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1.
Ethn Health ; : 1-14, 2020 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32223328

RESUMO

Objective: Race disparities exist in bone metastasis (BM) development and survival in lung cancer (LC) patients. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database was used to investigate different patterns of BM development and survival in different races.Design: LC patients with BM were identified from the database from 2010 to 2014. Risk factors were investigated by univariable and multivariable logistic regression. Potential factors for prognosis were evaluated by univariable and multivariable Cox regression.Results: Asian and Pacific Islander (API) patients presented the highest prevalence of BM (24.6%), followed by white (20.7%) and black patients (19.9%) (χ2 = 78.74; p < .001). After adjusting for the demographic and clinical factors, API race was independently associated with a high risk of BM development. The median survival times for the API, white and black LC patients with BM were 16 months (95% CI: 15.2-16.8), 11 months (95% CI: 10.9-11.1) and 10 months (95% CI: 9.7-10.3), respectively, with significant differences (p < .001). Multivariable Cox regression showed that API race was positively associated with greater overall survival compared with white and black patients. Male gender, larger tumor size, lymph node involvement, lower tumor differentiated grade, and the presence of lung, liver and brain metastases were independently associated with a high risk of developing BM and worse survival with LC across all races. Age, income, insurance and histological types had different impacts on BM among different races.Conclusion: Homogeneous and heterogeneous associated factors for BM were revealed among different races. Individualized screening and treatment should be performed race-specifically.

2.
Anatol J Cardiol ; 23(3): 151-159, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32120360

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Interleukin (IL) 25, also known as IL-17E, is an inflammatory cytokine and has been demonstrated to be closely related to cardiovascular diseases by regulating immunity and inflammation, including atherosclerosis. This study was aimed to evaluate the expression of IL-25 in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: In this study, the expression of IL-25 in normal (n=6) and atherosclerotic (n=10) human coronary arteries was detected by immunofluorescent staining. In addition, the serum IL-25, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α concentrations in stable angina pectoris (SAP, n=44), unstable angina pectoris (UAP, n=46), acute myocardial infarction (AMI, n=34), and non-CAD (control, n=36) were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. RESULTS: IL-25 was significantly increased in coronary arteries of CAD patients when compared with normal coronary arteries, with macrophages and T lymphocytes being the sources of IL-25, especially macrophages. Moreover, the serum concentrations of IL-25 were markedly elevated in CAD patients and gradually increased in SAP, UAP, and AMI groups. In addition, IL-25 levels were positively correlated with the IL-6 and TNF-α levels, and Gensini score in CAD patients. Logistic regression analysis showed that IL-25 was independently positively correlated with the occurrence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). A receiver operator characteristic curve suggested that IL-25 presented a significant diagnosis value in ACS. CONCLUSION: IL-25 is increased in the coronary arteries and serum of CAD patients and is associated with the severity of coronary stenosis and the occurrence of ACS, suggesting that IL-25 may be one of the biomarkers of ACS.

3.
Cell Biol Int ; 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32125053

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have multilineage differentiation potential and can transform into neuron cells under an appropriate environment. Retinoic acid (RA) facilitates the neuronal differentiation of MSCs. We found that RXRα, a RA receptor, was significantly upregulated in RA-induced process. Here, we show that RXRα collaborated with myocardin-related transcription factor-A (MRTF-A) to strongly promote the RA-induced process as evidenced by the increase in NF-H expression and NF-H promoter transcription activity. Our studies reveal that RXRα and MRTF-A exhibit protein interactions and synergistically inhibit the MSCs apoptosis by enhancing the P21 expression. Furthermore, RXRα and MRTF-A can activate P21 transcription by affecting the formation of the MRTF-A/RXRα/RARE complex. These findings reveal the important roles of RXRα and MRTF-A signaling in RA-induced neural-like differentiation of MSCs and describe a new mechanism underlying the synergistic interaction of RXRα and MRTF-A.

