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1.
Chemosphere ; 226: 915-923, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509921

RESUMO

Fine particulate matter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) is a prominent global public health risk factor that can cause respiratory infection by downregulating the amounts of antimicrobial proteins and peptides (AMPs). Both salivary agglutinin (SAG) and surfactant protein D (SPD) are important AMPs in respiratory mucosal fluid, providing protection against airway pathogen invasion and infection by inducing microbial aggregation and enhancing pathogen clearance. However, the relationship between PM2.5 and these AMPs is unclear. To better understand the relationship between PM2.5 and airway innate immune defenses, we review the respiratory antimicrobial activities of SAG and SPD, as well as the adverse effects of PM2.5 on airway innate antimicrobial defense. We speculate there exists a dual effect between PM2.5 and respiratory antimicrobial activity, which means that PM2.5 suppresses respiratory antimicrobial activity through downregulating airway AMPs, while airway AMPs accelerate PM2.5 clearance by inducing PM2.5 microbial aggregation. We propose further research on the relationship between PM2.5 and these AMPs.

2.
Langmuir ; 35(34): 11071-11079, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31380650

RESUMO

Underwater superoleophobic membranes as an effective means of resisting oil stains are often subjected to cumbersome modification procedures, limited stability, and difficult expansion of assembly. To develop simple, green, stable, and scalable underwater superoleophobic films, herein, cellulose-based oil-water separators with high-efficiency oil purification were constructed by using commercial carboxymethocel (CMC) as a solute and a dimethyl sulfoxide-modified ionic liquid as a solvent. Owing to the superior dissolution, regenerability, and gelation of CMC, the metal mesh and gauze can be imparted with an excellent oleophobic ability through simple dipping, spraying, and coating of the CMC solution. As a result, these modified functionalized devices exhibit a purification capacity of more than 99.5% for various oil-water mixtures. Unexpectedly, the CMC gel coating also shields the gloves from organic solvents. Significantly, when the CMC solution is applied to an adsorption membrane, it not only endows the film with excellent oil-water separation characteristics but also enhances the adsorption amount and rate of the adsorbent. Therefore, CMC-based oleophobic materials can be widely developed and applied to a variety of fields that require oleophobic properties.

3.
Environ Int ; 131: 105043, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Environmental exposure to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can disturb the immune response. However, the effect of PAHs on low-grade inflammation related to platelets in humans is unknown. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the association of PAH exposure with low-grade inflammation and platelet parameters in healthy preschoolers. METHODS: The present study recruited 239 participants, aged 2-7 years, from an electronic-waste (e-waste)-exposed (n = 118) and a reference (n = 121) area. We measured ten urinary PAH metabolites, four types of immune cells and cytokines, and seven platelet parameters, and compared their differences between children from the two groups. Spearman correlation analysis was performed to explore the potential risk factors for PAH exposure and the associations between urinary monohydroxylated PAHs (OH-PAHs) and biological parameters. Associations between urinary PAH metabolites and platelet indices were analyzed using quantile regression models. Mediation analysis was used to understand the relationship between urinary total hydroxynaphthalene (ΣOHNa) and interleukin (IL)-1ß through seven platelet indices, as mediator variables. RESULTS: We found higher urinary monohydroxylated PAH (OH-PAH) concentrations, especially 1-hydroxynaphthalene (1-OHNa) and 2-hydroxynaphthalene (2-OHNa), in children from the e-waste-exposed group than in the reference group. These were closely associated with child personal habits and family environment. A decreased lymphocyte ratio and increased pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as gamma interferon-inducible protein (IP)-10 and IL-1ß, were found in the e-waste-exposed children. After adjustment for confounding factors, significantly negative correlations were found between levels of mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW), platelet-large cell ratio (P-LCR) and ratio of mean platelet volume to platelet count (MPVP) and OH-PAHs. In addition, ΣOHNa was positively associated with IL-1ß mediated through MPV, PDW, P-LCR, and ratio of platelet count to lymphocyte count (PLR). CONCLUSIONS: Platelet indices were significantly associated with the changes in urinary OH-PAH levels, which may can be regarded as effective biomarkers of low-grade inflammation resulting from low PAH exposure in healthy children.

