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1.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 75(1): 18-29, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507509

RESUMO

We report a boundary paradigm eye movement experiment to investigate whether the predictability of the second character of a two-character compound word affects how it is processed prior to direct fixation during reading. The boundary was positioned immediately prior to the second character of the target word, which itself was either predictable or unpredictable. The preview was either a pseudocharacter (nonsense preview) or an identity preview. We obtained clear preview effects in all conditions, but more importantly, skipping probability for the second character of the target word and the whole target word from pretarget was greater when it was predictable than when it was not predictable from the preceding context. Interactive effects for later measures on the whole target word (gaze duration and go-past time) were also obtained. These results demonstrate that predictability information from preceding sentential context and information regarding the likely identity of upcoming characters are used concurrently to constrain the nature of lexical processing during natural Chinese reading.


Assuntos
Fixação Ocular , Leitura , Atenção , China , Movimentos Oculares , Fóvea Central , Humanos
2.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e052383, 2021 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389582

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the association of general practitioner (GP) contact with depressive symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown in China. DESIGN: In April 2020, a follow-up survey was conducted on the basis of a baseline survey conducted between October 2018 and May 2019. SETTING: The survey was embedded in the Stanford Wellness Living Laboratory-China (WELL China) study, an ongoing prospective community-based cohort study during 2018-2019. PARTICIPANTS: The survey was conducted by telephone interview among 4144 adult urban residents participating in the WELL China study at baseline. We collected information on sociodemographic characteristics, depressive symptoms and GP contact during the lockdown period (February to March 2020). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Depressive symptoms were measured using the WHO-Five Well-being Index, comprising five questionnaire items that briefly indicate psychological well-being. Logistic regression models were applied to assess the association between GP contact and depressive symptoms. RESULTS: In total, 3356 participants responded to the survey; 203 were excluded owing to missing data on depressive symptoms, leaving 3153 participants in the present study. During lockdown, 449 participants had GP contact. GP contact was significantly negatively associated with prevalent depressive symptoms (OR, 0.67; 95% CI 0.51 to 0.89; p<0.01) and incident depressive symptoms (OR 0.68; 95% CI 0.51 to 0.93; p<0.05). Stratified analysis showed a significant negative association between depressive symptoms and GP contact in individuals who were 45-64 years old (p<0.01), had a middle or high education (p<0.01) and had self-reported non-communicable diseases (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Contact with GPs during the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdowns may have a negative association with depressive symptoms in community-dwelling populations. Given the possibility of further surges in COVID-19 infections, GPs' contact in the community should be enhanced.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Clínicos Gerais , Adulto , Ansiedade , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Genet Genomics ; 48(7): 595-605, 2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274258

RESUMO

RNA binding motif proteins (RBMs) have been widely implicated in the tumorigenesis of multiple human cancers but scarcely studied in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Here, we compare the mRNA levels of 29 RBMs between 87 NPC and 10 control samples. We find that RBM47 is frequently upregulated in NPC specimens, and its high expression is associated with the poor prognosis of patients with NPC. Biological experiments show that RBM47 plays an oncogenic role in NPC cells. Mechanically, RBM47 binds to the promoter and regulates the transcription of BCAT1, and its overexpression partially rescues the inhibitory effects of RBM47-knockdown on NPC cells. Moreover, transcriptome analysis reveals that RBM47 regulates alternative splicing of pre-mRNA, including those cancer-related, to a large extent in NPC cells. Furthermore, RBM47 binds to hnRNPM and cooperatively regulates multiple splicing events in NPC cells. In addition, we find that knockdown of hnRNPM inhibits proliferation and migration of NPC cells. Our study, taken together, shows that RBM47 promotes the progression of NPC through multiple pathways, acting as a transcriptional factor and a modulator of alternative splicing in cooperation with hnRNPM. Our study also highlights that RBM47 and hnRNPM could be prognostic factors and potential therapeutic targets for NPC.

