diet after bacterial challenge (P < 0.05). Compared to pre challenge, the expression levels of toll like receptor 2 (TLR2), toll like receptor 3 (TLR3), toll like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), Toll/IL-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor protein (TIRAP), TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon ß (TRIF), nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor α (IκBα), transforming growth factor ß (TGFß), interleukin 1ß (IL1ß), tumor necrosis factor α1 (TNFα1) and interleukin 10 (IL10) in the head kidney of gibel carp were induced after challenge (P < 0.05). Gibel carp fed the DS4 diet showed lower expression of TGFß in head kidney before the challenge and lower expression of TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TIRAP, TRIF, IκBα, TNFα1, IL10 and TGFß after the challenge than that fed the DS0 diet (P < 0.05). Overall, Scenedesmus ovalternus supplement enhanced the resistances of gibel carp against A. hydrophila after overwintering via the TLR signaling pathway.

5.
Front Genet ; 10: 1211, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31824581

RESUMO

The Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, belongs to one of the most species-rich phyla and provides important ecological and economical services. Here we present a genome assembly for a variety of this species, black-shelled Pacific oyster, using a combination of 61.8 Gb Nanopore long reads and 105.6 Gb raw BGI-seq short reads. The genome assembly comprised 3,676 contigs, with a total length of 587 Mb and a contig N50 of 581 kb. Annotation of the genome assembly identified 283 Mb (48.32%) of repetitive sequences and a total of 26,811 protein-coding genes. A long-term transposable element active, accompanied by recent expansion (1 million years ago), was detected in this genome. The divergence between black-shelled and the previous published Pacific oysters was estimated at about 2.2 million years ago, which implies that species C. gigas had great intraspecific genetic variations. Moreover, we identified 148/188 specifically expanded/contracted gene families in this genome. We believe this genome assembly will be a valuable resource for understanding the genetic breeding, conservation, and evolution of oysters and bivalves.

6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(51): e18471, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861026

RESUMO

This study aimed to compare the Hamilton anxiety rating/Hamilton depression rating (HAMA/HAMD) scale scores and blood pressure (BP) goal achievement associated with the use of valsartan-amlodipine single-pill combinations (SPCs) versus valsartan and amlodipine combination in adult hypertensive patients.A total of 476 hypertensive patients were randomly assigned into the SPC (valsartan-amlodipine) and control (valsartan and amlodipine combination) groups. All patients had an uncontrolled BP (160-179/100-109 mm Hg). BP goal was <140/90 mm Hg. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to analyze the likelihood of HAMA/HAMD scales, SPCs, control group, and daily dosage number. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to estimate the rates of BP goal achievement over time among the 2 groups.A total of 476 patients were included in the study, and 439 patients completed the follow-up and received the index drug therapy. There was a significant difference in BP between the 2 groups on days 28, 42, and 56. Patients who received SPCs had a significantly higher rate of BP goal achievement over time (P = .000). The average HAMD scores in the SPC and control groups were 5.54 and 5.49 and 6.06 and 6.21 on days 28 and 56, respectively. The average HAMA scores in the SPC and control groups were 7.41 and 7.13 and 7.90 and 8.01 on days 28 and 56, respectively. The means of HAMD and HAMA scores were 5.826 and 7.614, respectively. The higher the HAMA/HAMD scores, the lower was the BP goal achievement. The number of drugs taken by the patients was associated with the HAMA and HAMD scores. There was no significant difference between HAMA scores of patients taking 1 tablet daily (7.22 ±â€Š1.885) and those taking two-tablets daily (7.38 ±â€Š1.953) (P = .408). However, when these scores were compared to those of patients taking 4 tablets daily (8.08 ±â€Š2.285), a significant difference was observed (P = .000, P = .000).Hypertensive patients treated with valsartan-amlodipine SPCs were significantly more likely to achieve BP goal and have lesser HAMA/HAMD scores compared to patients treated with valsartan and amlodipine combination.


