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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 246: 112240, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526861

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: You-Gui-Yin (YGY) is a famous Chinese traditional medicine compound that has been used to treat renal function diseases for more than 300 years. It is recorded in Jing Yue Quanshu, which was written by a famous medical scientist named Jiebing Zhang in the Ming Dynasty. AIM OF THE STUDY: Reproductive dysfunction is one of the most serious complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of this study was to observe the effect of You-Gui-Yin (YGY) on reproductive dysfunction of male rats with adenine-induced CKD and to determine if any effects occurred via regulation of the HIF1α-STAT5 pathway. MATERIALS AND METHODS: UPLC-Q-TOF-MS was used to detect the main medicinal components and conduct quality control of YGY. A total of 60 rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: the NC group (10 rats) and the CKD model group (50 rats). The CKD model rats was established by administration of adenine 150 mg kg-1 orally for 14 days. After that, the CKD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: the CKD group, YGY (10 g kg-1 group, 20 g kg-1 group, 40 g kg-1 group) and the GUI-LU-ER-XIAN-JIAO (GL) 10 g kg-1 group with 10 rats in each group. From the 15th day to the 45th day rats were given 150 mg kg-1 adenine orally every other day to maintain the model (except in the NC group). The YGY groups and the GL group were orally administered the relevant drug once per day for 30 days. The NC group and the CKD group were orally administered an equal volume of normal saline for 30 days. On the 45th day, the rats' sexual behavior index was tested. On the 46th day, the rats were sacrificed. Biochemical indexes, histopathological changes of the kidneys and testes, sperm morphology, sperm abnormality rate, and key proteins in the HIF1α-STAT5 pathway in the kidney and testis were detected. RESULTS: Thirteen components in the YGY extract were identified by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS for quality control of the YGY extract. The results of the biochemical and physiological tests validated the success of inducing CKD accompanied by reproductive dysfunction in rats. YGY significantly retarded the CKD progression and improved the hormone levels of male CKD rats. Sexual behavior tests showed YGY can significantly improve CKD rats' sexual function. In addition, the pathological changes of the kidney and testis, sperm abnormality rate and sperm morphological abnormalities of the CKD rats were reduced by YGY. Furthermore, decreased expression of HIF1α and EPO, and increased expression of p-EPOR (Tyr368), p-JAK2 (Tyr570) and p-STAT5 (Ser725) were observed in the kidney and the testis of the CKD rats. The YGY extract dramatically increased the expression of HIF1α and EPO, and decreased the expression of p-EPOR (Tyr368), p-JAK2 (Tyr570) and p-STAT5 (Ser725) to regulate key proteins in the HIF1α-STAT5 pathway of the kidney and testis. CONCLUSIONS: YGY has obvious reversal effects on the abnormal symptoms of adenine-induced CKD and the abnormal symptoms of rats with hypothyroidism and male reproductive hypotension. Its mechanism is related to its ability to regulate the HIF1α-STAT5 pathway.

2.
Food Chem ; 303: 125404, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466033

RESUMO

Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy calibrations were developed to simultaneously determine the multianalytes of five artificial sweeteners, including sodium cyclamate, sucralose, sodium saccharin, acesulfame-K and aspartame. By combining the pretreatment of the spectrum and principal component analysis, 131 feature wavenumbers were extracted from the full spectral range for modelling to qualitative and quantitative analysis. Compared to random forest, k nearest neighbour and linear discriminant analysis, support vector machine model had better predictivity, indicating the most effective identification performance. Furthermore, multivariate calibration models based on partial least squares regression were constructed for quantifying any combinations of the five artificial sweeteners, and validated by prediction data sets. As shown by the good agreement between the proposed method and the reference HPLC for the determination of the sweeteners in beverage samples, a promising and rapid tool based on FTIR spectroscopy, coupled with chemometrics, has been performed to identify and objectively quantify artificial sweeteners.