4.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(12): 7139-7153, 2021 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125892

RESUMO

Riboswitches are conserved functional domains in mRNA that mostly exist in bacteria. They regulate gene expression in response to varying concentrations of metabolites or metal ions. Recently, the NMT1 RNA motif has been identified to selectively bind xanthine and uric acid, respectively, both are involved in the metabolic pathway of purine degradation. Here, we report a crystal structure of this RNA bound to xanthine. Overall, the riboswitch exhibits a rod-like, continuously stacked fold composed of three stems and two internal junctions. The binding-pocket is determined by the highly conserved junctional sequence J1 between stem P1 and P2a, and engages a long-distance Watson-Crick base pair to junction J2. Xanthine inserts between a G-U pair from the major groove side and is sandwiched between base triples. Strikingly, a Mg2+ ion is inner-sphere coordinated to O6 of xanthine and a non-bridging oxygen of a backbone phosphate. Two further hydrated Mg2+ ions participate in extensive interactions between xanthine and the pocket. Our structure model is verified by ligand binding analysis to selected riboswitch mutants using isothermal titration calorimetry, and by fluorescence spectroscopic analysis of RNA folding using 2-aminopurine-modified variants. Together, our study highlights the principles of metal ion-mediated ligand recognition by the xanthine riboswitch.


Assuntos
Magnésio/química , Riboswitch , Xantina/química , Sítios de Ligação , Cátions Bivalentes , Cristalografia por Raios X , Ligantes , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Dobramento de RNA
5.
Infect Genet Evol ; 93: 104980, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34182190

RESUMO

This study demonstrates that infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strain M41, which is pathogenic for chickens, is nonpathogenic for pheasants. However, M41 replicated in the respiratory tracts of most inoculated pheasants and the virus was shed from their respiratory tracts in the early stages of infection (4 and 8 dpc). Similarly, the attenuated IBV H120 vaccine strain also replicated and the virus was shed from their respiratory tracts of most inoculated pheasants, whereas the pheasant coronavirus (PhCoV) I0623/17 replicated in the respiratory tracts of all challenged pheasants, which then shed virus for a long period of time. Strain M41 also replicated in selected tissues of the inoculated pheasants, including the lung, kidney, proventriculus, and cecal tonsil, although the viral titers were very low. Therefore, it was important to establish whether the H120 vaccine, which has a limited replication capacity in pheasants, induces a protective immune response to both "homologous" M41 and "heterologous" I0623/17 challenge. Vaccination with H120 induced humoral responses, and the replication of M41 was reduced or restricted in the tissues of the H120-vaccinated pheasants compared with its replication in unvaccinated birds. This implies that partial protection was conferred on pheasants by vaccination with the H120 vaccine. Prolonged viral replication and a large number of birds shedding virus into the respiratory tract were also observed in the unvaccinated pheasants after inoculation with M41. However, only limited protection against challenge with PhCoV I0623/17 was conferred on pheasants vaccinated with H120, largely because the replication of H120 in pheasants was limited, thus, limiting the immune responses induced by it. The low amino acid identity of the S1 subunit of the S proteins of H120 and I0623/17 might also account, at least in part, for the poor cross-protective immunity induced by H120. These results suggest that further work is required to rationally design vaccines that confer effective protection against PhCoV infection in commercial pheasant stocks.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Galliformes , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/fisiologia , Vacinas Virais/farmacologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/imunologia , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/patogenicidade , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Vacinas Atenuadas/farmacologia
6.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 8(16): e2004852, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34180133

