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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719213

RESUMO

Context: The first issue to be considered in acupuncture is the safety of and adverse effects from treatment. Fainting is an uncommon adverse reaction. Some researchers believe that fainting is related to the mechanism underlying acupuncture treatment, but due to moral and technical issues, studies involving fainting during the acupuncture process haven't been conducted. Objective: The study intended to determine if specific risk factors are associated with fainting during acupuncture treatment. Design: The research team performed 2 case studies involving fainting during acupuncture. Setting: The study took place in the Physiotherapy Departments of the Leribe Motebang Hospital and the Mamohau Hospital in the Kingdom of Lesotho. Participants: Participants were 2 out of 2050 patients who received acupuncture treatment between October 2017 and April 2018 at one of the hospitals. They had fainted, with different clinical manifestations, during acupuncture treatment. Their main symptoms were dizziness, general weakness associated forehead sweating, palpitations, dyspnea, and nausea. Results: In both cases, the patient had complained of hunger before treatment. Both claimed that they had never experienced such a situation previously. Conclusions: The research team suggests that the fainting occurred for the patients in the two case studies secondary to the hungry state. Hunger may be one of the most important causes of fainting connected to acupuncture. The failure of a practitioner to perform treatment for fainting in a timely and effective manner, or his or her improper handling of it, can lead to serious consequences. Therefore, factors that may cause fainting should be minimized to avoid their occurrence during acupuncture.

2.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 60(14): 4792-4802, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743936

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the normative values, distribution patterns, and correlated factors of macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL), ganglion cell complex (GCC), and outer retinal layer (ORL) thicknesses in Chinese children. Methods: A sample of 3000 healthy children with different refractive status aged 6 to 19 years was consecutively examined. Demographics were recorded, and a comprehensive ophthalmic examination including refractive error and axial length (AL) was taken from all participants. The GCIPL, GCC, and ORL thicknesses were measured using swept source-optical coherence tomography (OCT), and multiple linear regression was used to determine which factors were associated with the thickness of each layer. Results: The average thickness was 77.00 ± 4.78 µm (95% confidence interval [CI]: 69.56-84.56 µm) in the GCIPL, 107.68 ± 5.95 µm (95% CI: 98.45-117.21 µm) in the GCC, and 178.57 ± 9.02 µm (95% CI: 164.33-192.56 µm) in the ORL. Multiple regression analysis indicated that GCIPL thickness was associated with sex (ß = 0.168, P < 0.001), age (ß = 0.126, P < 0.001), axial length (ß = -0.181, P < 0.001), and refractive error (ß = 0.233, P < 0.001). Age (ß = 0.154, P < 0.001), sex (ß = 0.102, P < 0.001), and refractive error (ß = 0.149, P < 0.001) were associated independently with GCC thickness after adjusting for the other factors. Furthermore, age (ß = 0.100, P < 0.001), sex (ß = 0.163, P < 0.001), AL (ß = -0.283, P < 0.001), and refractive error (ß = 0.207, P < 0.001) were the independent factors associated with ORL thickness. Conclusions: The present study established a normative pediatric database for macular layer thicknesses in healthy Chinese children, advancing the ability of OCT in diseases diagnosis and monitoring among children.

3.
J Proteome Res ; 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755721

RESUMO

Macular neovascular disease is a group disorder with complex pathogenesis of neovascularization for vision impairment and irreversible blindness, posing great challenges to precise diagnosis and management. We prospectively recruited participants with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) and pathological myopia (PM), compared with cataract patients without fundus diseases as control group. The serum metabolome was profiled by gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS) analysis. Multivariate statistical methods as well as data mining were performed for interpretation of macular neovascularization. A total of 446 participants with macular neovascularization and 138 cataract subjects as control group were enrolled in this study. By employing GC-TOFMS, 131 metabolites were identified and 33 differentiating metabolites were highlighted in patients with macular neovascularization. For differential diagnosis, 3 panels of specific metabolomics-based biomarkers provided areas under the curve of 0.967, 0.938 and 0.877 in the discovery phase (n= 328), predictive values of 87.3%, 79% and 85.7% in the test phase (n= 256). Personalized pathway dysregulation scores measurement using lilikoi package in R language revealed pentose phosphate pathway and mitochondrial electron transport chain as the most important pathways in AMD; purine metabolism and glycolysis were identified as the major disturbed pathways in PCV while the altered thiamine metabolism and purine metabolism may contribute to PM phenotypes. Serum metabolomics are powerful for characterizing metabolic disturbances of macular neovascular. Differences in metabolic pathways may reflect underlying macular neovascularand serve as therapeutic targets for macular neovascular treatment.