Assuntos
Combinação Anlodipino e Valsartana/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Combinação Anlodipino e Valsartana/farmacologia , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Front Psychol ; 10: 2301, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681097

RESUMO

Hidi and Renninger's four-phase interest development model was identified as the most complete and widely used theoretical model illustrating the essence of academic interest. Using the model along with current research literature as a basis, this study aimed to develop and initially validate a generic multidimensional instrument to measure academic interest across different school subjects in the Chinese education context; this instrument was called the Academic Interest Scale for Adolescents (AISA). Three large samples of Chinese junior high school students were recruited by cluster sampling in the study. (1) Sample 1 (N = 552; 45.5% girls; 12.31 [SD = 0.98] years, range = 10-15 years) completed the draft of AISA, Intrinsic Motivation Scale and Scale for Adolescents' Flow State in Learning in math and English. (2) Sample 2 (a subgroup of Sample 1, 411 students) completed the AISA in math and English again 2 months later after the first survey. (3) Sample 3 (N = 1,780; 50.1% girls; 13.69 [SD = 0.97] years, range = 12-16 years) completed the AISA in math, English, and Chinese. Identically worded items were used in AISA, except for the name of the subject. An exploratory factor analysis for math in sample 1 using principle axis factoring and promax rotation resulted in a 29-item AISA containing four dimensions: emotion, value, knowledge, and engagement, and the latent variables together explained 59.40% of the total variance. Confirmatory factor analysis for math, English, and Chinese in sample 3 suggested the four-factor model fits well in different samples and subjects. Scale scores showed adequate internal consistency (the Cronbach's α for AISA and each subscale ranged from 0.86 to 0.93) and acceptable test-criterion relationships (correlations between the AISA score and intrinsic motivation and flow state in learning > 0.51, ps < 0.001). Furthermore, the structural measure invariance across subjects, time (2-month interval), genders and grades were upheld. The AISA promises to be a useful tool for the evaluation of academic interest among Chinese adolescents and can be administered in different educational settings, i.e., different subjects, time, genders, and grades.

8.
Genome Biol Evol ; 11(11): 3276-3282, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609424

RESUMO

Recent innovations of next-generation sequencing such as RNA-seq have generated an enormous amount of comparative transcriptome data, which have shed lights on our understanding of the complexity of transcriptional regulatory systems. Despite numerous RNA-seq analyses, statistical methods and computational tools designed for phylogenetic transcriptome analysis and evolution have not been well developed. In response to this need, we developed software TreeExp2 specifically for RNA-seq data. The R-package TreeExp2 has implemented a suite of advanced, recently developed methods for transcriptome evolutionary analysis. Its main functions include the ancestral transcriptome inference, estimation of the strength of expression conservation, new expression distance, and the relative expression rate test. TreeExp2 provides an integrated, statistically sound framework for phylogenetic transcriptome analysis. It will considerably enhance our analytical capability for exploring the evolution and selection at the transcriptome level. The current version of TreeExp2 is available under GPLv3 license at the Github developer site https://github.com/jingwyang/TreeExp; last accessed November 12, 2019, and its online tutorial which describes the biological theories in details and fully worked case studies with real data can be found at https://jingwyang.github.io/TreeExp-Tutorial; last accessed November 12, 2019.

9.
ACS Nano ; 13(10): 11733-11740, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525961

RESUMO

Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has attracted much attention as a promising alternative to Pt-based catalysts for highly efficient hydrogen generation. However, it suffers sluggish kinetics for driving the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) process because of inert basal planes, especially in alkaline solution. Here, we show a combination of heteroatom doping and phase transformation strategies to engineer the in-plane structure of MoS2, that trigger their catalytic activities. Systematic characterizations are performed with advanced aberration-corrected microscopy and X-ray techniques, indicating that an as-designed MoS2 catalyst has a distorted zigzag-chain superlattice in metallic phase, while its in-plane structure was engineered via the incorporation of cobalt and oxygen species. The optimal Co, O dual-doped metallic phase molybdenum disulfide (1T-MoS2) electrocatalyst shows a significantly enhanced HER activity with a low overpotential of 113 mV at 10 mA cm-2 and corresponding small Tafel slope of 50 mV dec-1, accompanied by the robust stability in alkaline media. The calculated turnover frequency is higher than 6.65 H2 s-1 at an overpotential of 200 mV. More in-depth insights from the first-principle calculations illustrate that the water dissociation as a rate-determining step was largely accelerated by the in-plane Co-O-Mo species and fast electron transfer of the catalyst. Benefiting from ingenious design and fine identifications, this work provides a fundamental understanding of the relationships among heteroatom doping, phase transformation, and performance for MoS2-based catalysts.