3.
Theranostics ; 9(25): 7889-7905, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695806

RESUMO

Cancer immunotherapy aims to utilize the host immune system to kill cancer cells. Recent representative immunotherapies include T-cell transfer therapies, such as chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy, antibody-based immunomodulator therapies, such as immune checkpoint blockade therapy, and cytokine therapies. Recently developed therapies leveraging engineered cells for immunotherapy against cancers have been reported to enhance antitumor efficacy while reducing side effects. Such therapies range from biologically, chemically and physically -engineered cells to bioinspired and biomimetic nanomedicines. In this review, advances of engineering cells for cancer immunotherapy are summarized, and prospects of this field are discussed.

4.
J Perinatol ; 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31700090

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine costs of hospitalization associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) during the first year in very low birth weight infants. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of California births from 2008 to 2011 linking birth certificate, discharge records, and clinical data from California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative. Inclusion: birth weight 401-1500 g, gestational age < 30 weeks, inborn or transferred within 2 days, alive at 36 weeks corrected, and without major congenital anomalies. Outcomes included cost and length of stay of initial hospitalization and rehospitalizations. RESULT: Out of 7998 eligible infants, 2696 (33.7%) developed BPD. Median hospitalization cost in the first year was $377,871 per infant with BPD compared with $175,836 per infant without BPD (adjusted cost ratio 1.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.49-1.59). Infants with BPD also had longer length of stay and a higher likelihood of rehospitalization. CONCLUSION: BPD is associated with substantial resource utilization. Prevention strategies could help conserve healthcare resources.

5.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(15): 150402, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702297

RESUMO

Entanglement and the wave function description are two of the core concepts that make quantum mechanics such a unique theory. A method to directly measure the wave function, using weak values, was demonstrated by Lundeen et al. [Nature 474, 188 (2011)]. However, it is not applicable to a scenario of two disjoint systems, where nonlocal entanglement can be a crucial element, since that requires obtaining weak values of nonlocal observables. Here, for the first time, we propose a method to directly measure a nonlocal wave function of a bipartite system, using modular values. The method is experimentally implemented for a photon pair in a hyperentangled state, i.e., entangled both in polarization and momentum degrees of freedom.

6.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(15): 157601, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702323

RESUMO

An extended Hubbard model on a honeycomb lattice with two orbitals per site at charge neutrality is investigated with unbiased large-scale quantum Monte Carlo simulations. The Fermi velocity of the Dirac fermions is renormalized as the cluster charge interaction increases, until a mass term emerges and a quantum phase transition from Dirac semimetal to valence bond solid (VBS) insulator is established. The quantum critical point is discovered to belong to the 3D N=4 Gross-Neveu chiral XY universality with the critical exponents obtained at high precision. Further enhancement of the interaction drives the system into two different VBS phases, the properties and transition between them are also revealed. Since the model is related to magic-angle twisted bilayer graphene, our results may have relevance towards the symmetry breaking order at the charge neutrality point of the material, and associate the wide range of universal strange metal behavior around it with quantum critical fluctuations.

7.
Chaos ; 29(10): 103102, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675842

RESUMO

Link prediction plays a significant role in various applications of complex networks. The existing link prediction methods can be divided into two categories: structural similarity algorithms in network domain and network embedding algorithms in the field of machine learning. However, few researchers focus on comparing these two categories of algorithms and exploring the intrinsic relationship between them. In this study, we systematically compare the two categories of algorithms and study the shortcomings of network embedding algorithms. The results indicate that network embedding algorithms have poor performance in short-path networks. Then, we explain the reasons for this phenomenon by computing the Euclidean distance distribution of node pairs after a given network has been embedded into a vector space. In the vector space of a short-path network, the distance distribution of existent and nonexistent links are often less distinguishable, which can sharply reduce the algorithmic performance. In contrast, structural similarity algorithms, which are not restricted by the distance function, can represent node similarity accurately in short-path networks. To address the above pitfall of network embedding, we propose a novel method for link prediction aiming to supplement network embedding algorithms with local structural information. The experimental results suggest that our proposed algorithm has significant performance improvement in many empirical networks, especially in short-path networks. AUC and Precision can be improved by 36.7%-94.4% and 53.2%-207.2%, respectively.

