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1.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 121: 109642, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, a growing number of reports indicated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) were involved in the development of various cancers. However, the performance of LINC00511 is still limited in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Thus, we attempted to assess the effect of LINC00511 and underlying mechanism in HCC progression. METHODS: TCGA and GEO database acted as supporters to provide us clinical samples data. Overall survival (OS) analyses were plotted using Kaplan-Meier method. Five cell lines were utilized to detect LINC00511 expression level and Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), colony formation and transwell assays were conducted to examine the effects on cell behaviors. The correlations between LINC00511 and miR-195 or eyes absent homolog 1 (EYA1) were confirmed by luciferase reporter assay. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting were fulfilled to ascertain the mRNA and protein expression levels. RESULTS: In this study, we found that LINC00511 was high-regulated in HCC tissue samples and cell lines, which might be linked with unfavorable prognosis of HCC patients and clinical parameters. Loss-of-function experiments determined that LINC00511 deficiency inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation and invasive activity in HepG2 cells, while gain-of-function experiments showed the counter impacts in Huh7 cells. Bioinformatics tools and luciferase reporter assays revealed that LINC00511 may act as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) for miR-195 and positively correlate with EYA1, which was reinforced by rescue experiments. CONCLUSION: Taken together, these findings indicated that LINC00511 interacted with EYA1 promoted HCC development via mediating miR-195, proposing a promising therapeutic biomarker for HCC diagnosis and prognosis.

2.
Clin Plast Surg ; 47(1): 165-171, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739893

RESUMO

Facial fat grafting is increasing worldwide. Although there are few reports in the literature on complications following facial lipofilling, rare but serious complications include embolic risk to local end organs such as the skin and eye, and the central nervous system. Treatment strategies are outlined. The key to prevention of complications is understanding the regional anatomy. It is imperative to adhere to the safe and efficacious techniques to minimize risk. Every surgeon who performs facial fat grafting should establish a systematic method to deliver safe, consistent, and long-term results for their patients.

3.
Food Chem ; 303: 125404, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466033

RESUMO

Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy calibrations were developed to simultaneously determine the multianalytes of five artificial sweeteners, including sodium cyclamate, sucralose, sodium saccharin, acesulfame-K and aspartame. By combining the pretreatment of the spectrum and principal component analysis, 131 feature wavenumbers were extracted from the full spectral range for modelling to qualitative and quantitative analysis. Compared to random forest, k nearest neighbour and linear discriminant analysis, support vector machine model had better predictivity, indicating the most effective identification performance. Furthermore, multivariate calibration models based on partial least squares regression were constructed for quantifying any combinations of the five artificial sweeteners, and validated by prediction data sets. As shown by the good agreement between the proposed method and the reference HPLC for the determination of the sweeteners in beverage samples, a promising and rapid tool based on FTIR spectroscopy, coupled with chemometrics, has been performed to identify and objectively quantify artificial sweeteners.


Assuntos
Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos , Edulcorantes/análise , Aspartame/análise , Bebidas/análise , Calibragem , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Ciclamatos/análise , Aprendizado de Máquina , Análise de Componente Principal , Sacarina/análise , Tiazinas/análise
4.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 246: 112240, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526861