4.
Small ; 15(23): e1900816, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021514

RESUMO

Carbonaceous materials are promising anodes for potassium-ion batteries (PIBs). However, it is hard for large K ions (1.38 Å) to achieve long-distance diffusion in pristine carbonaceous materials. In this work, the following are synthesized: S/N codoped carbon nanofiber aerogels (S/N-CNFAs) with optimized electronic structure by S/N codoping, enhanced interlayer spacing by S doping, and a 3D interconnected porous structure of aerogel, through a pyrolysis sustainable seaweed (Fe-alginate) aerogel strategy. Specifically, the S/N-CNFAs electrode delivers high reversible capacities of 356 and 112 mA h g-1 at 100 and 5000 mA g-1 , respectively. The capacity reaches 168 mA h g-1 at 2000 mA g-1 after 1000 cycles. A full cell with a S/N-CNFAs anode and potassium prussian blue cathode displays a specific capacity of 198 mA h g-1 at 200 mA g-1 . Density functional theory calculations indicate that S/N codoping is beneficial to synergistically improve K ions storage of S/N-CNFAs by enhancing the adsorption of K ions and reducing the diffusion barrier of K ions. This work offers a facile heteroatom doping paradigm for designing new carbonaceous anodes for high-performance PIBs.

5.
Environ Res ; 171: 536-545, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30763874

RESUMO

This study explored the effects of maternal exposure to e-waste environmental heavy metals on neonatal DNA methylation patterns. Neonatal umbilical cord blood (UCB) samples were collected from participants that resided in an e-waste recycling area, Guiyu and a nearby non-e-waste area, Haojiang in China. The concentrations of UCB lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn) and chromium (Cr) were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Epigenome-wide DNA methylation at 473, 844 CpG sites (CpGs) were assessed by Illumina 450 K BeadChip. The differential methylation of CpG sites from the microarray were further validated by bisulfite pyrosequencing. Bioinformatics analysis showed that 125 CpGs mapped to 79 genes were differential methylation in the e-waste exposed group with higher concentrations of heavy metals in neonatal UCB. These genes mainly involve in multiple biological processes including calcium ion binding, cell adhesion, embryonic morphogenesis, as well as in signaling pathways related to NFkB activation, adherens junction, TGF beta and apoptosis. Among them, BAI1 and CTNNA2 (involving in neuron differentiation and development) were further verified to be hyper- and hypo-methylated, respectively, which were associated with maternal Pb exposure. These results suggest that maternal exposure to e-waste environmental heavy metals (particularly lead) during pregnancy are associated with peripheral blood differential DNA methylation in newborns, specifically the genes involving in brain neuron development.

6.
Sci Total Environ ; 664: 690-697, 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30763849

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) toxicity damages blood cells and disturbs the immune micro-environment. When Pb enters the circulatory system, >95% of Pb accumulates in erythrocytes. We therefore conducted this study to explore the long-term effect of Pb exposure on expression of erythrocyte adhesion molecules (CD44 and CD58) and related downstream cytokine concentrations. We enrolled a total of 267 preschool children, 2-7 years of age, from Guiyu (e-waste-exposed group, n = 132) and Haojiang (reference group, n = 135) in November and December 2015. We measured child blood Pb, biomarkers including erythrocyte CD44 and CD58, erythrocyte count, leukocyte count and inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-12p70 and IFN-γ), and calculated erythrocyte Pb levels. Regression model demonstrated that higher erythrocyte Pb was associated with lower CD44 and CD58. Compared to low erythrocyte Pb levels (quartile 1), high erythrocyte Pb levels (quartile 4) were related to lower levels of erythrocyte CD44 and CD58. Elevated blood Pb correlated with higher IL-12p70 and IFN-γ, and lower IL-2. The mediation effect of erythrocyte CD44 on the relationship of erythrocyte Pb with IL-1ß and IL-12p70 was significant, and the effect of erythrocyte Pb on IFN-γ was mediated by erythrocyte CD58. The data provides novel translational insight into the relationship between elevated Pb exposure and the change of erythrocyte immunity and downstream cytokine secretion in preschool children.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD58/metabolismo , Resíduo Eletrônico/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Receptores de Hialuronatos/metabolismo , Chumbo/toxicidade , Biomarcadores , Pré-Escolar , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Eritrócitos , Humanos , Imunidade , Chumbo/metabolismo
7.
Nat Immunol ; 20(3): 350-361, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718914