10.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3624, 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399580

RESUMO

Solution-processable perovskites show highly emissive and good charge transport, making them attractive for low-cost light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with high energy conversion efficiencies. Despite recent advances in device efficiency, the stability of perovskite LEDs is still a major obstacle. Here, we demonstrate stable and bright perovskite LEDs with high energy conversion efficiencies by optimizing formamidinium lead iodide films. Our LEDs show an energy conversion efficiency of 10.7%, and an external quantum efficiency of 14.2% without outcoupling enhancement through controlling the concentration of the precursor solutions. The device shows low efficiency droop, i.e. 8.3% energy conversion efficiency and 14.0% external quantum efficiency at a current density of 300 mA cm-2, making the device more efficient than state-of-the-art organic and quantum-dot LEDs at high current densities. Furthermore, the half-lifetime of device with benzylamine treatment is 23.7 hr under a current density of 100 mA cm-2, comparable to the lifetime of near-infrared organic LEDs.

11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(17)2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450868

RESUMO

The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) system has been widely applied in functional genomics research and plant breeding. In contrast to the off-target studies of mammalian cells, there is little evidence for the common occurrence of off-target sites in plants and a great need exists for accurate detection of editing sites. Here, we summarized the precision of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutations for 281 targets and found that there is a preference for single nucleotide deletions/insertions and longer deletions starting from 40 nt upstream or ending at 30 nt downstream of the cleavage site, which suggested the candidate sequences for editing sites detection by whole-genome sequencing (WGS). We analyzed the on-/off-target sites of 6 CRISPR/Cas9-mediated Arabidopsis plants by the optimized method. The results showed that the on-target editing frequency ranged from 38.1% to 100%, and one off target at a frequency of 9.8%-97.3% cannot be prevented by increasing the specificity or reducing the expression level of the Cas9 enzyme. These results indicated that designing guide RNA with high specificity may be the preferred factor to avoid the off-target events, and it is necessary to predict or detect off-target sites by WGS-based methods for preventing off targets caused by genome differences in different individuals.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Edição de Genes , Mutagênese , Genoma de Planta , Genômica/métodos , Mutação , Fenótipo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
12.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 6(16): 1900162, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31453056

RESUMO

The inferior tolerance with reversible accommodation of large-sized Na+ ion in electrode materials has plagued the adaptability of sodium-ion chemistry. The sluggish diffusion kinetics of Na+ also baffles the desirability. Herein, a carbon fiber supported binder-free electrode consisting of bismuth and carbon composite is designed. Well-confined bismuth nanodots are synthesized by replacing cobalt in the metal-organic frameworks (MOF)-derived, nitrogen-doped carbon arrays, which are demonstrated with remarkable reversibility during sodiation and desodiation. Cobalt species in the pristine MOF catalyze the graphitization around organic components in calcination, generating a highly conductive network in which the bismuth is to be embedded. The uniformly dispersed bismuth nanodots provide plenty boundaries and abundant active sites in the carbon arrays, where fast sodium storage kinetics are realized to contribute extra capacity and excellent rate performance.

13.
J Infect Dis ; 220(9): 1511-1520, 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have found that the high-dose influenza vaccine has a higher relative vaccine effectiveness (RVE) versus standard-dose vaccines in some seasons. We evaluated the effect of age on the RVE of high-dose versus standard-dose influenza vaccines among Medicare beneficiaries. METHODS: A 6-season retrospective cohort study from 2012 to 2018 among Medicare beneficiaries aged ≥65 years was performed. Poisson regression was used to evaluate the effect of age on the RVE of high-dose versus standard-dose influenza vaccines in preventing influenza-related hospitalizations. RESULTS: The study included >19 million vaccinated beneficiaries in a community pharmacy setting. The Poisson models indicated a slightly increasing trend in RVE with age in all seasons. The high-dose vaccine was more effective than standard-dose vaccines in preventing influenza-related hospital encounters (ie, influenza-related inpatient stays and emergency department visits) in the 2012-2013 (RVE, 23.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 17.6%-28.3%), 2013-2014 (RVE, 15.3%; 95% CI, 7.8%-22.3%), 2014-2015 (RVE, 8.9%; 95% CI, 5.6%-12.1%), and 2016-2017 (RVE, 12.6%; 95% CI, 6.3%-18.4%) seasons and was at least as effective in all other seasons. We also found that the high-dose vaccine was consistently more effective than standard-dose vaccines across all seasons for people aged ≥85 years. Similar trends were observed for influenza-related inpatient stays. CONCLUSIONS: The RVE of high-dose versus standard-dose influenza vaccines increases with age.