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: You-Gui-Yin (YGY) is a famous Chinese traditional medicine compound that has been used to treat renal function diseases for more than 300 years. It is recorded in Jing Yue Quanshu, which was written by a famous medical scientist named Jiebing Zhang in the Ming Dynasty. AIM OF THE STUDY: Reproductive dysfunction is one of the most serious complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of this study was to observe the effect of You-Gui-Yin (YGY) on reproductive dysfunction of male rats with adenine-induced CKD and to determine if any effects occurred via regulation of the HIF1α-STAT5 pathway. MATERIALS AND METHODS: UPLC-Q-TOF-MS was used to detect the main medicinal components and conduct quality control of YGY. A total of 60 rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: the NC group (10 rats) and the CKD model group (50 rats). The CKD model rats was established by administration of adenine 150 mg kg-1 orally for 14 days. After that, the CKD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: the CKD group, YGY (10 g kg-1 group, 20 g kg-1 group, 40 g kg-1 group) and the GUI-LU-ER-XIAN-JIAO (GL) 10 g kg-1 group with 10 rats in each group. From the 15th day to the 45th day rats were given 150 mg kg-1 adenine orally every other day to maintain the model (except in the NC group). The YGY groups and the GL group were orally administered the relevant drug once per day for 30 days. The NC group and the CKD group were orally administered an equal volume of normal saline for 30 days. On the 45th day, the rats' sexual behavior index was tested. On the 46th day, the rats were sacrificed. Biochemical indexes, histopathological changes of the kidneys and testes, sperm morphology, sperm abnormality rate, and key proteins in the HIF1α-STAT5 pathway in the kidney and testis were detected. RESULTS: Thirteen components in the YGY extract were identified by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS for quality control of the YGY extract. The results of the biochemical and physiological tests validated the success of inducing CKD accompanied by reproductive dysfunction in rats. YGY significantly retarded the CKD progression and improved the hormone levels of male CKD rats. Sexual behavior tests showed YGY can significantly improve CKD rats' sexual function. In addition, the pathological changes of the kidney and testis, sperm abnormality rate and sperm morphological abnormalities of the CKD rats were reduced by YGY. Furthermore, decreased expression of HIF1α and EPO, and increased expression of p-EPOR (Tyr368), p-JAK2 (Tyr570) and p-STAT5 (Ser725) were observed in the kidney and the testis of the CKD rats. The YGY extract dramatically increased the expression of HIF1α and EPO, and decreased the expression of p-EPOR (Tyr368), p-JAK2 (Tyr570) and p-STAT5 (Ser725) to regulate key proteins in the HIF1α-STAT5 pathway of the kidney and testis. CONCLUSIONS: YGY has obvious reversal effects on the abnormal symptoms of adenine-induced CKD and the abnormal symptoms of rats with hypothyroidism and male reproductive hypotension. Its mechanism is related to its ability to regulate the HIF1α-STAT5 pathway.

5.
Pract Radiat Oncol ; 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social contagion among physicians may affect the dissemination of innovative and high value cancer care. We applied social contagion theory to investigate the role of physician peer influence on the use of short courses of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) for patients with breast cancer. METHODS: Using a cohort of Medicare beneficiaries with breast cancer, we constructed physician peer groups based on patient-sharing relationships. Outcomes were a patient's receipt of 1) moderately hypofractionated adjuvant EBRT after breast conserving surgery and 2) short course palliative EBRT for bone metastases. Using a longitudinal design, we used mixed effects logistic regression to examine the association between physician peer group rate of short course EBRT in 2011-2012 (T1) and patients' receipt of short course EBRT in 2013-2014 (T2). RESULTS: During T2, a total of 17,248 patients received adjuvant therapy (32.3% moderately hypofractionated) from 3,235 physicians in 1,202 physician peer groups. Compared to patients treated within peer groups in which no moderately hypofractionated adjuvant EBRT was used in T1, patients treated by a physician in a peer group with higher T1 use of moderately hypofractionated adjuvant EBRT were more likely to receive moderately hypofractionated adjuvant EBRT in T2 (adjusted odds ratio 2.03 [95% CI 1.62-2.54] and 2.61 [95% CI 2.04-3.35] for peer groups where 21-46% and 47-100% of radiation oncologists used moderately hypofractionated adjuvant EBRT in T1, respectively, compared to peer groups with no use of moderately hypofractionated adjuvant EBRT). In contrast, there was no significant relationship between T1 peer group use and T2 receipt of short course palliative EBRT for bone metastases. CONCLUSIONS: Physician peer groups significantly influenced use of short course EBRT in adjuvant therapy but not in palliative therapy for patients with breast cancer.

6.
Food Chem ; : 125790, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784075

RESUMO

A higher fermentation efficiency was achieved, using multistarter fermentation of glutinous rice supplemented with Fu brick tea (FGR-FBT), than when using traditional fermentation. The effects of multistarter fermentation on the microbial, chemical, and volatile compositions were determined. When FBT was incorporated during glutinous rice fermentation, increased population of yeasts and fungi, as well as enhanced α-amylase, proteinase and ß-glucosidase activities, were observed. Specific fungi were isolated and identified as Aspergillus spp., which are known to secrete extracellular enzymes that modify the chemical properties, including ethanol levels, pH, total acids, and total soluble solids. The aroma profile of fermented glutinous rice was studied in the absence and presence of FBT, using HS-SPME-GC-MS and the electronic-nose. This analysis indicated that 35 characteristic volatile compounds were only found in FGR-FBT. The results show that FBT can be added during the fermentation of food products to enhance microbial biotransformation and modify flavour metabolism.

