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1.
J Comp Eff Res ; 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904267

RESUMO

Aim: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of intravitreal aflibercept compared with macular laser photocoagulation and ranibizumab for diabetic macular edema (DME) in China. Methods: A Markov model was developed to reflect the vision changes in DME patients. Parameters were estimated from VIVID-EAST trial data, published literature and physician surveys. Results: In a 20-year horizon, intravitreal aflibercept was associated with 7.825 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and 217,841 Chinese Yuan Renminbi (CNY), laser photocoagulation was associated with 7.189 QALYs and 135,489 CNY, and ranibizumab was associated with 7.462 QALYs and 222,477 CNY. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were 129,397 CNY/QALY and -12,774 CNY/QALY for intravitreal aflibercept versus laser photocoagulation and ranibizumab, respectively. Conclusion: Intravitreal aflibercept was considered as a cost-effective strategy for DME when compared with laser photocoagulation; it was considered as a dominant strategy when compared with ranibizumab.

2.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31925873

RESUMO

Hybrids are extensively used in agriculture to deliver an increase in yield, yet the molecular basis of heterosis is not well understood. Global DNA methylation analysis, transcriptome analysis and small RNA profiling were aimed to understand the epigenetic effect of the changes in gene expression level in the two hybrids and their parental lines. Increased DNA methylation was observed in both the hybrids as compared to their parents. This increase DNA methylation in hybrids showed that majority of the 24-nt sRNA clusters had higher expression in hybrids than the parents. Transcriptome analysis revealed that various phytohormones (auxin and salicylic acid) responsive hybrid-MPV DEGs were significantly altered in both the hybrids in comparison to MPV. DEGs associated with plant immunity and growth were overexpressed whereas DEGs associated with basal defense level were repressed. This antagonistic patterns of gene expression might contribute to the greater growth of the hybrids. It was also noticed that some common as well as unique changes in regulatory pathways associated with heterotic growth in both the hybrids. Approximately 70% and 67% of down-regulated hybrid-MPV DEGs were found to be differentially methylated in ICPH 2671 and ICPH 2740 hybrid, respectively. This reflected the association of epigenetic regulation in altered gene expressions. Our findings also revealed that miRNAs might play important roles in hybrid vigor in both the hybrids by regulating their target genes, especially in controlling plant growth and development, defense and stress response pathways. The above finding provides an insight into the molecular mechanism of pigeonpea heterosis.

3.
Genome Biol Evol ; 12(1): 3663-3676, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845987

RESUMO

In plants, parasitism triggers the reductive evolution of plastid genomes (plastomes). To disentangle the molecular evolutionary associations between feeding on other plants below- or aboveground and general transitions from facultative to obligate parasitism, we analyzed 34 complete plastomes of autotrophic, root- and stem-feeding hemiparasitic, and holoparasitic Santalales. We observed inexplicable losses of housekeeping genes and tRNAs in hemiparasites and dramatic genomic reconfiguration in holoparasitic Balanophoraceae, whose plastomes have exceptionally low GC contents. Genomic changes are related primarily to the evolution of hemi- or holoparasitism, whereas the transition from a root- to a stem-feeding mode plays no major role. In contrast, the rate of molecular evolution accelerates in a stepwise manner from autotrophs to root- and then stem-feeding parasites. Already the ancestral transition to root-parasitism coincides with a relaxation of selection in plastomes. Another significant selectional shift in plastid genes occurs as stem-feeders evolve, suggesting that this derived form coincides with trophic specialization despite the retention of photosynthetic capacity. Parasitic Santalales fill a gap in our understanding of parasitism-associated plastome degeneration. We reveal that lifestyle-genome associations unfold interdependently over trophic specialization and feeding mode transitions, where holoparasitic Balanophoraceae provide a system for exploring the functional realms of plastomes.

4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(1): 308-317, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840999

RESUMO

Boron nitride (BN), with outstanding stability and robustness in diverse polymorphs, possesses many advantageous properties for industrial applications. Activation of BN materials for nonmetal catalysts is among the most revolutionary and challenging tasks. Taking advantage of quantum size effect and synergistic effect, here we exploit boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) encapsulating early transition metal nanowires, which is experimentally feasible, for nitrogen fixation and ammonia synthesis. Using first-principles calculations and microkinetic modeling, we show that the coexisting occupied and unoccupied p states of B atoms in filled BNNTs can effectively mimic the d states of transition metal. They act as electron reservoirs with tunable orbital energies and occupancy, which are beneficial for associative N2 adsorption and hydrogenation. Due to the competition between thermodynamics of gas adsorption and kinetics of hydrogenation reaction, the activity can be optimized by controlling the type of metal filler and size of BN nanotube, achieving a turnover frequency competitive to that of benchmark Fe catalyst. These results manifest a universal strategy for activating BN nanomaterials as a promising family of robust and efficient catalysts and provide vital insights into the activity-band structure relationship for p-block nonmetal catalysts.