8.
Hepatology ; 2019 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677282

RESUMO

Free and bioavailable 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) are emerging measurements of vitamin D status. It remains unclear whether circulating free or bioavailable 25OHD are relevant to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) prognosis. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that bioavailable 25OHD may be a better serum biomarker of vitamin D status than total 25OHD on the association with HCC survival. We included 1031 newly diagnosed, previously untreated patients with HCC from the Guangdong Liver Cancer Cohort (GLCC) enrolled between September 2013 and April 2017. Serum total 25OHD levels were measured using an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Serum free 25OHD levels were measured using a two-step enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Bioavailable 25OHD levels were calculated from measured free 25OHD and albumin using a previously validated equation. Primary outcomes were liver cancer-specific (LCSS) and overall survival (OS). Cox proportional hazards models were performed to calculate the multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During a median follow-up of 726 days, 430 patients had deceased, including 393 deaths from HCC. In multivariable analyses, higher bioavailable 25OHD levels were significantly associated with better survival, independent of nonclinical and clinical prognostic factors including serum C-reactive protein, Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage, and cancer treatment. The multivariable-adjusted HRs in the highest vs. lowest quartile of bioavailable 25OHD levels were 0.69 (95% CI: 0.51, 0.93; P for trend=0.014) for LCSS and 0.71 (95% CI: 0.53, 0.94; P for trend=0.013) for OS. In contrast, neither total nor free 25OHD levels were associated with LCSS or OS. CONCLUSION: Higher bioavailable, rather than total, 25OHD levels were independently associated with improved survival in a population-based HCC cohort, suggesting a potential utility of bioavailable 25OHD in HCC prognosis.

9.
Breast Cancer ; 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31728872

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer has become a dangerous killer for the female, which seriously threatened women's life, leading to huge pressures to society. The present study assessed the mechanism underlying the involvement of bone marrow tyrosine kinase on chromosome X (BMX) in breast cancer development. METHODS: The expression of BMX was examined by qPCR and immunohistochemistry. The effect of BMX on cell proliferation and migration was detected by Clone formation assay and Transwell assay. In vitro study, the correlation of BMX with Wnt/ß-catenin pathway was explored by western blot and TOP/FOP flash assay. RESULTS: In the present study, we found that BMX was up-regulated in breast cancer, which was associated with the tumor differentiation and TNM stage. Oncogenic BMX enhanced the ability of breast cancer cell proliferation and migration. Furthermore, BMX could up-regulate the protein expression levels of p-ß-catenin (Y142), p-ß-catenin(Y654) and inhibit the expression level of p-ß-catenin (S33/37), thus activating Wnt/ß-catenin pathway in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, we revealed that BMX promoted GSK3ß phosphorylation, which suppressed the degradation of ß-catenin. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we identified that BMX-activated Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway, playing an oncogenic role in breast cancer, suggesting that BMX could become a potential treatment target of breast cancer.

10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(11): e1915604, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730185