RESUMO

20-30% of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) develop distant metastasis or recurrence leading to poor survival, of which the underlying key molecular events have yet to be addressed. Here alternative splicing events in 85 NPC samples are profiled using transcriptome analysis and it is revealed that the long isoform of GOLIM4 (-L) with exon-7 is highly expressed in NPC and associated with poor prognosis. Lines of evidence demonstrate the pro-tumorigenic function of GOLIM4-L in NPC cells. It is further revealed that RBFOX2 binds to a GGAA motif in exon-7 and promotes its inclusion forming GOLIM4-L. RBFOX2 knockdown suppresses the tumorigenesis of NPC cells, phenocopying GOLIM4-L knockdown, which is significantly rescued by GOLIM4-L overexpression. High expression of RBFOX2 is correlated with the exon-7 inclusion of GOLIM4 in NPC biopsies and associated with worse prognosis. It is observed that RBFOX2 and GOLIM4 can influence vesicle-mediated transport through maintaining the organization of Golgi apparatus. Finally, it is revealed that RAB26 interacts with GOLIM4 and mediates its tumorigenic potentials in NPC cells. Taken together, the findings provide insights into how alternative splicing contributes to NPC development, by highlighting a functional link between GOLIM4-L and its splicing regulator RBFOX2 activating vesicle-mediated transport involving RAB26.

7.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(5)2021 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924915

RESUMO

Genetic analysis of brown midrib sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) mutant lines assembled in our program has previously shown that the mutations fall into four allelic groups, bmr2, bmr6, bmr12 or bmr19. Causal genes for allelic groups bmr2, bmr6 and bmr12, have since been identified. In this report, we provide evidence for the nature of the bmr19 mutation. This was accomplished by introgressing each of the four bmr alleles into nine different genetic backgrounds. Polymorphisms from four resequenced bulks of sorghum introgression lines containing either mutation, relative to those of a resequenced bulk of the nine normal midrib recurrent parent lines, were used to locate their respective causal mutations. The analysis confirmed the previously reported causal mutations for bmr2 and bmr6 but failed in the case of bmr12-bulk due to a mixture of mutant alleles at the locus among members of that mutant bulk. In the bmr19-bulk, a common G → A mutation was found among all members in Sobic.001G535500. This gene encodes a putative folylpolyglutamate synthase with high homology to maize Bm4. The brown midrib phenotype co-segregated with this point mutation in two separate F2 populations. Furthermore, an additional variant allele at this locus obtained from a TILLING population also showed a brown midrib phenotype, confirming this locus as Bmr19.


Assuntos
Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Lignina/biossíntese , Peptídeo Sintases/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sorghum/genética , Ácido Fólico/genética , Patrimônio Genético , Lignina/genética , Peptídeo Sintases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sorghum/metabolismo
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(35): 48038-48052, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33900554

RESUMO

Metallic glasses (MGs) with unique disordered atomic stacking structures exhibit excellent catalytic performance in wastewater treatment. The catalytic degradation of Orange II (AO II) aqueous solutions by four CuZr-based MG ribbons under such processing parameters as pH values, the dosage of ribbons, and temperature was investigated in this paper. The catalytic performance of the MG ribbons was characterized by using the degradation efficiency of the dye wastewater. The phase constituent, surface morphology, and chemical valence state of elements on the surface of MG ribbons before and after use were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The results indicate that the Cu46Zr42Al7Y5 MG ribbon has the best catalytic performance among the Cu46Zr47-xAl7Yx (x = 0, 1, 3, 5) MGs in the degradation process, and the dye in the wastewater can almost be completely decolorized within 60 min under the conditions of pH = 2, the dosage of ribbons being 1.8 g/L and water bath temperature of 313 K, with the degradation efficiency and chemical oxygen demand removal being 96.05% and 51.73%, respectively. Furthermore, the Cu46Zr42Al7Y5 MG ribbon still shows superior structural stability and degradation performance after repeated use, and the corrosion pits on the MG surface promote the physicochemical reaction between the wastewater and the ribbons.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Catálise , Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
9.
Chemosphere ; 275: 130094, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676280