7.
Breast Cancer ; 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792804

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Evaluate income disparities in receipt of needle biopsy among Medicare beneficiaries and describe the magnitude of this variation across physician peer groups. METHODS: The Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database was queried from 2007-2009. Physician peer groups were constructed. The magnitude of income disparities and the patient-level and physician peer group-level effects were assessed. RESULTS: Among 9770 patients, 65.4% received needle biopsy. Patients with low income (median area-level household income < $33K) were less likely to receive needle biopsy (58.5%) compared to patients with high income (≥ $50K) (68.6%; adjusted odds ratio 0.77; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.65-0.91). Needle biopsy varied substantially across physician peer groups (interquartile range 43.4-81.9%). The magnitude of the disparity ranged from an odds ratio (OR) of 0.50 (95% CI 0.23-1.07) for low vs. high income patients to 1.27 (95% CI 0.60-2.68). The effect of being treated by a physician peer group that treated mostly low-income patients on receipt of needle biopsy was nearly three times the effect of being a low-income patient. CONCLUSIONS: Needle biopsy continues to be underused and disparities by income exist. The magnitude of this disparity varies substantially across physician peer groups, suggesting that further work is needed to improve quality and reduce inequities.

8.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793207

RESUMO

Both PNPLA3 I148M and hepatic inflammation are associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) progression. This study aimed to elucidate whether PNPLA3 I148M is involved in NF-kB-related inflammation regulation in NAFLD. HepG2 cells homozygous for the PNPLA3 I148M mutation were used. The human PNPLA3 promoter sequence was screened for NF-kB binding sites using the MATCH and PATCH tools. NF-kB-mediated transcriptional regulation of the PNPLA3 gene was assessed by luciferase reporter assay, EMSA and ChIP-qPCR. Wild-type (I148I) and mutant (M148M) PNPLA3 were overexpressed using stable lentivirus-mediated transfection. The pCMV vector and siRNA were transiently transfected into cells to direct NF-kB overexpression and PNPLA3 silencing, respectively. A putative NF-kB binding site in the human PNPLA3 promoter was shown to be necessary for basal and NF-kB-driven transcriptional activation of PNPLA3 and protein/DNA complex formation. Supershift analysis demonstrated a protein/DNA complex specifically containing the NF-kB p65 and p50 subunits. ChIP-qPCR confirmed the endogenous binding of NF-kB to the human PNPLA3 promoter in response to NF-kB overexpression and palmitic acid (PA) challenge. The silencing of PNPLA3 blocked the overexpression of NF-kB or PA-induced TNF-α up-regulation. Moreover, mutant PNPLA3 overexpression prevented NF-kB inhibitor-induced down-regulation of TNF-α expression in PA-treated HepG2 cells. Finally, the overexpression of mutant but not wild-type PNPLA3 increased TNF-α expression and activated the ER stress-mediated and NF-kB-independent inflammatory IRE-1α/JNK/c-Jun pathway. Human PNPLA3 was shown to be a target of NF-kB, and PNPLA3 I148M mediated the regulatory effect of NF-kB on inflammation in PA-treated HepG2 cells, most likely via the IRE-1α/JNK/c-Jun ER stress pathway.

9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(49): e18199, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately 10% to 30% patients develop delayed encephalopathy after acute CO poisoning (DEACMP). No specific treatment is available and poor prognosis is a characteristic of this disease. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of all therapies that have been tried in randomized controlled trial (RCT) for DEACMP. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of the Cochrane, Embase, PubMed, and Web of Science databases. RESULTS: Overall, 4 RCTs were identified in our study. Both hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) and mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation were effective in DEACMP, and MSC seemed to be superior to HBO. The addition of dexamethasone, N-butylphthalide, or XingZhi-YiNao granules into HBO, or butylphthalide into MSC could achieve better neurological recovery in DEACMP patients but did not significantly increase the incidence of adverse events. CONCLUSION: Several therapies have shown positive results in treating DEACMP and need to be proven by further studies.

10.
Food Chem ; : 125718, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753688

RESUMO

The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of non-covalent and covalent interactions between soy protein isolate (SPI) and different concentrations (1, 2 and 5 mM) of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) regarding the structural and functional properties of the complex. The combination with EGCG caused changes in the secondary structure of SPI. The covalent complexes formed at low concentrations of EGCG tended to form a network structure. Compared with the SPI-EGCG non-covalent complexes, the covalent complexes exhibited higher thermal stability and oxidation resistance and a polyphenol-protective effect. In addition, the corresponding anti-digestive ability of the covalent complexes was strong and would therefore be more stable in the intestinal tract. The findings of this study provide a theoretical reference and research basis for the use of different SPI-polyphenol complexes as functional food ingredients or as bioactive materials.