14.
Mol Med Rep ; 20(2): 1725-1735, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257504

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been found to play important regulatory roles in certain neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of miRNA­153 (miR­153) on the neural differentiation of HT­22 cells. Overexpression of miR­153 induced the differentiation of HT­22 cells, increasing the number of protrusions and branches, reducing the S phase distribution of the cell cycle, and attenuating the cell proliferation rate as determined using the Cell Counting Kit­8 assay. Furthermore, miR­153 increased the expression of neuron­specific γ­enolase (NSE), neuronal nuclei (NeuN), and N­ethylmaleimide­sensitive fusion attachment protein 23 (SNAP23) and SNAP25 at the transcriptional and protein level by PCR and western blot analysis. Moreover, miR­153 caused obvious upregulation of peroxiredoxin 5 (PRX5), which has been found to protect neural cells from death and apoptosis. miR­153 promoted neural differentiation and protected neural cells by upregulating the neuron markers γ­enolase, neuronal nuclei, and the functional proteins SNAP23, SNAP25 and PRX5. Therefore, miR­153 may be a potential target for the treatment of certain neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Hipocampo/citologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Neurogênese , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Camundongos , Regulação para Cima
15.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(15): 9241-9251, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268695

RESUMO

Most coastal waters are at risk from microplastics, which vary in concentration and size. Rotifers, as important primary consumers linking primary producers and higher trophic consumers, usually coexist with the harmful alga Phaeocystis and microplastics in coastal waters; this coexistence may interfere with rotifer life-history traits and ingestion of Phaeocystis. To evaluate the effects of microplastics on rotifers, we designed a series of experiments concerning rotifer Brachionus plicatilis life-history traits and rotifer-Phaeocystis (predator-prey) population dynamics under different concentrations and sizes of microplastics. The results showed that small-sized microplastics (0.07 µm) at high levels (≥5 µg mL-1) decreased rotifer survival and reproduction, prolonged the time to maturation, and reduced the body size at maturation, whereas large-sized microplastics (0.7 and 7 µm) had no effect on rotifer life-history traits. For rotifer-Phaeocystis population levels, small-sized microplastics (0.07 µm) significantly delayed the elimination of Phaeocystis by rotifers; this is the first study to test the effects of microplastics on predator-prey dynamics. The results of rotifer-Phaeocystis population dynamics are consistent with the changes in the life-history traits of rotifers and further confirm the negative effects of small-sized microplastics (0.07 µm) on rotifers. These findings help to reveal the effect of pollutants on predator-prey population dynamics.


Assuntos
Haptófitas , Rotíferos , Animais , Plásticos , Dinâmica Populacional , Reprodução
16.
Front Vet Sci ; 6: 165, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192238

RESUMO

To test the hypothesis that effects of dietary carbohydrate and lipid concentrations on growth performance, feeding utilization, glucose and lipid metabolism in gibel carp A strain may be differ from F strain, these two strain of gibel carp were fed with one of three different isonitrogenous diets: HCLL (45% carbohydrate, 2% lipid), MCML (30% carbohydrate, 8% lipid), or LCHL (15% carbohydrate, 14% lipid). After 8 weeks, the HCLL-fed fish had the highest hepatosomatic index, hepatic crude lipid levels, and triglyceride levels and lipid retention efficiency. Enhanced lipogenesis and lipid uptake potential were observed in fish fed HCLL and MCML diets. Moreover, increases in glucose transport (glut2, P = 0.003) and glycolysis (gk, P = 0.012; 6pfk, P = 0.005) in livers of both strains were induced by the high-carbohydrate diet. Genotype-specific effect was identified on plasma lipid content. Plasma triglyceride levels were also greater in the F strain than in the A strain. Furthermore, the F strain had higher levels of fatty acid ß-oxidation and glycolysis compared with the A strain. Nutrient retention was affected (P < 0.05) by the interaction between genotype and diet, implied dietary carbohydrate played a vital role in lipid accumulation in gibel carp. As dietary lipids increased, the F strain exhibited better feed utilization and a higher PRE than the A strain. However, the A strain had better growth performance. Overall, the F strain had better glucose uptake, glycolysis potential, and lipid utilization ability than the A strain.