4.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 121: 109606, 2019 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743875

RESUMO

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of vision loss in the elderly and is attributed to choroidal neovascularization (CNV), which is a feature of wet AMD. The hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α)/vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) pathway contributes to the pathogenesis of CNV. M1-type macrophages/microglia secrete interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), facilitating the development of CNV. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a kind of polyphenol in green tea that exerts anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic effects. In this study, a prodrug of EGCG (pro-EGCG) alleviated mouse laser-induced CNV leakage and reduced CNV area by down-regulating HIF-1α/VEGF/VEGFR2 pathway; M1-type macrophage/microglia polarization; as well as endothelial cell viability, proliferation, migration and tube formation, indicating a novel potential therapy for AMD.

5.
Cell ; 179(5): 1057-1067.e14, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730849

RESUMO

The transition to a terrestrial environment, termed terrestrialization, is generally regarded as a pivotal event in the evolution and diversification of the land plant flora that changed the surface of our planet. Through phylogenomic studies, a group of streptophyte algae, the Zygnematophyceae, have recently been recognized as the likely sister group to land plants (embryophytes). Here, we report genome sequences and analyses of two early diverging Zygnematophyceae (Spirogloea muscicola gen. nov. and Mesotaenium endlicherianum) that share the same subaerial/terrestrial habitat with the earliest-diverging embryophytes, the bryophytes. We provide evidence that genes (i.e., GRAS and PYR/PYL/RCAR) that increase resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses in land plants, in particular desiccation, originated or expanded in the common ancestor of Zygnematophyceae and embryophytes, and were gained by horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from soil bacteria. These two Zygnematophyceae genomes represent a cornerstone for future studies to understand the underlying molecular mechanism and process of plant terrestrialization.

6.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 903, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) has historically been used as a model organism for the auditory and visual systems, stroke/ischemia, epilepsy and aging related research since 1935 when laboratory gerbils were separated from their wild counterparts. In this study we report genome sequencing, assembly, and annotation further supported by transcriptome sequencing and assembly from 27 different tissues samples. RESULTS: The genome was sequenced using Illumina HiSeq 2000 and after assembly resulted in a final genome size of 2.54 Gbp with contig and scaffold N50 values of 31.4 Kbp and 500.0 Kbp, respectively. Based on the k-mer estimated genome size of 2.48 Gbp, the assembly appears to be complete. The genome annotation was supported by transcriptome data that identified 31,769 (> 2000 bp) predicted protein-coding genes across 27 tissue samples. A BUSCO search of 3023 mammalian groups resulted in 86% of curated single copy orthologs present among predicted genes, indicating a high level of completeness of the genome. CONCLUSIONS: We report the first de novo assembly of the Mongolian gerbil genome enhanced by assembly of transcriptome data from several tissues. Sequencing of this genome and transcriptome increases the utility of the gerbil as a model organism, opening the availability of now widely used genetic tools.

7.
Gigascience ; 8(10)2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574156

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The African eggplant (Solanum aethiopicum) is a nutritious traditional vegetable used in many African countries, including Uganda and Nigeria. It is thought to have been domesticated in Africa from its wild relative, Solanum anguivi. S. aethiopicum has been routinely used as a source of disease resistance genes for several Solanaceae crops, including Solanum melongena. A lack of genomic resources has meant that breeding of S. aethiopicum has lagged behind other vegetable crops. RESULTS: We assembled a 1.02-Gb draft genome of S. aethiopicum, which contained predominantly repetitive sequences (78.9%). We annotated 37,681 gene models, including 34,906 protein-coding genes. Expansion of disease resistance genes was observed via 2 rounds of amplification of long terminal repeat retrotransposons, which may have occurred ∼1.25 and 3.5 million years ago, respectively. By resequencing 65 S. aethiopicum and S. anguivi genotypes, 18,614,838 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were identified, of which 34,171 were located within disease resistance genes. Analysis of domestication and demographic history revealed active selection for genes involved in drought tolerance in both "Gilo" and "Shum" groups. A pan-genome of S. aethiopicum was assembled, containing 51,351 protein-coding genes; 7,069 of these genes were missing from the reference genome. CONCLUSIONS: The genome sequence of S. aethiopicum enhances our understanding of its biotic and abiotic resistance. The single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified are immediately available for use by breeders. The information provided here will accelerate selection and breeding of the African eggplant, as well as other crops within the Solanaceae family.