11.
Molecules ; 24(21)2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683690

RESUMO

Gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng) is a popular tropical fruit in southeast Asia. What is amazing is that its seeds (Momordicae Semen) and arils are traditional herbs with anti-tumor activity, and have protected human health for more than 1000 years. In recent years, its anti-tumor activity has received extensive attention and research. This manuscript summarized the chemical composition of saponins, fatty acids, volatile constituents, proteins, peptides, and other components from Momordicae Semen (MSE). The effect and mechanism of MSE and its extract on breast cancer, gastric cancer, lung cancer, esophagus cancer, melanomas, and human cervical epithelial carcinoma were discussed. In addition, its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and other pharmacological effects were also analyzed. We hope that this review will provide new ideas for the treatment of cancer and other diseases, and become a reference for the further research into complementary and alternative medicine.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31720785

RESUMO

Activation of complement system in central nervous system (CNS) of the patients suffering from prion diseases or animal models infected with prion agents experimentally is reported repeatedly, but which pathways are involved in the complement system during prion infection is not well documented. Here, we evaluated the level of complement factor B (CFB), which is the key factor that triggers alterative pathway (AP) of complement in the brain tissues of scrapie-infected mice with various methodologies. We found that the levels of mRNA and protein of CFB significantly increased in the brain tissues of scrapie-infected mice. Morphologically, the increased CFB-specific signal overlapped with the elevated C3 signal in brain sections of scrapie-infected mice, meanwhile overlapped with damaged neurons and activated microglia, but not with the proliferative astrocytes. Additionally, the level of complement factor P (CFP), the key positive regulator of AP, also increased remarkably in the brain tissues of infected mice. The transcriptional levels of CD55 and CD46, two negative regulators of AP, decreased without significance in brain tissues of scrapie-infected mice at the terminal stage. However, the mRNA and protein levels of CFH, another negative regulator of AP, increased. Through the dynamic analyses of the expressions of CFB, CFP, and CFH in brain sections of 139A-infected mice, which were collected at different time-points during incubation period, illustrated time-dependent increase levels of each factor during the incubation period of scrapie infection. Taken together, our data here demonstrate that the AP of complement cascade is activated in the CNS microenvironment during prion infection.

13.
Sleep Med ; 64: 62-70, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Narcolepsy is a chronic and debilitating sleep disorder characterized by cataplexy and excessive daytime sleeping. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) has been widely used to treat narcolepsy, and new findings have been published in recent years. OBJECTIVE: A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the efficacy and tolerability of GHB treatment in adults with narcolepsy. METHODS: A systematic search of PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, Web of Science, and clinical-trials.gov from inception to June 2018 was performed. Change in daily diaries and polysomnographic data of narcoleptic patients were defined as the efficacy outcomes. The tolerability and acceptability outcomes were the rates of adverse events and dropping out for adverse effects or other reasons. RESULTS: Fifteen randomized controlled trials involving 2104 participants were identified. GHB was found to improve cataplexy attacks (P = 0.001), subjective daytime sleepiness (P < 0.0001), daytime sleep latency (P < 0.0001), inadvertent naps/sleep attacks (P < 0.00001), effective rates (Clinical Global Impression of change) (P < 0.00001), hypnagogic hallucinations (P = 0.004), sleep paralysis (P = 0.004), stage 1 sleep (P = 0.04), slow wave sleep (P = 0.003), REM sleep (P = 0.0006), sleep shifts (P = 0.005), nocturnal awakenings (P = 0.004), quality of nocturnal sleep (P < 0.00001), chin muscle activity, and quality of life, but had no effect on stage 2 sleep (P = 0.88). GHB was less well tolerated than placebo because of side effects that occurred in a dose-dependent fashion (RR = 6.08; 95% CI = 2.18 to 16.97; P = 0.0006). CONCLUSIONS: GHB was effective in improving narcolepsy-cataplexy and related symptoms in adults but was less well tolerated than placebo because of dose-dependent side effects.