RESUMO

Importance: Some uncertainty exists about whether hospital variations in cost are largely associated with differences in case mix. Objective: To establish whether the same patients admitted with the same diagnosis (heart failure or pneumonia) at 2 different hospitals incur different costs associated with the hospital's Medicare payment profile. Design, Setting, and Participants: This observational cohort study used Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) discharge data of patients with a principal diagnosis of heart failure (n = 1615) or pneumonia (n = 708) occurring between July 1, 2013, and June 30, 2016. Patients were individuals aged 65 years or older who were enrolled in Medicare fee-for-service Part A and Part B and were discharged from nonfederal, short-term, acute care or critical access hospitals in the United States. Data were analyzed from March 16, 2018, to September 25, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: The CMS heart failure and pneumonia payment measure cohorts were divided into 2 random samples. In the first sample, hospitals were classified into payment quartiles for heart failure and pneumonia. In the second sample, patients with 2 admissions for heart failure or pneumonia, one in a lowest-quartile hospital and one in a highest-quartile hospital more than 1 month apart, were identified. Standardized Medicare payments for these patients were compared for the lowest- and the highest-quartile payment hospitals. Results: The study sample included 1615 patients with heart failure (mean [SD] age, 78.7 [8.0] years; 819 [50.7%] male) and 708 with pneumonia (mean [SD] age, 78.3 [8.0] years; 401 [56.6%] male). The observed 30-day mortality rates for patients among lowest- compared with highest-payment hospitals were not significantly different. The median (interquartile range) hospital 30-day risk-standardized mortality rates were 8.1% (7.7%-8.5%) for heart failure and 11.3% (10.7%-12.1%) for pneumonia. The 30-day episode payment for hospitalization for the same patients at the lowest-payment hospitals was $2118 (95% CI, $1168-$3068; P < .001) lower for heart failure and $2907 (95% CI, $1760-$4054; P < .001) lower for pneumonia than at the highest-payment hospitals. More than half of the difference was associated with the payment during the index hospitalization ($1425 [95% CI, $695-$2154; P < .001] for heart failure and $1659 [95% CI, $731-$2588; P < .001] for pneumonia). Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that the same Medicare beneficiaries who were admitted with the same diagnosis to hospitals with the highest payment profiles incurred higher costs than when they were admitted to hospitals with the lowest payment profiles. The findings suggest that variations in payments to hospitals are, at least in part, associated with the hospitals independently of non-time-varying patient characteristics.

11.
J Antibiot (Tokyo) ; 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31723217

RESUMO

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is a major threat to human health due to its resistance to almost all classes of antibiotics. Discovery of novel antibacterial agents with new structures which combat the pathogens responsible for MRSA is urgent. In this study, three series of benzyl phenyl sulfide derivatives were designed and synthesized, and their antibacterial activity against eleven MRSA strains were evaluated. The results showed that two series of the synthetic compounds (5a-5l and 12p-12u) exhibit potent antibacterial activity against S. aureus and MRSA, with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 2-64 µg/mL. The structure-activity relationships are discussed and the mechanism of the antibacterial activity was shown to involve the destruction of the bacterial cell membrane. Finally, the MTT assay results suggest that the toxicity of compounds 5f and 5h is selective between bacteria and mammalian cells.

12.
Waste Manag ; 102: 304-311, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707319

RESUMO

Changing patterns of municipal solid waste (MSW) management, for example sorting for recycling and mechanical-biological treatment (MBT), will change the nature of the residual material going to landfill and in particular its intrinsic permeability. This is an important parameter, not least because of its influence on gas and leachate flows and the ramifications for gas and leachate management. This paper reports the results of laboratory permeability tests on specimens of MSW recovered from boreholes drilled in a Chinese landfill, under both liquid and gas flow. The test results are used to assess the intrinsic permeability of the waste, and are compared with corresponding data from raw and MBT municipal solid wastes from developed countries in the context of differences in waste composition, porosity and particle size. For the Chinese waste, the intrinsic permeability decreased with depth, while at a given depth the permeability determined with gas flow was consistently larger than that determined with liquid flow. Intrinsic permeabilities determined in liquid flow showed no clear trend of variation with effective particle diameter d10, but reduced with drainable porosity (the drainable porosity, ne, being a more appropriate and useful measure than the total porosity, n). Conversely, intrinsic permeabilities determined in gas flow showed a clear decrease with decreasing d10, but no consistent variation with porosity. These differences are potentially significant in assessing the impacts and interactions between gas and liquid flows; some reasons for them are suggested.

14.
Molecules ; 24(21)2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683690

RESUMO

Gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng) is a popular tropical fruit in southeast Asia. What is amazing is that its seeds (Momordicae Semen) and arils are traditional herbs with anti-tumor activity, and have protected human health for more than 1000 years. In recent years, its anti-tumor activity has received extensive attention and research. This manuscript summarized the chemical composition of saponins, fatty acids, volatile constituents, proteins, peptides, and other components from Momordicae Semen (MSE). The effect and mechanism of MSE and its extract on breast cancer, gastric cancer, lung cancer, esophagus cancer, melanomas, and human cervical epithelial carcinoma were discussed. In addition, its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and other pharmacological effects were also analyzed. We hope that this review will provide new ideas for the treatment of cancer and other diseases, and become a reference for the further research into complementary and alternative medicine.