4.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(2): 180-188, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147991

RESUMO

Tumor development is usually related to the genetic mutation and abnormal expression of multiple genes. Comprehensive analysis of tumor genome, transcriptome and epigenetics is very important for the rapid identification of disease-specific gene clusters and modification sites. Previously, the next-generation sequencing technology was mainly used to explore the information of genomes, however, it cannot meet the requirement of mechanical researches due to several problems such as difficult sequence assembly and leak detection of the low abundance factors. Therefore, single molecule sequencing technology gradually emerged with its unique superiority. This paper reviews the research processes of single molecule sequencing technology in several human tumors, and prospecs its application in clinical diagnosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Genoma , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Mutação , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Transcriptoma
5.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(2): 287-294, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148001

RESUMO

China is now the largest and only producer of avermectin in the world. However, its current yield is still lower than other similar antibiotics. Therefore, we studied the effect of nitrogen on the growth and the synthesis ability of B1a to improve the overall yield. Nitrogen had significant effects on the cell activity, PMV of Streptomyces avermitilis and the synthesis of B1a in the middle and later phase of fermentation. Additional feeding yeast powder based on carbon-dioxide evolution rate in a 100-L bioreactor significantly improved the synthesis of B1a. The production of avermectin reached 8 697 mg/L, 26.9% higher than the original process. In short, this study will serve in production enhancement of avermectin at industrial production.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Carbono , Dióxido de Carbono , China , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Nitrogênio
6.
Eur J Med Chem ; 192: 112172, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163815

RESUMO

Discovery of novel anti-obesity agents is a challenging and promising research area. Based on our previous works, we synthesized 40 novel ß-indoloquinazoline analogues by altering the skeleton and introducing preferential side chains, evaluated their lipid-lowering activity and summarized the structure-activity relationships. In combination with an evaluation of the lipid-lowering efficacies, AMP-dependent activated protein kinase (AMPK) activating ability and liver microsomal stability, compound 23 (named as IQZ23) was selected for further studies. IQZ23 exerted a high efficacy in decreasing the triglyceride level (EC50 = 0.033 µM) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Mechanistic studies revealed the lipid-lowering activity of IQZ23 was dependent on the AMPK pathway by modulating ATP synthase activity. This activation was accompanied by mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidation capacity increased, and insulin sensitivity enhanced in pertinent cell models by various interventions. Correspondingly, IQZ23 (20 mg/kg, i.p.) treatment significantly reversed high fat and cholesterol diet (HFC)- induced body weight increases and accompanying clinical symptoms of obesity in mice but without indicative toxicity. These results indicate that IQZ23 could be a useful candidate for the treatment of obesity and related metabolic disorders.

7.
Metab Eng ; 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222320

RESUMO

Isotopically nonstationary metabolic flux analysis (INST-MFA) provides a versatile platform to quantitatively assess in vivo metabolic activities of autotrophic systems. By applying INST-MFA to recombinant aldehyde-producing cyanobacteria, we identified metabolic alterations that correlated with increased strain performance in order to guide rational metabolic engineering. We identified four reactions adjacent to the pyruvate node that varied significantly with increasing aldehyde production: pyruvate kinase (PK) and acetolactate synthase (ALS) fluxes were directly correlated with product formation, while pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PPC) fluxes were inversely correlated. Overexpression of enzymes for PK or ALS did not result in further improvements to the previous best-performing strain, while downregulation of PDH expression (through antisense RNA expression) or PPC flux (through expression of the reverse reaction, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase) provided significant improvements. These results illustrate the potential of INST-MFA to enable a systematic approach for iterative identification and removal of pathway bottlenecks in autotrophic host cells.

8.
Clin Genet ; 2020 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222962

RESUMO

Early embryonic arrest is one of the major causes of recurrent assisted reproduction failure. It is characterized by delayed embryonic development and failure to form viable 8-cell stage embryos on day 3 of an assisted reproduction cycle. A recent study reported that biallelic mutations in NLRP5 can cause early embryonic arrest. NLRP5 is a member of subcortical maternal complex (SCMC), which plays a significant role in embryogenesis. In this study, we described a female in a consanguineous Chinese family who displayed clinical features of early embryonic arrest and identified a novel homozygous variant c.1061C > T (p.Pro354Leu) in NLRP5. This is the second report of the biallelic NLRP5 variant that associates with early embryonic arrest in humans, further confirming the role of NLRP5 variants in early embryonic arrest and expanding the spectrum of known pathogenic variants in NLRP5. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