14.
Theranostics ; 9(25): 7889-7905, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695806

RESUMO

Cancer immunotherapy aims to utilize the host immune system to kill cancer cells. Recent representative immunotherapies include T-cell transfer therapies, such as chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy, antibody-based immunomodulator therapies, such as immune checkpoint blockade therapy, and cytokine therapies. Recently developed therapies leveraging engineered cells for immunotherapy against cancers have been reported to enhance antitumor efficacy while reducing side effects. Such therapies range from biologically, chemically and physically -engineered cells to bioinspired and biomimetic nanomedicines. In this review, advances of engineering cells for cancer immunotherapy are summarized, and prospects of this field are discussed.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765312

RESUMO

Image set recognition has been widely applied in many practical problems like real-time video retrieval and image caption tasks. Due to its superior performance, it has grown into a significant topic in recent years. However, images with complicated variations, e.g., postures and human ages, are difficult to address, as these variations are continuous and gradual with respect to image appearance. Consequently, the crucial point of image set recognition is to mine the intrinsic connection or structural information from the image batches with variations. In this work, a Discriminant Residual Analysis (DRA) method is proposed to improve the classification performance by discovering discriminant features in related and unrelated groups. Specifically, DRA attempts to obtain a powerful projection which casts the residual representations into a discriminant subspace. Such a projection subspace is expected to magnify the useful information of the input space as much as possible, then the relation between the training set and the test set described by the given metric or distance will be more precise in the discriminant subspace. We also propose a nonfeasance strategy by defining another approach to construct the unrelated groups, which help to reduce furthermore the cost of sampling errors. Two regularization approaches are used to deal with the probable small sample size problem. Extensive experiments are conducted on benchmark databases, and the results show superiority and efficiency of the new methods.

16.
Trials ; 20(1): 657, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency has been shown to be closely associated with peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related peritonitis. The aim of this study is to examine the feasibility of conducting a large, powered randomized controlled trial to determine the effects of vitamin D supplementation on the risk of PD-related peritonitis in patients who have already experienced an episode of peritonitis. METHODS: This prospective, open-label randomized controlled pilot trial with blinded end-points aims to determine the feasibility of oral vitamin D supplementation and to explore its effects on the risk of subsequent PD-related peritonitis among PD patients who have recovered from a recent episode of peritonitis. Eligible patients will be randomized 1:1 to either oral vitamin D supplementation (2000 IU per day; intervention group) or no vitamin D supplementation (control group) in addition to usual care according to International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis guidelines. The sample size will be 30 patients for both groups. All participants will be followed for 12 months. The primary outcome is the assessment of feasibility (recruitment success, retention, adherence, safety) and fidelity (change in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level during follow-up) for a large, powered randomized controlled trial to determine the effects of vitamin D on the risk of PD-related peritonitis in the future. Secondary outcomes include time to peritonitis occurrence, recovery of peritonitis, peritonitis-related transition to hemodialysis, and peritonitis-related death (defined as death within 30 days of peritonitis onset). DISCUSSION: This is the first randomized controlled trail investigating the effects of vitamin D supplementation on the risk of subsequent PD-related peritonitis among patients on PD. The findings for this pilot study will determine the feasibility of conducting a full-scale randomized controlled trail, which may provide a new strategy for preventing PD-related peritonitis among PD patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrails.gov, NCT03264625. Registered on 29 August 2017.

17.
Waste Manag ; 102: 304-311, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707319

RESUMO

Changing patterns of municipal solid waste (MSW) management, for example sorting for recycling and mechanical-biological treatment (MBT), will change the nature of the residual material going to landfill and in particular its intrinsic permeability. This is an important parameter, not least because of its influence on gas and leachate flows and the ramifications for gas and leachate management. This paper reports the results of laboratory permeability tests on specimens of MSW recovered from boreholes drilled in a Chinese landfill, under both liquid and gas flow. The test results are used to assess the intrinsic permeability of the waste, and are compared with corresponding data from raw and MBT municipal solid wastes from developed countries in the context of differences in waste composition, porosity and particle size. For the Chinese waste, the intrinsic permeability decreased with depth, while at a given depth the permeability determined with gas flow was consistently larger than that determined with liquid flow. Intrinsic permeabilities determined in liquid flow showed no clear trend of variation with effective particle diameter d10, but reduced with drainable porosity (the drainable porosity, ne, being a more appropriate and useful measure than the total porosity, n). Conversely, intrinsic permeabilities determined in gas flow showed a clear decrease with decreasing d10, but no consistent variation with porosity. These differences are potentially significant in assessing the impacts and interactions between gas and liquid flows; some reasons for them are suggested.