RESUMO

The simultaneous partial nitrification, anammox and denitrification (SNAD) process has been widely used in domestic sewage biological denitrification technology because of its high efficiency and low consumption. However, the simultaneous removal of another important pollution element, phosphorus, has been difficult, and its C/N ratio limitation of the influent is strict. The start-up of the anaerobic hydrolysis acidification (ANHA)- simultaneous partial nitrification, anammox and denitrification (SNAD)/enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) coupling process achieves the treatment of urban sewage for carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus removal. Under optimal conditions, the final total nitrogen and total phosphorus removal rates reached 91.59% and 89.10%, respectively. High-throughput sequencing technology showed that the ANHA reactor was mainly Lactococcus. At the same time, the main bacteria in the SNAD/EBPR process were anammox bacteria (AnAOB, Candidatus_Kuenenia, Candidatus_Brocadia) primarily existing in biofilms, while the ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB, Nitrosomonas), denitrifying polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (DPAOs, Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Bdellovibrio) and Denitrifying bacteria (DNB, Thauera, Denitratisoma, Rhodobacteraceae).were mainly found in the suspended sludge. These conclusions provide valuable information for the full-scale treatment of domestic sewage.


Assuntos
Nitrificação , Nitrogênio , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Desnitrificação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise , Nitrogênio/análise , Oxirredução , Fósforo , Esgotos
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 774: 145189, 2021 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610982

RESUMO

In the process of treating high-concentration pyridine wastewater, problems such as low treatment efficiency and total nitrogen (TN) residues are always encountered. Catalytic ozonation can degrade pyridine wastewater well, and it also has the potential to remove TN. However, limited research has been conducted on the development of ozonation catalysts that can simultaneously remove the total organic carbon (TOC) and TN. Density functional theory (DFT) technology can determine the number of active components on the catalyst based on its composition; therefore, it can be used to guide the research and development of such catalysts. Here, we presented a strategy to guide the preparation of two-component Mn and Cu catalysts using DFT technology. By characterising and applying the prepared MnxCu1-xOy/γ-Al2O3 catalysts, it was confirmed that the DFT accurately predicted the changes in the active site content. The selected catalyst also achieved strong TOC and TN removal rates during the catalytic ozonation of high-concentration pyridine wastewater. A Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology was used to optimise the process conditions of catalytic ozonation and verify its stability. Under the optimal reaction conditions, the TOC and TN removal efficiencies from a 500 mg/L pyridine solution were 99.8% and 45.8%, respectively. This work indicated that the use of DFT for the design of catalytic materials was an effective method, which can provide a theoretical basis for material design and reduce the time for material screening.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33275578

RESUMO

During the COVID-19 pandemic, an ultraportable ultrasound smart probe has proven to be one of the few practical diagnostic and monitoring tools for doctors who are fully covered with personal protective equipment. The real-time, safety, ease of sanitization, and ultraportability features of an ultrasound smart probe make it extremely suitable for diagnosing COVID-19. In this article, we discuss the implementation of a smart probe designed according to the classic architecture of ultrasound scanners. The design balanced both performance and power consumption. This programmable platform for an ultrasound smart probe supports a 64-channel full digital beamformer. The platform's size is smaller than 10 cm ×5 cm. It achieves a 60-dBFS signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and an average power consumption of ~4 W with 80% power efficiency. The platform is capable of achieving triplex B-mode, M-mode, color, pulsed-wave Doppler mode imaging in real time. The hardware design files are available for researchers and engineers for further study, improvement or rapid commercialization of ultrasound smart probes to fight COVID-19.