5.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 2019 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887279

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), and their molar ratios in the aqueous humor in previous APAC patients and their correlations with trabeculectomy outcomes. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: Aqueous humor samples were collected from a total of 78 eyes including 52 previous APAC eyes and 26 cataract eyes. TIMP-1, 2, 3, and 4 and MMP-1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 12 and 13 analyte concentrations were measured using multiplexed immunoassays kits. Patient follow-up occurred at 1 week and 1, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months. RESULTS: In the previous APAC group, eleven MMP/TIMP molar ratios were significantly lower. APAC eyes were then followed for up to 18 months after trabeculectomy and divided into success (37 eyes) and failure (15 eyes) groups. Five out of the eleven molar ratios were significantly lower in the failure group than the success group. In multiple logistic regression analysis, failed filtration surgery was more likely in APAC eyes with lower MMP-2/TIMP-2 (P = 0.040, OR = 44.499) and MMP-13/TIMP-1 (P = 0.034, OR = 37.947) ratios. Previous APAC eyes were divided according to MMP-2/TIMP-2 and MMP-13/TIMP-1 ratios. Compared to eyes with high ratios, eyes with low MMP-2/TIMP-2 and MMP-13/TIMP-1 ratios had significantly higher failure rates. CONCLUSIONS: In previous APAC eyes, changes in MMP and TIMP levels resulted in MMP and TIMP imbalance. Lower MMP-2/TIMP-2 and MMP-13/TIMP-1 ratios in aqueous humor are risk factors for trabeculectomy failure. Modulating specific MMP/TIMP ratios may have potential clinical applications for filtration surgery.

6.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(1)2019 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878322

RESUMO

Two of the most economically important plants in the Artocarpus genus are jackfruit (A. heterophyllus Lam.) and breadfruit (A. altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg). Both species are long-lived trees that have been cultivated for thousands of years in their native regions. Today they are grown throughout tropical to subtropical areas as an important source of starch and other valuable nutrients. There are hundreds of breadfruit varieties that are native to Oceania, of which the most commonly distributed types are seedless triploids. Jackfruit is likely native to the Western Ghats of India and produces one of the largest tree-borne fruit structures (reaching up to 45 kg). To-date, there is limited genomic information for these two economically important species. Here, we generated 273 Gb and 227 Gb of raw data from jackfruit and breadfruit, respectively. The high-quality reads from jackfruit were assembled into 162,440 scaffolds totaling 982 Mb with 35,858 genes. Similarly, the breadfruit reads were assembled into 180,971 scaffolds totaling 833 Mb with 34,010 genes. A total of 2822 and 2034 expanded gene families were found in jackfruit and breadfruit, respectively, enriched in pathways including starch and sucrose metabolism, photosynthesis, and others. The copy number of several starch synthesis-related genes were found to be increased in jackfruit and breadfruit compared to closely-related species, and the tissue-specific expression might imply their sugar-rich and starch-rich characteristics. Overall, the publication of high-quality genomes for jackfruit and breadfruit provides information about their specific composition and the underlying genes involved in sugar and starch metabolism.

7.
Nat Plants ; 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31844283

RESUMO

Mounting evidence suggests that terrestrialization of plants started in streptophyte green algae, favoured by their dual existence in freshwater and subaerial/terrestrial environments. Here, we present the genomes of Mesostigma viride and Chlorokybus atmophyticus, two sister taxa in the earliest-diverging clade of streptophyte algae dwelling in freshwater and subaerial/terrestrial environments, respectively. We provide evidence that the common ancestor of M. viride and C. atmophyticus (and thus of streptophytes) had already developed traits associated with a subaerial/terrestrial environment, such as embryophyte-type photorespiration, canonical plant phytochrome, several phytohormones and transcription factors involved in responses to environmental stresses, and evolution of cellulose synthase and cellulose synthase-like genes characteristic of embryophytes. Both genomes differed markedly in genome size and structure, and in gene family composition, revealing their dynamic nature, presumably in response to adaptations to their contrasting environments. The ancestor of M. viride possibly lost several genomic traits associated with a subaerial/terrestrial environment following transition to a freshwater habitat.