RESUMO

Despite the known importance of zinc for human immunity, molecular insights into its roles have remained limited. Here we report a novel autosomal recessive disease characterized by absent B cells, agammaglobulinemia and early onset infections in five unrelated families. The immunodeficiency results from hypomorphic mutations of SLC39A7, which encodes the endoplasmic reticulum-to-cytoplasm zinc transporter ZIP7. Using CRISPR-Cas9 mutagenesis we have precisely modeled ZIP7 deficiency in mice. Homozygosity for a null allele caused embryonic death, but hypomorphic alleles reproduced the block in B cell development seen in patients. B cells from mutant mice exhibited a diminished concentration of cytoplasmic free zinc, increased phosphatase activity and decreased phosphorylation of signaling molecules downstream of the pre-B cell and B cell receptors. Our findings highlight a specific role for cytosolic Zn2+ in modulating B cell receptor signal strength and positive selection.


Assuntos
Agamaglobulinemia/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/imunologia , Zinco/imunologia , Agamaglobulinemia/genética , Agamaglobulinemia/metabolismo , Animais , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/deficiência , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Pré-Escolar , Citosol/imunologia , Citosol/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Retículo Endoplasmático/imunologia , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Mutação , Linhagem , Zinco/metabolismo
8.
Nanoscale ; 11(6): 2787-2794, 2019 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30672951

RESUMO

High voltage P2-Na2/3[Ni1/3Mn2/3]O2 is regarded as a promising cathode for high-energy sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). However, the undesired P2-O2 phase transition at high voltages above 4.0 V leads to a large volume change and further causes the rapid decay of capacity. Herein, an electrochemical-active Co3+ substitution is introduced to suppress the P2-O2 phase transformation but not at the cost of capacity. The spherical, Co3+ substituted P2-Na2/3[Ni0.3Co0.1Mn0.6]O2 with a high tap-density of 1.86 g cm-3 is successfully synthesized by co-precipitation and solid-state reactions. As anticipated, it delivers a large specific capacity of 161.6 mA h g-1 with a high median-voltage of 3.64 V (vs. Na/Na+), translated into a high energy-density of ∼590 W h kg-1, which is comparable to that of the commercialized LiCoO2 cathode in lithium-ion batteries. Apart from improved cycling stability ascribed to the mitigated P2-O2 transition, this cathode also shows a better rate property compared with those modified by Li+, Mg2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, and Ti4+ doping and Al2O3 coating. Besides, the P2-Na2/3[Ni0.3Co0.1Mn0.6]O2|hard carbon full-cells deliver a reversible capacity of 150.6 mA h g-1 and have enhanced cycle-life and high-rate capability. These gratifying achievements indicate that this P2-Na2/3[Ni0.3Co0.1Mn0.6]O2 is a very promising candidate as a high energy-density cathode for SIBs.