Assuntos
Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador/instrumentação , Transdutores , Ultrassonografia/instrumentação , COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagem , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pandemias , Imagens de Fantasmas , SARS-CoV-2 , Razão Sinal-Ruído , Ultrassonografia/métodos
13.
Clin Nutr ; 40(5): 3531-3541, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33349486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Determining dietary patterns in China is challenging due to lack of external validation and objective measurements. We aimed to characterize dietary patterns in a community-based population and to validate these patterns using external validation cohort and metabolomic profiles. DESIGN: We studied 5145 participants, aged 18-80 years, from two districts of Hangzhou, China. We used one district as the discovery cohort (N = 2521) and the other as the external validation cohort (N = 2624). We identified dietary patterns using a k-means clustering. Associations between dietary patterns and metabolic conditions were analyzed using adjusted logistic models. We assessed relationships between metabolomic profile and dietary patterns in 214 participants with metabolomics data. RESULTS: We identified three dietary patterns: the traditional (rice-based), the mixed (rich in dairy products, eggs, nuts, etc.), and the high-alcohol diets. Relative to the traditional diet, the mixed (ORadj = 1.7, CI 1.3-2.4) and the high-alcohol diets (ORadj = 1.9, CI 1.3-2.7) were associated with type 2 diabetes and hypertension, respectively. Similar results were confirmed in the external validation cohort. In addition, we also identified 18 and 22 metabolites that could distinguish the mixed (error rate = 12%; AUC = 96%) and traditional diets (error rate = 19%; AUC = 88%) from the high-alcohol diet. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the complexity of Chinese diet, identifying dietary patterns helps distinguish groups of individuals with high risk of metabolic diseases, which can also be validated by external population and metabolomic profiles.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Metabólicas , Metaboloma/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
14.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(21): 12394-12406, 2020 12 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170270

RESUMO

Riboswitches are important gene regulatory elements frequently encountered in bacterial mRNAs. The recently discovered nadA riboswitch contains two similar, tandemly arrayed aptamer domains, with the first domain possessing high affinity for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). The second domain which comprises the ribosomal binding site in a putative regulatory helix, however, has withdrawn from detection of ligand-induced structural modulation thus far, and therefore, the identity of the cognate ligand and the regulation mechanism have remained unclear. Here, we report crystal structures of both riboswitch domains, each bound to NAD+. Furthermore, we demonstrate that ligand binding to domain 2 requires significantly higher concentrations of NAD+ (or ADP retaining analogs) compared to domain 1. Using a fluorescence spectroscopic approach, we further shed light on the structural features which are responsible for the different ligand affinities, and describe the Mg2+-dependent, distinct folding and pre-organization of their binding pockets. Finally, we speculate about possible scenarios for nadA RNA gene regulation as a putative two-concentration sensor module for a time-controlled signal that is primed and stalled by the gene regulation machinery at low ligand concentrations (domain 1), and finally triggers repression of translation as soon as high ligand concentrations are reached in the cell (domain 2).


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , Magnésio/química , NAD/química , RNA Catalítico/química , Ribonucleoproteína Nuclear Pequena U1/química , Riboswitch , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Cátions Bivalentes , Clonagem Molecular , Cristalografia por Raios X , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Vetores Genéticos/química , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Vírus Delta da Hepatite/química , Ligantes , Magnésio/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , NAD/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Conformação Proteica em Folha beta , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Dobramento de RNA , RNA Catalítico/genética , RNA Catalítico/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Ribonucleoproteína Nuclear Pequena U1/genética , Ribonucleoproteína Nuclear Pequena U1/metabolismo
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32850719

RESUMO

Isotropic inverse opal structures have been extensively studied for the ability to manipulate cell behaviors such as attachment, migration, and spheroid formation. However, their use in regulate the behaviors of neural stem cells has not been fully explored, besides, the isotropic inverse opal structures usually lack the ability to induce the oriented cell growth which is fundamental in neural regeneration based on neural stem cell therapy. In this paper, the anisotropic inverse opal substrates were obtained by mechanically stretching the poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) inverse opal films. The anisotropic inverse opal substrates possessed good biocompatibility, optical properties and anisotropy, provided well guidance for the formation of neural spheroids, the alignment of neural stem cells, the differentiation of neural stem cells, the oriented growth of derived neurons and the dendritic complexity of the newborn neurons. Thus, we conclude that the anisotropic inverse opal substrates possess great potential in neural regeneration applications.