8.
J Neuroinflammation ; 16(1): 278, 2019 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uveitis is a potentially sight-threatening form of ocular inflammation that affects the uvea in the wall of the eye. Currently available treatments for uveitis have exhibited profound adverse side effects. However, KS23 is a novel 23-amino-acid anti-inflammatory peptide derived from adiponectin that may have the capability to function as a safe alternative to these existing treatment options. We, therefore, evaluated the preventive effect of KS23 in experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). METHODS: EAU was induced in mice via immunization with the peptide interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein 161-180 (IRBP161-180). KS23 was then administered every 2 days via intraperitoneal injection to induce protection against EAU. Clinical and histopathological scores were employed to evaluate the disease progression. Inflammatory cytokines were also quantified using ELISA, and the expression levels of specific chemokines and chemokine receptors were assessed via qRT-PCR. In addition, the proportions of Th1 and Th17 cells were detected via flow cytometry, and the expression levels of specific proteins were quantified from the retina of mice using western blot analysis, to elucidate the specific mechanism of action employed by KS23 to suppress the inflammation associated with EAU. RESULTS: KS23 was found to significantly improve EAU-associated histopathological scores, while decreasing the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-17A), chemokines (LARC, RANTES, MIG, IP-10), and chemokine receptors (CCR6 and CXCR3). The proportions of Th1 and Th17 cells were also suppressed following intraperitoneal injection with KS23. The anti-inflammatory mechanism employed by KS23 was determined to be associated with the activation of AMPK and subsequent inhibition of NF-κB. CONCLUSIONS: KS23 decreased the proportions of Th1 and Th17 cells to effectively ameliorate the progression of EAU. It may, therefore, serve as a promising potential therapeutic agent for uveitis.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719213

RESUMO

Context: The first issue to be considered in acupuncture is the safety of and adverse effects from treatment. Fainting is an uncommon adverse reaction. Some researchers believe that fainting is related to the mechanism underlying acupuncture treatment, but due to moral and technical issues, studies involving fainting during the acupuncture process haven't been conducted. Objective: The study intended to determine if specific risk factors are associated with fainting during acupuncture treatment. Design: The research team performed 2 case studies involving fainting during acupuncture. Setting: The study took place in the Physiotherapy Departments of the Leribe Motebang Hospital and the Mamohau Hospital in the Kingdom of Lesotho. Participants: Participants were 2 out of 2050 patients who received acupuncture treatment between October 2017 and April 2018 at one of the hospitals. They had fainted, with different clinical manifestations, during acupuncture treatment. Their main symptoms were dizziness, general weakness associated forehead sweating, palpitations, dyspnea, and nausea. Results: In both cases, the patient had complained of hunger before treatment. Both claimed that they had never experienced such a situation previously. Conclusions: The research team suggests that the fainting occurred for the patients in the two case studies secondary to the hungry state. Hunger may be one of the most important causes of fainting connected to acupuncture. The failure of a practitioner to perform treatment for fainting in a timely and effective manner, or his or her improper handling of it, can lead to serious consequences. Therefore, factors that may cause fainting should be minimized to avoid their occurrence during acupuncture.

10.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 903, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) has historically been used as a model organism for the auditory and visual systems, stroke/ischemia, epilepsy and aging related research since 1935 when laboratory gerbils were separated from their wild counterparts. In this study we report genome sequencing, assembly, and annotation further supported by transcriptome sequencing and assembly from 27 different tissues samples. RESULTS: The genome was sequenced using Illumina HiSeq 2000 and after assembly resulted in a final genome size of 2.54 Gbp with contig and scaffold N50 values of 31.4 Kbp and 500.0 Kbp, respectively. Based on the k-mer estimated genome size of 2.48 Gbp, the assembly appears to be complete. The genome annotation was supported by transcriptome data that identified 31,769 (> 2000 bp) predicted protein-coding genes across 27 tissue samples. A BUSCO search of 3023 mammalian groups resulted in 86% of curated single copy orthologs present among predicted genes, indicating a high level of completeness of the genome. CONCLUSIONS: We report the first de novo assembly of the Mongolian gerbil genome enhanced by assembly of transcriptome data from several tissues. Sequencing of this genome and transcriptome increases the utility of the gerbil as a model organism, opening the availability of now widely used genetic tools.