9.
Environ Int ; 123: 535-542, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30622078

RESUMO

Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a risk factor for respiratory diseases. Previous studies suggest that PM2.5 exposure may down-regulate airway antimicrobial proteins and peptides (AMPs), thereby accelerating airway pathogen infection. However, epidemiological research is scarce. Hence, we estimated the associations between individual PM2.5 chronic daily intake (CDI) and the levels of the airway AMP salivary agglutinin (SAG), as well as peripheral leukocyte counts and pro-inflammatory cytokines, of preschool children in Guiyu (an e-waste area) and Haojiang (a reference area located 31.6 km to the east of Guiyu). We recruited 581 preschool children from Guiyu and Haojiang, of which 222 were included in this study for a matching design (Guiyu: n = 110 vs. Haojiang: n = 112). Air PM2.5 pollution data was collected to calculate individual PM2.5 CDI. The mean concentration of PM2.5 in Guiyu was higher than in Haojiang, resulting in a higher individual PM2.5 CDI. Concomitantly, saliva SAG levels were lower in Guiyu children (5.05 ng/mL) than in Haojiang children (8.68 ng/mL), and were negatively correlated with CDI. Additionally, peripheral counts of white blood cells, and the concentrations of interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, in Guiyu children were greater than in Haojiang children, and were positively associated with CDI. Similar results were found for neutrophils and monocytes. To our knowledge, this is the first study on the relationship between PM2.5 exposure and innate airway antimicrobial activity in children, in an e-waste area, showing that PM2.5 pollution may weaken airway antimicrobial activity by down-regulation of saliva SAG levels, which might accelerate airway pathogen infection in children.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/metabolismo , Resíduo Eletrônico/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Proteína D Associada a Surfactante Pulmonar/sangue , Receptores de Superfície Celular/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Citocinas/sangue , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Leucócitos , Masculino , Infecções Respiratórias/induzido quimicamente , Infecções Respiratórias/imunologia , Fatores de Risco
10.
Neurotoxicology ; 71: 150-158, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30664973

RESUMO

Exposure to lead is associated with adverse effects on neurodevelopment. However, studies of the effects of lead on sensory integration are few. The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of lead exposure on child sensory integration by correlating the blood lead levels of children with sensory processing measures. A total of 574 children, from 3 to 6 years of age, 358 from an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling town named Guiyu, and 216 from Haojiang, a nearby town with no e-waste recycling activity, were recruited in this study. The median blood lead level in Guiyu children was 4.88 µg/dL, higher than the 3.47 µg/dL blood lead level in Haojiang children (P < 0.001). 47.2% of Guiyu children had blood lead levels exceeding 5 µg/dL. The median concentration of serum cortisol, an HPA-axis biomarker, in Guiyu children was significantly lower than in Haojiang, and was negatively correlated with blood lead levels. All subscale scores and the total score of the Sensory Processing Measure (Hong Kong Chinese version, SPM-HKC) in Guiyu children were higher than Haojiang children, indicating greater difficulties, especially for touch, body awareness, balance and motion, and total sensory systems. Sensory processing scores were positively correlated with blood lead, except for touch, which was negatively correlated with serum cortisol levels. Simultaneously, all subscale scores and the total SPM-HKC scores for children with high blood lead levels (blood lead > 5 µg/dL) were higher than those in the low blood lead level group (blood lead < 5 µg/dL), especially for hearing, touch, body awareness, balance and motion, and total sensory systems. Our findings suggest that lead exposure in e-waste recycling areas may result in a decrease in serum cortisol levels and an increase in child sensory integration difficulties. Cortisol may be involved in touch-related sensory integration difficulties.

11.
Environ Pollut ; 246: 587-596, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30597391

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure is positively associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), and the possible potential mechanism may be caused by damage to the endothelium by modulation of inflammatory processes. No comprehensive research shows co-exposure of Pb and PAH on cardiovascular endothelial inflammation in electronic waste (e-waste) exposed populations. Given this, the aim of this study is to provide evidence for a relationship between Pb and PAH co-exposure and cardiovascular endothelial inflammation, in an e-waste-exposed population, to delineate the link between a potential mechanism for CVD and environmental exposure. We recruited 203 preschool children (3-7 years) were enrolled from Guiyu (e-waste-exposed group, n = 105) and Haojiang (reference group, n = 98). Blood Pb levels and urinary PAH metabolites were measured. Percentages of T cells, CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells, complete blood counts, endothelial inflammation biomarker (serum S100A8/A9), and other inflammatory biomarkers [serum interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12p70, gamma interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10)] levels were evaluated. Blood Pb, total urinary hydroxylated PAH (ΣOHPAH), total hydroxynaphthalene (ΣOHNap) and total hydroxyfluorene (ΣOHFlu) levels, S100A8/A9, IL-6, IL-12p70 and IP-10 concentrations, absolute counts of monocytes, neutrophils, and leukocytes, as well as CD4+ T cell percentages were significantly higher in exposed children. Elevated blood Pb, urinary 2-hydroxynaphthalene (2-OHNap) and ΣOHFlu levels were associated with higher levels of IL-6, IL-12p70, IP-10, CD4+ T cell percentages, neutrophil and monocyte counts. Mediator models indicated that neutrophils exert the significant mediation effect on the relationship between blood Pb levels and S100A8/A9. IL-6 exerts a significant mediation effect on the relationship between blood Pb levels and IP-10, as well as the relationship between urinary ΣOHFlu levels and IP-10. Our results indicate that children with elevated exposure levels of Pb and PAHs have exacerbated vascular endothelial inflammation, which may indicate future CVD risk in e-waste recycling areas.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Resíduo Eletrônico/efeitos adversos , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Chumbo/toxicidade , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Biomarcadores/sangue , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Doenças Cardiovasculares/imunologia , Pré-Escolar , China , Citocinas/sangue , Resíduo Eletrônico/análise , Endotélio Vascular/imunologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Chumbo/sangue , Masculino , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/urina , Reciclagem
12.
Dalton Trans ; 48(3): 1084-1094, 2019 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30601553