8.
Pharmacogenomics J ; 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664190

RESUMO

Gefitinib is a widely used targeted therapeutic drug in East Asian non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. This research retrospectively investigated the relationship between the polymorphisms of genes involved in NF-κB pathways and gefitinib-related Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs). From 2011 to 2016, 109 NSCLC patients were enrolled in this study. Thirty-two SNPs of 15 genes were genotyped with a Sequenom MassARRAY system. We collected 34 paired RNA samples before and after gefitinib administration for the detection of whole blood RNA expression of genes in NF-κB pathways (NFKBIA, NFKB1, NFKB2, RELA, RELB, and TNFAIP3). IKBKB rs2272733 (CC vs non-CC: OR = 0.256, 95% CI 0.087-0.753, P = 0.013) and IKBKE rs12142086 (CC vs non-CC: OR = 3.640, 95% CI 1.320-10.039, P = 0.013) were significantly associated with gefitinib-induced skin toxicity. IKBKE rs2151222 was associated with diarrhea with the odds ratio of non-TT vs TT as 0.162 (non-TT vs TT: 95% CI 0.034-0.775, P = 0.023). Furthermore, RELA rs11227247 was a predictor for hepatic toxicity (GG vs non-GG: OR = 0.212, 95% CI 0.062-0.726, P = 0.013). None of the gene expression levels after drug administration were determined to be significant predictors for adverse drug reactions by a logistics regression analysis. Polymorphisms of IKBKB, IKBKE, and RELA are potential biomarkers for predicting gefitinib-related ADRs. Further studies are needed to understand the underlying mechanisms for diagnostic and prophylactic therapy applications.

9.
Cell Stem Cell ; 25(5): 697-712.e6, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588047

RESUMO

To investigate the contribution of parental genomes to early embryogenesis, we profiled the single-cell transcriptomes of human biparental and uniparental embryos systematically from the 1-cell to the morula stage. We observed that uniparental embryos exhibited variable and decreased embryonic genome activation (EGA). Comparative transcriptome analysis identified 807 maternally biased expressed genes (MBGs) and 581 paternally biased expressed genes (PBGs) in the preimplantation stages. MBGs became apparent at the 4-cell stage and contributed to the initiation of EGA, whereas PBGs preferentially appeared at the 8-cell stage and might affect embryo compaction and trophectoderm specification. Regulatory network analysis revealed that DUX4, EGR2, and DUXA are key transcription factors in MBGs' expression; ZNF263 and KLF3 are important for PBGs' expression. We demonstrated that parent-specific DNA methylation might account for the expression of most PBGs. Our results provide a valuable resource to understand parental genome activation and might help to elucidate parent-of-origin effects in early human development.

10.
EBioMedicine ; 47: 373-383, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota plays important roles in modulating host metabolism. Previous studies have demonstrated differences in the gut microbiome of T2D and prediabetic individuals compared to healthy individuals, with distinct disease-related microbial profiles being reported in groups of different age and ethnicity. However, confounding factors such as anti-diabetic medication hamper identification of the gut microbial changes in disease development. METHOD: We used a combination of in-depth metagenomics and metaproteomics analyses of faecal samples from treatment-naïve type 2 diabetic (TN-T2D, n = 77), pre-diabetic (Pre-DM, n = 80), and normal glucose tolerant (NGT, n = 97) individuals to investigate compositional and functional changes of the gut microbiota and the faecal content of microbial and host proteins in Pre-DM and treatment-naïve T2D individuals to elucidate possible host-microbial interplays characterizing different disease stages. FINDINGS: We observed distinct differences characterizing the gut microbiota of these three groups and validated several key features in an independent TN-T2D cohort. We also demonstrated that the content of several human antimicrobial peptides and pancreatic enzymes differed in faecal samples between three groups. INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest a complex, disease stage-dependent interplay between the gut microbiota and the host and point to the value of metaproteomics to gain further insight into interplays between the gut microbiota and the host. FUND: The study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31601073), the National Key Research and Development Program of China (No. 2017YFC0909703) and the Shenzhen Municipal Government of China (No. JCYJ20170817145809215). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

11.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; : W1-W11, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553660