18.
Ecol Appl ; 2019 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758749

RESUMO

Saltmarshes are important natural carbon sinks with a large capacity to absorb exogenous nutrient inputs. The effects of nutrients on biogeographic productivity patterns, however, have been poorly explored in saltmarshes. We conducted field surveys to examine how complex environments affect productivity of two common saltmarsh plants, invasive Spartina alterniflora and native Phragmites australis, along an 18,000-km latitudinal gradient on the Chinese coastline. We harvested peak aboveground biomass as a proxy for productivity, and measured leaf functional traits (e.g., leaf area, specific leaf area [SLA], leaf nitrogen [N] and phosphorus [P]), soil nutrients (dissolved inorganic N (DIN) and available P (AP)), and salinity. We compiled data on mean annual temperature (MAT) and exogenous nutrients (both N and P). Then, we examined how these abiotic factors affect saltmarsh productivity using both linear mixed effect models and structural equation modelling. Using a trait-based approach, we also examined how saltmarsh productivity responds to changing environments across latitude. Exogenous nutrients (both N and P) compared with temperature and other variables (e.g., DIN, AP, salinity) were the dominant factors in explaining the biogeographic productivity patterns of both S. alterniflora and P. australis. Leaf size-related traits (e.g., leaf area), rather than leaf economic traits (e.g., SLA, leaf N and P), can be used to indicate the positive effects of exogenous nutrients on the productivity of these two species. Our results demonstrated that human eutrophication surpassed temperature as the major driver of biogeographic saltmarsh productivity pattern, challenging current models in which biogeographic productivity pattern is primarily controlled by temperature. Our findings have potential broad implications for the management of S. alterniflora, which is a global invader, as it has benefited from coastal eutrophication. Furthermore, exogenous nutrient availability and leaf size need to be integrated into earth system models that are used to predict global plant productivity in saltmarshes.

19.
Redox Biol ; 28: 101364, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731101

RESUMO

Inflammation is a self-defense response to protect individuals from infection and tissue damage, but excessive or persistent inflammation can have adverse effects on cell survival. Many individuals become especially susceptible to chronic-inflammation-induced sensorineural hearing loss as they age, but the intrinsic molecular mechanism behind aging individuals' increased risk of hearing loss remains unclear. FoxG1 (forkhead box transcription factor G1) is a key transcription factor that plays important roles in hair cell survival through the regulation of mitochondrial function, but how the function of FoxG1 changes during aging and under inflammatory conditions is unknown. In this study, we first found that FoxG1 expression and autophagy both increased gradually in the low concentration lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation model, while after high concentration of LPS treatment both FoxG1 expression and autophagy levels decreased as the concentration of LPS increased. We then used siRNA to downregulate Foxg1 expression in hair cell-like OC-1 cells and found that cell death and apoptosis were significantly increased after LPS injury. Furthermore, we used d-galactose (D-gal) to create an aging model with hair cell-like OC-1 cells and cochlear explant cultures in vitro and found that the expression of Foxg1 and the level of autophagy were both decreased after D-gal and LPS co-treatment. Lastly, we knocked down the expression of Foxg1 under aged inflammation conditions and found increased numbers of dead and apoptotic cells. Together these results suggest that FoxG1 affects the sensitivity of mimetic aging hair cells to inflammation by regulating autophagy pathways.

20.
J Perinatol ; 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31700090

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine costs of hospitalization associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) during the first year in very low birth weight infants. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of California births from 2008 to 2011 linking birth certificate, discharge records, and clinical data from California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative. Inclusion: birth weight 401-1500 g, gestational age < 30 weeks, inborn or transferred within 2 days, alive at 36 weeks corrected, and without major congenital anomalies. Outcomes included cost and length of stay of initial hospitalization and rehospitalizations. RESULT: Out of 7998 eligible infants, 2696 (33.7%) developed BPD. Median hospitalization cost in the first year was $377,871 per infant with BPD compared with $175,836 per infant without BPD (adjusted cost ratio 1.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.49-1.59). Infants with BPD also had longer length of stay and a higher likelihood of rehospitalization. CONCLUSION: BPD is associated with substantial resource utilization. Prevention strategies could help conserve healthcare resources.

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