RESUMO

Metallic Ag0 intercalated CoAl-layered double hydroxides (CoAl LDHs) have been successfully synthesized in situ through a simple redox process with ethylene glycol (EG) and triethanolamine (TEOA). The Ag(CN)2- anion-exchanged precursor was reduced by EG to form metallic Ag0. Furthermore, the effect of TEOA on confining the particle size of Ag0 was demonstrated. The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) property of metallic Ag0 intercalated CoAl LDHs was examined in alkaline aqueous solution. A typical sample synthesized by the addition of TEOA for 180 min exhibited excellent ORR catalytic activity with a high current density of 5.5 mA cm-2 at 0.2 V (vs. a reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE)) and good stability. Koutecky-Levich (K-L) calculations and rotating ring-disk electrode (RRDE) measurements further revealed that the ORR of the as-prepared catalyst proceeded mainly via an almost ideal four-electron transfer process. The enhanced electrocatalytic activity was ascribed to the intercalated Ag0, confined nanoparticle size and the expanded interlayer space, which effectively facilitate the reactant transfer and electron migration.

13.
Chemosphere ; 220: 531-538, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30594806

RESUMO

Chronic exposures to toxic trace metals have hazardous effects on human health, especially exposure to lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd). Blood Pb and Cd reflect toxicity on human health. A total of 267 hospitalized patients, of which 158 were from Guiyu (exposed group) in China, and 109 from Jinping (reference group), were recruited in this study. Blood Pb and Cd were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Blood Pb and Cd levels from the exposed group were both higher than in the reference group. Blood Pb levels are positively associated with blood Cd levels from the two groups. Blood Pb and Cd levels are associated with elevated hematological and hepatic parameters in patients from the exposed and reference groups. The results suggest toxic trace metals may increase liver metabolic burden, inducing abnormal liver function.


Assuntos
Cádmio/sangue , Resíduo Eletrônico/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Chumbo/sangue , Fígado/metabolismo , gama-Glutamiltransferase/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Resíduo Eletrônico/análise , Feminino , Testes Hematológicos , Humanos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
14.
Nanoscale ; 11(2): 688-697, 2019 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30565623

RESUMO

Uniform P doped Co-Ni-S nanosheet arrays were directly grown on Ni foams by an efficient and cost-effective process. The binder-free electrode of P doped Co-Ni-S nanosheet arrays possesses an ultra-high specific capacitance of ∼3677 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 with an excellent rate capability (∼63% capacitance retention at 20 A g-1) and considerable cycling performance (∼84% capacitance retention after 10 000 cycles). Correspondingly, the asymmetric supercapacitors assembled with P doped Co-Ni-S as the positive electrode and AC as the negative electrode display an ultra-high energy density of ∼68.7 W h kg-1 at a power density of ∼0.8 kW kg-1. In view of these features, this work provides a simple and scalable strategy for designing electrodes and devices with superior electrochemical performance in next generation energy storage applications.