11.
J Proteome Res ; 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755721

RESUMO

Macular neovascular disease is a group disorder with complex pathogenesis of neovascularization for vision impairment and irreversible blindness, posing great challenges to precise diagnosis and management. We prospectively recruited participants with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) and pathological myopia (PM), compared with cataract patients without fundus diseases as control group. The serum metabolome was profiled by gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS) analysis. Multivariate statistical methods as well as data mining were performed for interpretation of macular neovascularization. A total of 446 participants with macular neovascularization and 138 cataract subjects as control group were enrolled in this study. By employing GC-TOFMS, 131 metabolites were identified and 33 differentiating metabolites were highlighted in patients with macular neovascularization. For differential diagnosis, 3 panels of specific metabolomics-based biomarkers provided areas under the curve of 0.967, 0.938 and 0.877 in the discovery phase (n= 328), predictive values of 87.3%, 79% and 85.7% in the test phase (n= 256). Personalized pathway dysregulation scores measurement using lilikoi package in R language revealed pentose phosphate pathway and mitochondrial electron transport chain as the most important pathways in AMD; purine metabolism and glycolysis were identified as the major disturbed pathways in PCV while the altered thiamine metabolism and purine metabolism may contribute to PM phenotypes. Serum metabolomics are powerful for characterizing metabolic disturbances of macular neovascular. Differences in metabolic pathways may reflect underlying macular neovascularand serve as therapeutic targets for macular neovascular treatment.

12.
Cell ; 179(5): 1057-1067.e14, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730849

RESUMO

The transition to a terrestrial environment, termed terrestrialization, is generally regarded as a pivotal event in the evolution and diversification of the land plant flora that changed the surface of our planet. Through phylogenomic studies, a group of streptophyte algae, the Zygnematophyceae, have recently been recognized as the likely sister group to land plants (embryophytes). Here, we report genome sequences and analyses of two early diverging Zygnematophyceae (Spirogloea muscicola gen. nov. and Mesotaenium endlicherianum) that share the same subaerial/terrestrial habitat with the earliest-diverging embryophytes, the bryophytes. We provide evidence that genes (i.e., GRAS and PYR/PYL/RCAR) that increase resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses in land plants, in particular desiccation, originated or expanded in the common ancestor of Zygnematophyceae and embryophytes, and were gained by horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from soil bacteria. These two Zygnematophyceae genomes represent a cornerstone for future studies to understand the underlying molecular mechanism and process of plant terrestrialization.

13.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 60(14): 4792-4802, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743936

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the normative values, distribution patterns, and correlated factors of macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL), ganglion cell complex (GCC), and outer retinal layer (ORL) thicknesses in Chinese children. Methods: A sample of 3000 healthy children with different refractive status aged 6 to 19 years was consecutively examined. Demographics were recorded, and a comprehensive ophthalmic examination including refractive error and axial length (AL) was taken from all participants. The GCIPL, GCC, and ORL thicknesses were measured using swept source-optical coherence tomography (OCT), and multiple linear regression was used to determine which factors were associated with the thickness of each layer. Results: The average thickness was 77.00 ± 4.78 µm (95% confidence interval [CI]: 69.56-84.56 µm) in the GCIPL, 107.68 ± 5.95 µm (95% CI: 98.45-117.21 µm) in the GCC, and 178.57 ± 9.02 µm (95% CI: 164.33-192.56 µm) in the ORL. Multiple regression analysis indicated that GCIPL thickness was associated with sex (ß = 0.168, P < 0.001), age (ß = 0.126, P < 0.001), axial length (ß = -0.181, P < 0.001), and refractive error (ß = 0.233, P < 0.001). Age (ß = 0.154, P < 0.001), sex (ß = 0.102, P < 0.001), and refractive error (ß = 0.149, P < 0.001) were associated independently with GCC thickness after adjusting for the other factors. Furthermore, age (ß = 0.100, P < 0.001), sex (ß = 0.163, P < 0.001), AL (ß = -0.283, P < 0.001), and refractive error (ß = 0.207, P < 0.001) were the independent factors associated with ORL thickness. Conclusions: The present study established a normative pediatric database for macular layer thicknesses in healthy Chinese children, advancing the ability of OCT in diseases diagnosis and monitoring among children.