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE. The objective of our study was to compare the performance of radiologicradiomic machine learning (ML) models and expert-level radiologists for differentiation of benign and malignant solid renal masses using contrast-enhanced CT examinations. MATERIALS AND METHODS. This retrospective study included a cohort of 254 renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) (190 clear cell RCCs [ccRCCs], 38 chromophobe RCCs [chrRCCs], and 26 papillary RCCs [pRCCs]), 26 fat-poor angioleiomyolipomas, and 10 oncocytomas with preoperative CT examinations. Lesions identified by four expert-level radiologists (> 3000 genitourinary CT and MRI studies) were manually segmented for radiologicradiomic analysis. Disease-specific support vector machine radiologic-radiomic ML models for classification of renal masses were trained and validated using a 10-fold cross-validation. Performance values for the expert-level radiologists and radiologic-radiomic ML models were compared using the McNemar test. RESULTS. The performance values for the four radiologists were as follows: sensitivity of 73.7-96.8% (median, 84.5%; variance, 122.7%) and specificity of 48.4-71.9% (median, 61.8%; variance, 161.6%) for differentiating ccRCCs from pRCCs and chrRCCs; sensitivity of 73.7-96.8% (median, 84.5%; variance, 122.7%) and specificity of 52.8-88.9% for differentiating ccRCCs from fat-poor angioleiomyolipomas and oncocytomas (median, 80.6%; variance, 269.1%); and sensitivity of 28.1-60.9% (median, 84.5%; variance, 122.7%) and specificity of 75.0-88.9% for differentiating pRCCs and chrRCCs from fat-poor angioleiomyolipomas and oncocytomas (median, 50.0%; variance, 191.1%). After a 10-fold cross-validation, the radiologic-radiomic ML model yielded the following performance values for differentiating ccRCCs from pRCCs and chrRCCs, ccRCCs from fat-poor angioleiomyolipomas and oncocytomas, and pRCCs and chrRCCs from fat-poor angioleiomyolipomas and oncocytomas: a sensitivity of 90.0%, 86.3%, and 73.4% and a specificity of 89.1%, 83.3%, and 91.7%, respectively. CONCLUSION. Expert-level radiologists had obviously large variances in performance for differentiating benign from malignant solid renal masses. Radiologic-radiomic ML can be a potential way to improve interreader concordance and performance.

12.
J Transl Med ; 17(1): 314, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wearable smart watches provide large amount of real-time data on the environmental state of the users and are useful to determine risk factors for onset and progression of myopia. We aim to evaluate the efficacy of machine learning algorithm in differentiating indoor and outdoor locations as collected by use of smart watches. METHODS: Real time data on luminance, ultraviolet light levels and number of steps obtained with smart watches from dataset A: 12 adults from 8 scenes and manually recorded true locations. 70% of data was considered training set and support vector machine (SVM) algorithm generated using the variables to create a classification system. Data collected manually by the adults was the reference. The algorithm was used for predicting the location of the remaining 30% of dataset A. Accuracy was defined as the number of correct predictions divided by all. Similarly, data was corrected from dataset B: 172 children from 3 schools and 12 supervisors recorded true locations. Data collected by the supervisors was the reference. SVM model trained from dataset A was used to predict the location of dataset B for validation. Finally, we predicted the location of dataset B using the SVM model self-trained from dataset B. We repeated these three predictions with traditional univariate threshold segmentation method. RESULTS: In both datasets, SVM outperformed the univariate threshold segmentation method. In dataset A, the accuracy and AUC of SVM were 99.55% and 0.99 as compared to 95.11% and 0.95 with the univariate threshold segmentation (p < 0.01). In validation, the accuracy and AUC of SVM were 82.67% and 0.90 compared to 80.88% and 0.85 with the univariate threshold segmentation method (p < 0.01). In dataset B, the accuracy and AUC of SVM and AUC were 92.43% and 0.96 compared to 80.88% and 0.85 with the univariate threshold segmentation (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Machine learning algorithm allows for discrimination of outdoor versus indoor environments with high accuracy and provides an opportunity to study and determine the role of environmental risk factors in onset and progression of myopia. The accuracy of machine learning algorithm could be improved if the model is trained with the dataset itself.