9.
J Appl Clin Med Phys ; 21(3): 123-133, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141699

RESUMO

Robust optimization has been shown to be effective for stabilizing treatment planning in intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT), but existing algorithms for the optimization process is time-consuming. This paper describes a fast robust optimization tool that takes advantage of the GPU parallel computing technologies. The new robust optimization model is based on nine boundary dose distributions - two for ±range uncertainties, six for ±set-up uncertainties along anteroposterior (A-P), lateral (R-L) and superior-inferior (S-I) directions, and one for nominal situation. The nine boundary influence matrices were calculated using an in-house finite size pencil beam dose engine, while the conjugate gradient method was applied to minimize the objective function. The proton dose calculation algorithm and the conjugate gradient method were tuned for heterogeneous platforms involving the CPU host and GPU device. Three clinical cases - one head and neck cancer case, one lung cancer case, and one prostate cancer case - were investigated to demonstrate the clinical feasibility of the proposed robust optimizer. Compared with results from Varian Eclipse (version 13.3), the proposed method is found to be conducive to robust treatment planning that is less sensitive to range and setup uncertainties. The three tested cases show that targets can achieve high dose uniformity while organs at risks (OARs) are in better protection against setup and range errors. Based on the CPU + GPU heterogeneous platform, the execution times of the head and neck cancer case and the prostate cancer case are much less than half of Eclipse, while the run time of the lung cancer case is similar to that of Eclipse. The fast robust optimizer developed in this study can improve the reliability of traditional proton treatment planning in a much faster speed, thus making it possible for clinical utility.

10.
Nano Lett ; 20(3): 1499-1509, 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023415

RESUMO

Innate immune cells recognize and respond to pathogen-associated molecular patterns. In particular, polysaccharides found in the microbial cell wall are potent activators of dendritic cells (DCs). Here, we report a new class of nanocapsules, termed sugar-capsules, entirely composed of polysaccharides derived from the microbial cell wall. We show that sugar-capsules with a flexible polysaccharide shell and a hollow core efficiently drain to lymph nodes and activate DCs. In particular, sugar-capsules composed of mannan (Mann-capsule) carrying mRNA (mRNA) promote strong DC activation, mRNA translation, and antigen presentation on DCs. Mann-capsules elicit robust antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8α+ T-cell responses with antitumor efficacy in vivo. The strategy presented in this study is generally applicable for utilizing pathogen-derived molecular patterns for vaccines and immunotherapies.

11.
Chemosphere ; 249: 126157, 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062217

RESUMO

Waterborne metals may be hazardous to aquatic organisms and trigger stress responses. The present study aimed to assess the effect of exposure to 100 µg/L cadmium (Cd) or copper (Cu) for 48 h on juvenile Marsupenaeus japonicus, in terms of bioaccumulation and the whole body transcriptome. The results demonstrated that Cu accumulation in M. japonicas was much higher than that of Cd. Meanwhile, transcriptome analysis identified 1802 and 2670 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) after 48 h exposure to 100 µg/L Cd and Cu, respectively. Among them, 851 DEGs responded to both metals. Cd and Cu stress shared genes were related to the cytoskeleton, immunity, antioxidation, and detoxification. Metallothionein 1 (MT1) was specifically induced in the Cd-stress response, while glycometabolism, heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), metallothionein 2 (MT2), apoptosis, and iron transport-related genes were changed specifically in response to Cu stress. In addition, real-time PCR was used to verify the expression patterns of 28 randomly selected DEGs. The sequencing and real-time PCR results were consistent. Moreover, based on the number of significantly modulated genes and their expression levels, we deduced that Cu acts as a stronger stress inducer than Cd in M. japonicus. The identified Cd and Cu stress related genes and pathways will provide new insights into the common and different molecular mechanisms underlying Cd and Cu toxicity effects in M. japonicus.

12.
Aquat Toxicol ; 222: 105451, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097808

RESUMO

Musk compounds are often used as to treat heart-related diseases and are widely used in Asia. Muscone is one of the most important physiologically active compounds of natural musk. Muscone is a chiral compound and can be further classified into S-muscone and R-muscone and both are present in synthetic musk. While these two chiral isomers have significant differences in odor properties, their difference in toxicity is still unknown. This study used zebrafish as an animal model to compare cardiac toxicities of S-muscone and R-muscone. Results showed that both compounds were acutely toxic to zebrafish embryos causing mortality, decreased hatching rate, pericardial edema, and decreased heart beat rate. These toxicities were modulated through increased Myh6 and Myh7 mRNA expression, and decreased thyroid genes (Trh, Thrß, and Dio3) expression. R-muscone caused higher toxicity than S-muscone at the same concentration. For safety, the chiral isomer composition of synthetic muscone should be carefully regulated in the future.