16.
Bioresour Technol ; 306: 123117, 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169509

RESUMO

Sulphur-based autotrophic denitrification is an energy-efficient NO3--N removal process; it does not require carbon and may potentially replace traditional denitrification processes. This process was used to treat graphite production-derived wastewater and achieved almost complete removal of NO3--N (concentration in effluent: 5.2 mg/L; concentration in influent: 606 mg/L) at a salinity of 15 g/L with a 30 h hydraulic retention time. A unique microbial community was established, in which the abundance of Thiobacillus increased with the increase of the NO3--N concentration and salinity. Metagenomic analysis revealed that the denitrification metabolic pathway in the bioreactor was active. It also revealed the increased activation of nhaH, a gene encoding Na+/H+ antiporters; proA, proB, and proC, genes encoding proline; and Trk and Kdp systems during the treatment of graphite production-derived wastewater to maintain cell function, providing valuable information about utilizing the sulphur-based autotrophic denitrification process to treat graphite production-derived wastewater.

17.
Sci Total Environ ; 706: 136027, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855635

RESUMO

An integrated method of simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification from flue gas by catalytic ozonation combined with NH3/(NH4)2S2O8 absorption was developed for the first time. It consisted of two parts: (1) the catalytic ozonation of NO over FeOx/SAPO-34 to study the effects of the various influencing factors, and (2) the absorption-oxidation of NOx and SO2 induced by ozone combined with a NH3/(NH4)2S2O8 solution in a bubble column reactor. In Part 1, results showed that under the optimal condition of a molar ratio of 0.5 for O3/NO, a residence time of 3 s, a water vapor volume fraction of 4%, a NO initial concentration of 536 mg/m3, and a SO2 initial concentration of 343 mg/m3, the oxidation rate of NO was 55%. The characterizations of poisoned catalyst are briefly discussed. In Part 2, as the gas passed sequentially through the ozonizing reactor and the absorber (NH3/(NH4)2S2O8 solution of 0.8% ammonia and 0.2 mol/L (NH4)2S2O8), a NO conversion rate of approximately 92.6% and SO2 conversion rate of 100% were obtained. The pH of the NH3/(NH4)2S2O8 solution had a significant impact on the NO conversion. According to the analysis of the composition of products under different pHs, a mechanism of desulfurization and denitrification based on NH3/(NH4)2S2O8 solutions was proposed. The reaction product as a compound fertilizer contained up to 24.5% nitrogen.

18.
Bioresour Technol ; 284: 80-89, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30925426

RESUMO

Simultaneous partial Nitrification, Anammox, and Denitrification (SNAD) is a promising and energy-efficient nitrogen removal process, which is powerless to eliminate phosphorus and confronted the problem of excessive effluent nitrate once applied in municipal sewage treatment characterized with high C/N ratio (≥2). Herein, by coupling SNAD with denitrifying phosphorus removal (DPR) process in a single-tank reactor, a novel integrative process (termed as SNADPR) was designed to treat municipal sewage. The removal efficiencies of TN, PO43--P, and COD under the optimized conditions (T = 30 °C, HRT = 24 h, DO = 0.45 mg/L) were 89.15 ±â€¯2.19%, 92.93 ±â€¯0.60%, and 99.17 ±â€¯1.58%, respectively. Distinctive microbial community distribution was harvested, where anammox bacteria (AnAOB, Candidatus_Kuenenia and Candidatus_Brocadia) were mainly located in biofilm, whereas denitrifying polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (DPAOs, Dechloromonas and Pseudomonas) and ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB, Nitrosomonas) basically lived in suspended floc. The SRT separation between biofilm and floc was reached by conserving AnAOB-rich biofilm and termly discharging phosphorus-rich floc.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Planctomycetales/metabolismo , Compostos de Amônio/metabolismo , Biofilmes , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Desnitrificação , Nitratos/metabolismo , Nitrificação , Esgotos/microbiologia
19.
Antioxid Redox Signal ; 30(11): 1389-1410, 2019 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29587485