15.
Rev Esp Enferm Dig ; 1112019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718197

RESUMO

Background To observe the outcome of endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation (EPLBD) with minor sphincterotomy (mEST) for periampullary diverticular papilla related to stone removal. Methods Patients with confirmed periampullary diverticulum (PAD) during stone removal from May 2016 to April 2018 were reviewed retrospectively. The Chi-square test with Yates correction or Fisher's exact test was used for the analysis of categorical data and a normality test was applied for continuous data. Results A total of 154 consecutive patients (89 males and 65 females, aged 51-87 years) with confirmed PAD during stone removal were included in the study. Cases were divided into the conventional EST group (n = 79) and the mEST plus EPLBD group (n = 75). The number of patients with an initial treatment success was greater in the EPLBD+mEST group compared with the EST group (96% vs 86.1%, p=0.03) and the procedure time for EPLBD+mEST was shorter than that for EST alone (46.1±13.7 min vs 53.3±11.6 min, p=0.01). The rate of complications in the EPLBD+mEST group was lower than in the EST group (17.3% vs 32.9%, p=0.04). When PAD was >15 mm, the initial success rate was higher (92.6% vs 73.9%, p=0.04) and the rate of overall complications was lower (14.8% vs 41.7%, p=0.03) in the EPLBD+mEST group than those in the EST group. Although, this was similar when PAD was <15 mm. Conclusion EPLBD+mEST might be safer and more effective than conventional EST alone for stone removal in the presence of PAD.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31720785

RESUMO

Activation of complement system in central nervous system (CNS) of the patients suffering from prion diseases or animal models infected with prion agents experimentally is reported repeatedly, but which pathways are involved in the complement system during prion infection is not well documented. Here, we evaluated the level of complement factor B (CFB), which is the key factor that triggers alterative pathway (AP) of complement in the brain tissues of scrapie-infected mice with various methodologies. We found that the levels of mRNA and protein of CFB significantly increased in the brain tissues of scrapie-infected mice. Morphologically, the increased CFB-specific signal overlapped with the elevated C3 signal in brain sections of scrapie-infected mice, meanwhile overlapped with damaged neurons and activated microglia, but not with the proliferative astrocytes. Additionally, the level of complement factor P (CFP), the key positive regulator of AP, also increased remarkably in the brain tissues of infected mice. The transcriptional levels of CD55 and CD46, two negative regulators of AP, decreased without significance in brain tissues of scrapie-infected mice at the terminal stage. However, the mRNA and protein levels of CFH, another negative regulator of AP, increased. Through the dynamic analyses of the expressions of CFB, CFP, and CFH in brain sections of 139A-infected mice, which were collected at different time-points during incubation period, illustrated time-dependent increase levels of each factor during the incubation period of scrapie infection. Taken together, our data here demonstrate that the AP of complement cascade is activated in the CNS microenvironment during prion infection.