14.
Cell Stem Cell ; 25(5): 697-712.e6, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588047

RESUMO

To investigate the contribution of parental genomes to early embryogenesis, we profiled the single-cell transcriptomes of human biparental and uniparental embryos systematically from the 1-cell to the morula stage. We observed that uniparental embryos exhibited variable and decreased embryonic genome activation (EGA). Comparative transcriptome analysis identified 807 maternally biased expressed genes (MBGs) and 581 paternally biased expressed genes (PBGs) in the preimplantation stages. MBGs became apparent at the 4-cell stage and contributed to the initiation of EGA, whereas PBGs preferentially appeared at the 8-cell stage and might affect embryo compaction and trophectoderm specification. Regulatory network analysis revealed that DUX4, EGR2, and DUXA are key transcription factors in MBGs' expression; ZNF263 and KLF3 are important for PBGs' expression. We demonstrated that parent-specific DNA methylation might account for the expression of most PBGs. Our results provide a valuable resource to understand parental genome activation and might help to elucidate parent-of-origin effects in early human development.

15.
Gigascience ; 8(10)2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574156

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The African eggplant (Solanum aethiopicum) is a nutritious traditional vegetable used in many African countries, including Uganda and Nigeria. It is thought to have been domesticated in Africa from its wild relative, Solanum anguivi. S. aethiopicum has been routinely used as a source of disease resistance genes for several Solanaceae crops, including Solanum melongena. A lack of genomic resources has meant that breeding of S. aethiopicum has lagged behind other vegetable crops. RESULTS: We assembled a 1.02-Gb draft genome of S. aethiopicum, which contained predominantly repetitive sequences (78.9%). We annotated 37,681 gene models, including 34,906 protein-coding genes. Expansion of disease resistance genes was observed via 2 rounds of amplification of long terminal repeat retrotransposons, which may have occurred ∼1.25 and 3.5 million years ago, respectively. By resequencing 65 S. aethiopicum and S. anguivi genotypes, 18,614,838 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were identified, of which 34,171 were located within disease resistance genes. Analysis of domestication and demographic history revealed active selection for genes involved in drought tolerance in both "Gilo" and "Shum" groups. A pan-genome of S. aethiopicum was assembled, containing 51,351 protein-coding genes; 7,069 of these genes were missing from the reference genome. CONCLUSIONS: The genome sequence of S. aethiopicum enhances our understanding of its biotic and abiotic resistance. The single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified are immediately available for use by breeders. The information provided here will accelerate selection and breeding of the African eggplant, as well as other crops within the Solanaceae family.

16.
Pharmacogenomics J ; 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664190

RESUMO

Gefitinib is a widely used targeted therapeutic drug in East Asian non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. This research retrospectively investigated the relationship between the polymorphisms of genes involved in NF-κB pathways and gefitinib-related Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs). From 2011 to 2016, 109 NSCLC patients were enrolled in this study. Thirty-two SNPs of 15 genes were genotyped with a Sequenom MassARRAY system. We collected 34 paired RNA samples before and after gefitinib administration for the detection of whole blood RNA expression of genes in NF-κB pathways (NFKBIA, NFKB1, NFKB2, RELA, RELB, and TNFAIP3). IKBKB rs2272733 (CC vs non-CC: OR = 0.256, 95% CI 0.087-0.753, P = 0.013) and IKBKE rs12142086 (CC vs non-CC: OR = 3.640, 95% CI 1.320-10.039, P = 0.013) were significantly associated with gefitinib-induced skin toxicity. IKBKE rs2151222 was associated with diarrhea with the odds ratio of non-TT vs TT as 0.162 (non-TT vs TT: 95% CI 0.034-0.775, P = 0.023). Furthermore, RELA rs11227247 was a predictor for hepatic toxicity (GG vs non-GG: OR = 0.212, 95% CI 0.062-0.726, P = 0.013). None of the gene expression levels after drug administration were determined to be significant predictors for adverse drug reactions by a logistics regression analysis. Polymorphisms of IKBKB, IKBKE, and RELA are potential biomarkers for predicting gefitinib-related ADRs. Further studies are needed to understand the underlying mechanisms for diagnostic and prophylactic therapy applications.

17.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4201, 2019 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519986

RESUMO

As Charles Darwin anticipated, living fossils provide excellent opportunities to study evolutionary questions related to extinction, competition, and adaptation. Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L.) is one of the oldest living plants and a fascinating example of how people have saved a species from extinction and assisted its resurgence. By resequencing 545 genomes of ginkgo trees sampled from 51 populations across the world, we identify three refugia in China and detect multiple cycles of population expansion and reduction along with glacial admixture between relict populations in the southwestern and southern refugia. We demonstrate multiple anthropogenic introductions of ginkgo from eastern China into different continents. Further analyses reveal bioclimatic variables that have affected the geographic distribution of ginkgo and the role of natural selection in ginkgo's adaptation and resilience. These investigations provide insights into the evolutionary history of ginkgo trees and valuable genomic resources for further addressing various questions involving living fossil species.