17.
Adv Mater ; 31(32): e1902709, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31194268

RESUMO

Electrochemical nitrogen reduction reaction (NRR) under ambient conditions provides an avenue to produce carbon-free hydrogen carriers. However, the selectivity and activity of NRR are still hindered by the sluggish reaction kinetics. Nitrogen Vacancies on transition metal nitrides are considered as one of the most ideal active sites for NRR by virtue of their unique vacancy properties such as appropriate adsorption energy to dinitrogen molecule. However, their catalytic performance is usually limited by the unstable feature. Herein, a new 2D layered W2 N3 nanosheet is prepared and the nitrogen vacancies are demonstrated to be active for electrochemical NRR with a steady ammonia production rate of 11.66 ± 0.98 µg h-1 mgcata -1 (3.80 ± 0.32 × 10-11 mol cm-2 s-1 ) and Faradaic efficiency of 11.67 ± 0.93% at -0.2 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode for 12 cycles (24 h). A series of ex situ synchrotron-based characterizations prove that the nitrogen vacancies on 2D W2 N3 are stable by virtue of the high valence state of tungsten atoms and 2D confinement effect. Density function theory calculations suggest that nitrogen vacancies on W2 N3 can provide an electron-deficient environment which not only facilitates nitrogen adsorption, but also lowers the thermodynamic limiting potential of NRR.

18.
Int J Mol Med ; 44(2): 390-404, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31198978

RESUMO

The aims of the present study were to screen differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in breast cancer (BC) and investigate NDC80 kinetochore complex component (NUF2) as a prognostic marker of BC in detail. A total of four BC microarray datasets, downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) databases, were used to screen DEGs. A total of 190 DEGs with the same expression trends were identified in the 4 datasets, including 65 upregulated and 125 downregulated DEGs. Functional and pathway enrichment analyses were performed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery. The upregulated DEGs were enriched for 10 Gene Ontology (GO) terms and 7 pathways, and the downregulated DEGs were enriched for 10 GO terms and 10 pathways. A protein­protein interaction network containing 149 nodes and 930 edges was constructed using the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes, and 2 functional modules were identified using the MCODE plugin of Cytoscape. Based on an in­depth analysis of module 1 and literature mining, NUF2 was selected for further research. Oncomine database analysis and reverse transcription­quantitative PCR showed that NUF2 is significantly upregulated in BC tissues. In analyses of correlations between NUF2 and clinical pathological characteristics, NUF2 was significantly associated with the malignant features of BC. Using 5 additional datasets from GEO, it was demonstrated that NUF2 has a significant prognostic role in both ER­positive and ER­negative BC. A Gene Set Enrichment Analysis indicated that NUF2 may regulate breast carcinogenesis and progression via cell cycle­related pathways. The results of the present study demonstrated that NUF2 is overexpressed in BC and is significantly associated with its multiple pathological features and prognosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Ontologia Genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Transcriptoma
19.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 3(5): 823-833, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30988486

RESUMO

It is largely unknown how living organisms-especially vertebrates-survive and thrive in the coldness, darkness and high pressures of the hadal zone. Here, we describe the unique morphology and genome of Pseudoliparis swirei-a recently described snailfish species living below a depth of 6,000 m in the Mariana Trench. Unlike closely related shallow sea species, P. swirei has transparent, unpigmented skin and scales, thin and incompletely ossified bones, an inflated stomach and a non-closed skull. Phylogenetic analyses show that P. swirei diverged from a close relative living near the sea surface about 20 million years ago and has abundant genetic diversity. Genomic analyses reveal that: (1) the bone Gla protein (bglap) gene has a frameshift mutation that may cause early termination of cartilage calcification; (2) cell membrane fluidity and transport protein activity in P. swirei may have been enhanced by changes in protein sequences and gene expansion; and (3) the stability of its proteins may have been increased by critical mutations in the trimethylamine N-oxide-synthesizing enzyme and hsp90 chaperone protein. Our results provide insights into the morphological, physiological and molecular evolution of hadal vertebrates.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Filogenia
20.
GM Crops Food ; 10(1): 20-34, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955410

RESUMO

Genetically modified (GM) organisms have been developed for decades. However, unintended effects are the main concerns of safety assessment that needs to be carefully investigated. Here, eight varieties of GM rice that were developed in China were selected to assess the unintended effects through transcriptome and metabolism. There are 2892-8758 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 7-50 metabolites at significant level between GM varieties and their isogenic counterparts, which were far fewer than that between traditional rice varieties. The function enrichment analysis showed altered transcription in stress-related pathway and starch and sucrose metabolism. DEGs shared among eight GM samples constitute less than 1% of the genes in the genome, and none of them is reported more than four times. The insertion effect on the nearby gene expression and the associated metabolism is only restricted to 50 genes. All the results provide a comprehensive analysis of unintended effects and indication of difference in Chinese transgenic rice based on their backgrounds, transformation, and insertion elements.


Assuntos
Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética
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