13.
Small ; : e1904107, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539198

RESUMO

Photocatalysts, which utilize solar energy to catalyze the oxidation or reduction half reactions, have attracted tremendous interest due to their great potential in addressing increasingly severe global energy and environmental issues. Solar energy utilization plays an important role in determining photocatalytic efficiencies. In the past few decades, many studies have been done to promote photocatalytic efficiencies via extending the absorption of solar energy into near-infrared (NIR) light. This Review comprehensively summarizes the recent progress in NIR-driven photocatalysts, including the strategies to harvest NIR photons and corresponding photocatalytic applications such as the degradation of organic pollutants, water disinfection, water splitting for H2 and O2 evolution, CO2 reduction, etc. The application of NIR-active photocatalysts employed as electrocatalysts is also presented. The subject matter of this Review is designed to present the relationship between material structure and material optical properties as well as the advantage of material modification in photocatalytic reactions. It paves the way for future material design in solar energy-related fields and other energy conversion and storage fields.

14.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4201, 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519986

RESUMO

As Charles Darwin anticipated, living fossils provide excellent opportunities to study evolutionary questions related to extinction, competition, and adaptation. Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L.) is one of the oldest living plants and a fascinating example of how people have saved a species from extinction and assisted its resurgence. By resequencing 545 genomes of ginkgo trees sampled from 51 populations across the world, we identify three refugia in China and detect multiple cycles of population expansion and reduction along with glacial admixture between relict populations in the southwestern and southern refugia. We demonstrate multiple anthropogenic introductions of ginkgo from eastern China into different continents. Further analyses reveal bioclimatic variables that have affected the geographic distribution of ginkgo and the role of natural selection in ginkgo's adaptation and resilience. These investigations provide insights into the evolutionary history of ginkgo trees and valuable genomic resources for further addressing various questions involving living fossil species.

15.
Clin Hemorheol Microcirc ; 73(1): 237-247, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561334

RESUMO

Laminin-5 (Ln-5), an important extracellular matrix (ECM) protein, plays a critical role in regulating the growth and differentiation of mesodermal tissues, including bone. Ln-5 can be secreted by the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and Ln-5 promotes MSCs osteogenic differentiation. It has been demonstrated that a substrate's surface topography could regulate MSC secretion and differentiation. A better understanding of the mechanism of how Ln-5 and surface roughness regulate MSC osteogenic differentiation would guide the design of surface topography and coatings of orthopedic implants and cell culture substrates. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between surface roughness and the secretion of Ln-5 in MSC osteogenic differentiation. Whether substrate surface topography regulates MSC differentiation via regulating Ln-5 secretion and how surface topography contributes to the secretion of Ln-5 are still not known. In this study, the influence of microscale roughness at different levels (R0, R1 and R2) on the secretion of Ln-5 of human bone marrow MSCs (hBMSCs) and subsequent osteogenic differentiation were examined. hBMSCs spreading, distribution and morphology were greatly affected by different roughness levels. A significantly higher level of Ln-5 secretion was detected on R2, which correlated to the local cell density regulated by the rough surface. Ln-5 binding integrins (α2 and α3) were strongly activated on R2. In addition, the results from hBMSCs on R0 inserts with different cell densities further confirmed that local cell density regulated Ln-5 secretion and cell surface integrin activation. In addition, the mineralization level of MSCs on R2 was remarkably higher than that on R0 and R1. These results suggest that hBMSC osteogenic differentiation level on R2 roughness was enhanced via increased Ln-5 secretion that was attributed to rough surface regulated local cell density. Thus, the microroughness could serve as effective topographical stimulus in cell culture devices and bone implant materials.

16.
Clin Hemorheol Microcirc ; 73(1): 219-228, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561335

RESUMO

Electrospinning has attracted significant attention as a method to produce cell culture substrates whose fibrous structure mimics the native extracellular matrix (ECM). In this study, the influence of E-modulus of fibrous substrates on the lineage commitment of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) was studied using fiber meshes prepared via the electrospinning of a polyetheresterurethane (PEEU) consisting of poly(ρ-dioxanone) (PPDO) and poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) segments. The PPDO: PCL weight ratio was varied from 40:60 to 70:30 to adjust the physiochemical properties of the PEEU fibers. The cells attached on stiffer PEEU70 (PPDO:PCL,= 70:30) fiber meshes displayed an elongated morphology compared to those cultured on softer fibers. The nuclear aspect ratio (width vs. length of a nucleus) of hADSCs cultured on softer PEEU40 (PPDO:PCL = 40:60) fibers was lower than on stiffer fibers. The osteogenic differentiation of hADSCs was enhanced by culturing on stiffer fibers. Compared to PEEU40, a 73% increase of osteocalcin expression and a 34% enhancement of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was observed in cells on PEEU70. These results demonstrated that the differentiation commitment of stem cells could be regulated via tailoring the mechanical properties of electrospun fibers.