13.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 155: 112102, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32090874

RESUMO

A molecularly imprinted magnetic sensor with electroluminescent tags (MIP-ECL sensor) was developed for ultrasensing diethylstilbestrol (DES). A strategy is exploited to enhance ECL emission of the [Ru(bpy)3]2 +-tripropyl amine (TPrA) system by CdTe@ZnS quantum-dots (QDs) through energy transfer. Magnetically molecularly imprinted nanoparticles (MMIPs NPs) based on Fe3O4@SiO2 carriers are artificial, easily reproducible, and could replace easily inactivated first antibodies for capturing more DES molecules. Functionalized bio-conjugates of single antibody-CdTe@ZnS (Ab-CdTe@ZnS) are for the first time loaded on signal labels of Ru(bpy)32 +-doped silica nanocomposites (Ru@SiO2) for signal amplification. The final bio-conjugated signal probes are denoted as Ab-DES/CdTe@ZnS-Ru@SiO2. MMIPs beads that have captured antigens are bio-conjugated with antibody-labeled luminescent probes by specific immunoreactive reaction, and then the luminescent immunocomplex generates ECL signal on the magnetic electrode. The logarithm of ECL intensities depend linearly on the logarithm of DES concentrations in the range from 4.8 × 10- 4 to 36.0 nM with a detection limit of 0.025 pM. This novel assay is much more sensitive than other MIP sensors, and achieves lower cost and more enhanced stability than other immunosensors. The sensor is significantly potential and has been applied to DES detection in actual environment.

14.
Eur J Clin Invest ; : e13210, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute, self-limited vasculitis. Coronary artery aneurysm (CAA) serves as a major contributor to the long-term prognosis of KD. In addition, acute KD usually also leads to several kinds of noncoronary cardiac abnormalities (NCA) involving the pericardium, myocardium and endocardium. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 142 Chinese children with KD were recruited from July 2015 to April 2018. Blood samples were collected at 24 hours pre-intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy. Several inflammatory mediators and biomarkers for acute myocardial infarction were detected. Echocardiography and electrocardiography (ECG) were performed. RESULTS: Plasma white blood cell counts (WBC) were significantly increased in patients with IVIG-nonresponsive KD when compared with their IVIG-responsive counterparts. A total of 106 children (74.65%) suffered from NCA, including 8 patients (5.63%) with pericardial effusion, 23 patients (16.20%) with acute myocarditis, 101 patients (71.13%) with valvular regurgitation and 8 patients (5.63%) with abnormal ECG. No significant differences were observed in the distribution of clinical classification and the response to IVIG therapy regardless of NCA exhibited or not. CONCLUSIONS: Noncoronary cardiac abnormalities is almost universal in acute KD and mainly manifests as valvular regurgitation. However, it has no influence on clinical classification and the response to IVIG therapy.

15.
Biotechniques ; 68(3): 138-147, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990210

RESUMO

Millions of museum specimens are integral to biodiversity studies; however, DNA degradation may limit the ability to obtain DNA sequences. In this study, a degradation analysis model for Lepidoptera specimens was established. Based on this model, we revealed the characteristics of DNA fragment distribution caused by external DNA damage factors during specimen preservation. We found that the degree of DNA degradation increased over time; DNA degradation of spread and dried adult specimens was significantly higher than that in the folded and formalin-fixed larval specimens. However, the effects of folding wings on DNA degradation and the effects of the preservation method/stage (formalin-fixed larval vs air-dried adult specimens) were different for different species.

16.
J Cell Physiol ; 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960959

RESUMO

To research the impact of autophagy on alveolar epithelial cell inflammation and its possible mechanism in the early stages of hypoxia, we established a cell hypoxia-reoxygenation model and orthotopic left lung ischemia-reperfusion model. Rat alveolar epithelial cells stably expressing GFP-LC3 were treated with an autophagy inhibitor (3-MA) or an autophagy promoter (rapamycin), followed by hypoxia-reoxygenation treatment for 2, 4, and 6 hr in vitro. In vivo, 20 male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups (model group: No blocking of the hilum in the left lung; control group: Blocking of the hilum in the left lung for 1 hr with dimethyl sulfoxide lavage; 3-MA group: Blocking of the hilum in the left lung for 1 hr with 100 ml/kg of 3-MA (5 µmol/L) solution lavage; and rapamycin group: Blocking of the hilum in the left lung for 1 hr with 100 ml/kg of rapamycin (250 nmol/L) solution lavage) to establish an orthotopic left lung ischemia model. This study demonstrated that rapamycin significantly suppressed the nuclear factor kappa B signaling pathway and limited the expression of proinflammatory factors. A contrary result was found after the 3-MA pretreatment. These findings indicate that autophagy reduces ischemia-reperfusion injury by repressing inflammatory signaling pathways in the early stages of hypoxia in vitro and in vivo. Autophagy could be a new protective method for application in lung ischemia-reperfusion injury.