15.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(2): 2050-2059, 2019 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30561185

RESUMO

Photocatalytic hydrogen evolution has broad prospects as a clean solution for the energy crisis. However, the rational design of catalyst complex, the H2 evolution efficiency, and the yield are great challenge. Herein, three-dimensional hierarchical g-C3N4 architectures assembled by ultrathin carbon-rich nanosheets (3D CCNS) were prepared via an extremely facile hexamethylenetetramine activation approach at the bulk scale, indicating the validation of scale-up production process. The two-dimensional ultrathin carbon-rich nanosheets were several hundred nanometers in width but only 5-6 nm in thickness and gave rise to a unique 3D interconnected network. The unique composition and structure of the nanosheets endow them with a remarkable light absorption spectrum with the tunable band gap, high electrical conductivity, fast charge separation, and large surface areas with abundant reaction active sites, and thus significantly improved H2 production performance. As high as ∼7.8%, quantum efficiency can be achieved by irradiating 3D CCNS at 420 nm with a H2 evolution rate >2.7 × 104 µmol/g/h, which is ∼31.3 times higher than that of the pristine g-C3N4. Our work introduces an extremely facile route for mass production of doping modified 3D g-C3N4-based photocatalyst with excellent H2 evolution performances.

16.
Environ Int ; 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30449631

RESUMO

Respiratory symptoms are important indicators of respiratory diseases. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to respiratory symptoms development but less is known about gene-environment interactions. We aimed to assess interactions between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and occupational exposures on respiratory symptoms cough, dyspnea and phlegm. As identification cohort LifeLines I (n = 7976 subjects) was used. Job-specific exposure was estimated using the ALOHA + job exposure matrix. SNP-by-occupational exposure interactions on respiratory symptoms were tested using logistic regression adjusted for gender, age, and current smoking. SNP-by-exposure interactions with a p-value <10-4 were tested for replication in two independent cohorts: LifeLines II (n = 5260) and the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen cohort (n = 1529). The interaction estimates of the replication cohorts were meta-analyzed using PLINK. Replication was achieved when the meta-analysis p-value was <0.05 and the interaction effect had the same direction as in the identification cohort. Additionally, we assessed whether replicated SNPs associated with gene expression by analyzing if they were cis-acting expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) in lung tissue. In the replication meta-analysis, sixteen out of 477 identified SNP-by-occupational exposure interactions had a p-value <0.05 and 9 of these interactions had the same direction as in the identification cohort. Several identified loci were plausible candidates for respiratory symptoms, such as TMPRSS9, SERPINH1, TOX3, and ARHGAP18. Three replicated SNPs were cis-eQTLs for FCER1A, CHN1, and TIMM13 in lung tissue. Taken together, this genome-wide SNP-by-occupational exposure interaction study in relation to cough, dyspnea, and phlegm identified several suggestive susceptibility genes. Further research should determine if these genes are true susceptibility loci for respiratory symptoms in relation to occupational exposures.

17.
Environ Pollut ; 245: 453-461, 2018 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30458375

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are well-known carcinogenic and endocrine disrupting chemicals that have been concerned over the past few decades. We aimed to determine the hydroxylated PAH (OHPAH) metabolite concentrations in maternal urine collected from the e-waste-contaminated area of Guiyu and the reference area of Haojiang, China, and to evaluate their health effects on birth outcomes. The median Æ©OHPAH concentration was 6.87 µg/g creatinine from Guiyu, and 3.90 µg/g creatinine from Haojiang. 2-OHNap and 1-OHPyr were the predominant metabolites. Residence in Guiyu and recycling in houses were associated with elevated 2-OHNap and 1-OHPyr. Standardized mean difference revealed that compared to low PAH metabolite levels in the first quartile, high PAH metabolite levels in the fourth quartile especially for 1-OHPyr, Æ©OHPAHs and sometimes hydroxylphenanthrene compounds, presented a reduced size in birth outcomes (overall SMD: -0.09; 95% CI: -0.15, -0.03), including head circumference, BMI and Apgar 1 score, and increased size in height. After adjusting for confounders in regression models, an interquartile increase in ΣOHPAHs was associated with a decrease of 234.56 g in weight (95% CI: -452.00, -17.13), 1.72 cm in head circumference (95% CI: -2.96, -0.48), 1.06 kg/m2 in BMI (95% CI: -1.82, -0.31) and 0.42 in Apgar 1 score (95% CI: -0.66, -0.18), respectively. These findings suggest high exposure to PAHs during pregnancy in e-waste areas, posing a potential threat to neonatal development, which likely can be attributed to direct e-waste recycling activities. Ongoing studies should be continued to monitor human exposure and health, in particular for vulnerable individuals in e-waste-polluted areas.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30293161