17.
Sleep Med ; 64: 62-70, 2019 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Narcolepsy is a chronic and debilitating sleep disorder characterized by cataplexy and excessive daytime sleeping. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) has been widely used to treat narcolepsy, and new findings have been published in recent years. OBJECTIVE: A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the efficacy and tolerability of GHB treatment in adults with narcolepsy. METHODS: A systematic search of PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, Web of Science, and clinical-trials.gov from inception to June 2018 was performed. Change in daily diaries and polysomnographic data of narcoleptic patients were defined as the efficacy outcomes. The tolerability and acceptability outcomes were the rates of adverse events and dropping out for adverse effects or other reasons. RESULTS: Fifteen randomized controlled trials involving 2104 participants were identified. GHB was found to improve cataplexy attacks (P = 0.001), subjective daytime sleepiness (P < 0.0001), daytime sleep latency (P < 0.0001), inadvertent naps/sleep attacks (P < 0.00001), effective rates (Clinical Global Impression of change) (P < 0.00001), hypnagogic hallucinations (P = 0.004), sleep paralysis (P = 0.004), stage 1 sleep (P = 0.04), slow wave sleep (P = 0.003), REM sleep (P = 0.0006), sleep shifts (P = 0.005), nocturnal awakenings (P = 0.004), quality of nocturnal sleep (P < 0.00001), chin muscle activity, and quality of life, but had no effect on stage 2 sleep (P = 0.88). GHB was less well tolerated than placebo because of side effects that occurred in a dose-dependent fashion (RR = 6.08; 95% CI = 2.18 to 16.97; P = 0.0006). CONCLUSIONS: GHB was effective in improving narcolepsy-cataplexy and related symptoms in adults but was less well tolerated than placebo because of dose-dependent side effects.

18.
Cancer ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The thoracic radiotherapy (TRT) target volume for limited-stage small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) has been controversial for decades. In this report, the final results of a prospective randomized trial on the TRT target volume before and after induction chemotherapy are presented. METHODS: After 2 cycles of etoposide and cisplatin, patients arm were randomized to receive TRT to the postchemotherapy or prechemotherapy tumor volume in a study arm and a control arm. Involved-field radiotherapy was received in both arms. TRT consisted of 1.5 grays (Gy) twice daily in 30 fractions to up to a total dose of 45 Gy. Lymph node regions were contoured, and intentional and incidental radiation doses were recorded. RESULTS: The study was halted early because of slow accrual. Between 2002 and 2017, 159 and 150 patients were randomized to the study arm or the control arm, respectively; and 21.4% and 19.1% of patients, respectively, were staged using positron emission tomography/computed tomography (P = .31). With a median follow-up of 54.1 months (range, 19.9-165.0 months) in survivors, the 3-year local/regional progression-free probability was 58.2% and 65.5% in the study and control arms, respectively (P = .44), and the absolute difference was -7.3% (95% CI, -18.2%, 3.7%). In the study and control arms, the median overall survival was 21.9 months and 26.6 months, respectively, and the 5-year overall survival rate was 22.8% and 28.1%, respectively (P = .26). Grade 3 esophagitis was observed in 5.9% of patients in the study arm versus 15.5% of those in the control arm (P = .01). The isolated out-of-field failure rate was 2.6% in the study arm versus 4.1% in the control arm (P = .46), and all such failures were located in the supraclavicular fossa or contralateral hilum. The regions 7, 3P, 4L, 6, 4R, 5, and 2L received incidental radiation doses >30 Gy. CONCLUSIONS: TRT could be limited to the postchemotherapy tumor volume, and involved-field radiotherapy could be routinely applied for limited-stage SCLC.

19.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(84): 12671-12674, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584042

RESUMO

A sequential solvent-assisted linker exchange (SSALE) method was used to contract the unit cell dimensions of an interpenetrated layer-pillared Zn-MOF. The 15.3 Å N,N'-di-4-pyridylnaphthalenetetracarboxydiimide (DPNDI) pillar was replaced stepwise by 9.4 Å trans-1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethene (BPE) and 2.8 Å pyrazine (PYZ). Notably, the sequential transformations lead to more than five times reduction in the linker size, which is the largest change in linker size by the SALE method so far.

20.
Org Lett ; 21(20): 8496-8500, 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591887

RESUMO

A decarboxylation of alkyl carboxylic acids for alkylfluorination of alkene was developed, with the catalysis of silver(I) and Selectfluor as both the oxidant and fluorine source. This reaction is highly chemoselective, producing the decarboxylative alkylfluorination products rather than the competitive fluorination of aliphatic carboxylic acids. This practical transformation proceeds efficiently in aqueous media at room temperature and exhibits a large range of functional-group tolerance in various primary and secondary aliphatic carboxylates and alkenes.

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