RESUMO

AIMS: Cisplatin can damage spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) and cause sensorineural hearing loss. Wnt activation protects against neomycin-induced hair cell damage in the mouse cochlea, but the role of Wnt signaling in protecting SGNs from cisplatin treatment has not yet been elucidated. This study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of Wnt signaling against cisplatin-induced SGN damage. RESULTS: First, we found that Wnt signaling was activated in SGNs after cisplatin treatment. Next, we discovered that overexpression (OE) of Wnt signaling in SGNs reduced cisplatin-induced SGN loss by inhibiting caspase-associated apoptosis, thus preventing the loss of SGN function after cisplatin treatment. In contrast, inhibition of Wnt signaling increased apoptosis, made SGNs more vulnerable to cisplatin treatment, and exacerbated hearing loss. TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR), which scavenges intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), was upregulated in SGNs in response to cisplatin administration. Wnt/ß-catenin activation increased TIGAR expression and reduced ROS level, while inhibition of Wnt/ß-catenin in SGNs reduced TIGAR expression and increased the ROS level. Moreover, OE of TIGAR reduced ROS and decreased caspase 3 expression, as well as increased the survival of SGNs in Wnt-inhibited SGNs. Finally, antioxidant treatment rescued the more severe SGN loss induced by ß-catenin deficiency after cisplatin treatment. Innovation and Conclusion: This study is the first to indicate that Wnt signaling activates TIGAR and protects SGNs against cisplatin-induced damage through the inhibition of oxidative stress and apoptosis in SGNs, and this might offer novel therapeutic targets for the prevention of SGN injury. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.


Assuntos
Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Cóclea/citologia , Cóclea/metabolismo , Necrose/induzido quimicamente , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Apoptose/fisiologia , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Cóclea/efeitos dos fármacos , Gânglios/citologia , Gânglios/efeitos dos fármacos , Gânglios/metabolismo , Glicólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicólise/genética , Glicólise/fisiologia , Perda Auditiva/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/genética , Gânglio Espiral da Cóclea/citologia , Via de Sinalização Wnt/efeitos dos fármacos , Via de Sinalização Wnt/genética , Via de Sinalização Wnt/fisiologia
20.
Technol Health Care ; 26(5): 805-814, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30282381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by Porphyromonas gingivalis that leads to a series of periodontal tissue injuries. Egg yolk immunoglobulins (IgY) is procuded in egg yolk and inhibits P. gingivalis. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate the effect of IgY on experimental periodontitis caused by P. gingivalis. METHODS: The second molars of rats were ligatured using medical 5-0 silk and smeared with P. gingivalis to induce experimental periodontitis. Then, the rats were smeared with 2 mL IgY solutions or 0.9% NaCl in the oral cavity for up to 4 wk. The scores for gingival index, plaque index and probe on bleeding, the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α, X-ray radiography and histology were used to determine the efficacy of the IgY on experimental periodontitis. RESULTS: The clinical indices improved; the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly (p< 0.05) decreased; the X-rays and histomorphological observations suggested that the periodontal inflammation and periodontitis were alleviated compared to the control. CONCLUSIONS: IgY showed significant effects on anti-inflammatory, anti-coaggregation activity, and protected against alveolar bone loss. Therefore, it had a beneficial effect on preventing experimental periodontitis caused by P. gingivalis.


Assuntos
Imunoglobulinas/farmacologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Periodontite/tratamento farmacológico , Periodontite/fisiopatologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Perda do Osso Alveolar/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Índice de Placa Dentária , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Interleucina-6/biossíntese , Índice Periodontal , Ratos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/biossíntese
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