RESUMO

Asthma, as one of the most common chronic diseases in children and adults, is a consequence of complex gene-environment interactions. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), as a group of widespread environmental organic pollutants, are involved in the development, triggering and pathologic changes of asthma. Various previous studies reported the critical roles of PAHs in immune changes, oxidative stress and environment-gene interactions of asthma. EPHX1 (the gene of epoxide hydrolase 1, an enzyme mediating human PAH metabolism) had a possible association with asthma by influencing PAH metabolism. This review summarized that (1) the roles of PAHs in asthma-work as risk factors; (2) the possible mechanisms involved in PAH-related asthma-through immunologic and oxidative stress changes; (3) the interactions between PAHs and EPHX1 involved in asthma-enzymatic activity of epoxide hydrolase 1, which affected by EPHX1 genotypes/SNPs/diplotypes, could influence human PAH metabolism and people's vulnerability to PAH exposure. This review provided a better understanding of the above interactions and underlying mechanisms for asthma which help to raise public's concern on PAH control and develop strategies for individual asthma primary prevention.

19.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 13(1): 260, 2018 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30167915

RESUMO

ZnO@NiO core-shell heterostructures with high photocatalytic efficiency and reusability were prepared via electrochemical deposition on carbon fiber cloth substrates. Their photocatalytic properties were investigated by measuring the degradation of rhodamine B and methyl orange (MO) under ultraviolet light irradiation. The photodegradation efficiency of the ZnO@NiO heterostructures toward both dyes was better than those of the pure ZnO nanorods and NiO nanosheets. The higher performance could be attributed to the formation of p-n heterojunction between ZnO and NiO. Especially, the ZnO@NiO heterostructure formed upon deposition of NiO for 10 min degraded 95% of MO under ultraviolet light irradiation for 180 min. The high photodegradation efficiency of the ZnO@NiO heterostructures was also attributed to the high separation efficiency of photogenerated carriers, as confirmed by the higher photocurrent of the ZnO@NiO heterostructures (eightfold) when compared with that of the pure ZnO nanorods. Moreover, the high photodegradation efficiency of the ZnO@NiO heterostructures was maintained over three successive degradation experiments and decreased to 90% after the third cycle.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30171476

RESUMO

This paper reviews the concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in atmosphere of an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling town, Guiyu, in Southeast China, focusing on polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We assess the evidence for the association between air pollution and human body burden, to provide an indication of the severity of respiratory exposure. Compared with standards and available existing data for other areas, it clearly shows that four typical POPs, derived from recycling processes, lead to serious atmospheric pollution and heavy body burden. From published data, the estimated respiratory exposure doses of Guiyu adults and children, varied between 2.48-10.37 and 3.25-13.6 ng kg-1 body weight (bw) day-1 for PBDEs, 2.31-7.6 and 4.09-13.58 pg World Health Organization-Toxic Equivalent Quantity (WHO-TEQ) kg-1 bw day-1 for PCDD/Fs, 5.57 and 20.52 ng kg-1 bw day-1 for PCBs, and 8.59-50.01 and 31.64-184.14 ng kg-1 bw day-1 for PAHs, respectively. These results show that air pollution is more harmful to children. Furthermore, except for PBDEs, the hazard quotient (HQ) of the other three pollutants was rated more than 1 by respiratory exposure only, and all of them are at risk of carcinogenesis. So we speculate these pollutants enter the body mainly through air inhalation, making respiratory exposure may be more important than dietary exposure in the Guiyu e-waste recycling area. Effective management policies and remediation techniques are urgently needed to prevent the deterioration of ambient air quality in the e-waste recycling area.

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