18.
EBioMedicine ; 47: 373-383, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota plays important roles in modulating host metabolism. Previous studies have demonstrated differences in the gut microbiome of T2D and prediabetic individuals compared to healthy individuals, with distinct disease-related microbial profiles being reported in groups of different age and ethnicity. However, confounding factors such as anti-diabetic medication hamper identification of the gut microbial changes in disease development. METHOD: We used a combination of in-depth metagenomics and metaproteomics analyses of faecal samples from treatment-naïve type 2 diabetic (TN-T2D, n = 77), pre-diabetic (Pre-DM, n = 80), and normal glucose tolerant (NGT, n = 97) individuals to investigate compositional and functional changes of the gut microbiota and the faecal content of microbial and host proteins in Pre-DM and treatment-naïve T2D individuals to elucidate possible host-microbial interplays characterizing different disease stages. FINDINGS: We observed distinct differences characterizing the gut microbiota of these three groups and validated several key features in an independent TN-T2D cohort. We also demonstrated that the content of several human antimicrobial peptides and pancreatic enzymes differed in faecal samples between three groups. INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest a complex, disease stage-dependent interplay between the gut microbiota and the host and point to the value of metaproteomics to gain further insight into interplays between the gut microbiota and the host. FUND: The study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31601073), the National Key Research and Development Program of China (No. 2017YFC0909703) and the Shenzhen Municipal Government of China (No. JCYJ20170817145809215). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

19.
J Transl Med ; 17(1): 314, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wearable smart watches provide large amount of real-time data on the environmental state of the users and are useful to determine risk factors for onset and progression of myopia. We aim to evaluate the efficacy of machine learning algorithm in differentiating indoor and outdoor locations as collected by use of smart watches. METHODS: Real time data on luminance, ultraviolet light levels and number of steps obtained with smart watches from dataset A: 12 adults from 8 scenes and manually recorded true locations. 70% of data was considered training set and support vector machine (SVM) algorithm generated using the variables to create a classification system. Data collected manually by the adults was the reference. The algorithm was used for predicting the location of the remaining 30% of dataset A. Accuracy was defined as the number of correct predictions divided by all. Similarly, data was corrected from dataset B: 172 children from 3 schools and 12 supervisors recorded true locations. Data collected by the supervisors was the reference. SVM model trained from dataset A was used to predict the location of dataset B for validation. Finally, we predicted the location of dataset B using the SVM model self-trained from dataset B. We repeated these three predictions with traditional univariate threshold segmentation method. RESULTS: In both datasets, SVM outperformed the univariate threshold segmentation method. In dataset A, the accuracy and AUC of SVM were 99.55% and 0.99 as compared to 95.11% and 0.95 with the univariate threshold segmentation (p < 0.01). In validation, the accuracy and AUC of SVM were 82.67% and 0.90 compared to 80.88% and 0.85 with the univariate threshold segmentation method (p < 0.01). In dataset B, the accuracy and AUC of SVM and AUC were 92.43% and 0.96 compared to 80.88% and 0.85 with the univariate threshold segmentation (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Machine learning algorithm allows for discrimination of outdoor versus indoor environments with high accuracy and provides an opportunity to study and determine the role of environmental risk factors in onset and progression of myopia. The accuracy of machine learning algorithm could be improved if the model is trained with the dataset itself.

20.
Small ; : e1904107, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539198

RESUMO

Photocatalysts, which utilize solar energy to catalyze the oxidation or reduction half reactions, have attracted tremendous interest due to their great potential in addressing increasingly severe global energy and environmental issues. Solar energy utilization plays an important role in determining photocatalytic efficiencies. In the past few decades, many studies have been done to promote photocatalytic efficiencies via extending the absorption of solar energy into near-infrared (NIR) light. This Review comprehensively summarizes the recent progress in NIR-driven photocatalysts, including the strategies to harvest NIR photons and corresponding photocatalytic applications such as the degradation of organic pollutants, water disinfection, water splitting for H2 and O2 evolution, CO2 reduction, etc. The application of NIR-active photocatalysts employed as electrocatalysts is also presented. The subject matter of this Review is designed to present the relationship between material structure and material optical properties as well as the advantage of material modification in photocatalytic reactions. It paves the way for future material design in solar energy-related fields and other energy conversion and storage fields.

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