17.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3644, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409799

RESUMO

B cell development is a highly regulated process involving multiple differentiation steps, yet many details regarding this pathway remain unknown. Sequencing of patients with B cell-restricted immunodeficiency reveals autosomal dominant mutations in TOP2B. TOP2B encodes a type II topoisomerase, an essential gene required to alleviate topological stress during DNA replication and gene transcription, with no previously known role in B cell development. We use Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and knockin and knockout murine models, to demonstrate that patient mutations in TOP2B have a dominant negative effect on enzyme function, resulting in defective proliferation, survival of B-2 cells, causing a block in B cell development, and impair humoral function in response to immunization.

18.
Yi Chuan ; 41(8): 761-772, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447427

RESUMO

Genetic resources are important national strategic resources. Their preservation, protection and rational utilization form a solid foundation to guarantee national security and to build national competitiveness for the future. Due to a relatively late starting point, China is actively catching up with global peers in storing genetic samples and data. In view of this, in 2011 China approved a plan to build its first nation-level comprehensive gene bank, the China National GeneBank (CNGB), and entrusted BGI-Research to implement its construction and operation. It is China's first gene bank for "reading, writing and storing" bioresources. In this paper, we summarize the development of influential platforms at home and abroad, and focus on CNGB's position, mission, and its structure of "Three Banks and Two Platforms". CNGB launched its official operation in September 2016 and aims to develop a world-class, non-profit and strategic platform that supports science and technology development. It has built capacities to store tens of millions of traceable samples and to analyze handreds of thousanda of WGS each year. It has also set up China's first Pb-level digitalization platform and a high-efficient synthesis platform with a production rate of ten million bases per year. Based on such capacities, CNGB has established its open sharing mechanism for biological samples and data, provided public platform services for life science research, and achieved initial results in supporting innovation and development of the bio-industry.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas , Pesquisa , China , Disseminação de Informação
19.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391545

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence suggests that gut microbiota plays a role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia via the microbiota-gut-brain axis. This study sought to investigate whether transplantation of fecal microbiota from drug-free patients with schizophrenia into specific pathogen-free mice could cause schizophrenia-like behavioral abnormalities. The results revealed that transplantation of fecal microbiota from schizophrenic patients into antibiotic-treated mice caused behavioral abnormalities such as psychomotor hyperactivity, impaired learning and memory in the recipient animals. These mice also showed elevation of the kynurenine-kynurenic acid pathway of tryptophan degradation in both periphery and brain, as well as increased basal extracellular dopamine in prefrontal cortex and 5-hydroxytryptamine in hippocampus, compared with their counterparts receiving feces from healthy controls. Furthermore, colonic luminal filtrates from the mice transplanted with patients' fecal microbiota increased both kynurenic acid synthesis and kynurenine aminotransferase II activity in cultured hepatocytes and forebrain cortical slices. Sixty species of donor-derived bacteria showed significant difference between the mice colonized with the patients' and the controls' fecal microbiota, highlighting 78 differentially enriched functional modules including tryptophan biosynthesis function. In conclusion, our study suggests that the abnormalities in the composition of gut microbiota contribute to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia partially through the manipulation of tryptophan-kynurenine metabolism.

20.
Bioinformatics ; 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373607

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: T and B cell receptors (TCRs and BCRs) play a pivotal role in the adaptive immune system by recognizing an enormous variety of external and internal antigens. Understanding these receptors is critical for exploring the process of immunoreaction and exploiting potential applications in immunotherapy and antibody drug design. Although a large number of samples have had their TCR and BCR repertoires sequenced using high-throughput sequencing in recent years, very few databases have been constructed to store these kinds of data. To resolve this issue, we developed a database. RESULTS: We developed a database, the Pan Immune Repertoire Database (PIRD), located in China National GeneBank (CNGBdb), to collect and store annotated TCR and BCR sequencing data, including from Homo sapiens and other species. In addition to data storage, PIRD also provides functions of data visualisation and interactive online analysis. Additionally, a manually curated database of TCRs and BCRs targeting known antigens (TBAdb) was also deposited in PIRD. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: PIRD can be freely accessed at https://db.cngb.org/pird.

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