17.
Anal Chem ; 92(3): 2853-2858, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916749

RESUMO

The exhaustive investigating interactions between recognition probes and amyloid aggregates, especially simultaneous recognition events, are challenging and crucial for the design of biosensing probes and further diagnosis of amyloid diseases. In the present work, the interactions of aptamers (Apts) with ß-amyloid (Aß) aggregates were explored thoroughly by single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS). Indeed, it was found that the interaction of aptamer1 (Apt1)-amyloid aggregates was different from that of aptamer2 (Apt2)-Aß40 aggregates at the single-molecule level. Especially, the interaction force of Apt1-Aß40 fibril showed a double distinguishing Gaussian fitting. The only unimodal distribution of the force histogram was displayed for the interactions of Apt2-Aß40 oligomer, Apt2-Aß40 fibril, and Apt1-Aß40 oligomer. More intriguingly, two Apts could bind to amyloid aggregates simultaneously. With the assistance of two Apts recognition, a novel sensitive dual Apt-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor using Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) was developed for quantifying Aß40 aggregates. The dual Apt-based SPR sensor not only avoided the limitation of steric hindrance and epitope but also employed simple operation as well as inexpensive recognition probes. A detection limit as low as 0.2 pM for Aß40 oligomer and 0.05 pM for Aß40 fibril could be achieved. Moreover, the established sensor could be successfully applied to detect Aß40 aggregates in artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and undiluted real CSF. This work could provide a strategy to monitor a simultaneous recognition event using SMFS and broaden the application of Apts in the diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases.

18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 61, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900400

RESUMO

Long-chain alcohols synthesis (LAS, C5+OH) from syngas provides a promising route for the conversion of coal/biomass/natural gas into high-value chemicals. Cu-Fe binary catalysts, with the merits of cost effectiveness and high CO conversion, have attracted considerable attention. Here we report a nano-construct of a Fe5C2-Cu interfacial catalyst derived from Cu4Fe1Mg4-layered double hydroxide (Cu4Fe1Mg4-LDH) precursor, i.e., Fe5C2 clusters (~2 nm) are immobilized onto the surface of Cu nanoparticles (~25 nm). The interfacial catalyst exhibits a CO conversion of 53.2%, a selectivity of 14.8 mol% and a space time yield of 0.101 g gcat-1 h-1 for long-chain alcohols, with a surprisingly benign reaction pressure of 1 MPa. This catalytic performance, to the best of our knowledge, is comparable to the optimal level of Cu-Fe catalysts operated at much higher pressure (normally above 3 MPa).

19.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 139: 47-61, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982428

RESUMO

Cardiac hypertrophy is an early milestone of many heart diseases. LncRNAs often play a leading role in this process. However, its mechanism of action in cardiac hypertrophy has not been fully explained. In a previous study, we showed a new mode by which lncRNA-Mhrt inhibited cardiac hypertrophy by inhibiting myocardin. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. This study aims to explore potential action modes of Mhrt in regulating the expression of myocardin in the process of cardiac hypertrophy. Here, we find that Mhrt reduces myocardin expression through KLF4 in vivo and in vitro. Meanwhile, Mhrt promotes the expression of KLF4 through direct binding to miR-145a-5p or inhibiting phosphorylation of KLF4 by forming a complex with KLF4 to prevent the binding of ERK and KLF4, thereby inhibiting myocardin expression and the development of myocardial hypertrophy. Taken together, our findings reveal a new pathway, Mhrt-KLF4-myocardin, that regulates cardiac hypertrophy and revealed additional possible action modes of Mhrt in the occurrence and development of cardiac hypertrophy. The new regulatory pathway serves as a potential therapeutic avenue for cardiac hypertrophy.

20.
J Chromatogr A ; : 460845, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924329

RESUMO

Posaconazole represents a triazole antifungal agent which is used to treat various fungal infections. It contains four chiral centers leading to 16 stereoisomers. With the convergent synthesis route, only 11 related stereoisomeric impurities may potentially exist in the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). It is a challenge to separate all the stereoisomers in one run. To address this problem, a multiple heart-cutting chiral-chiral two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) method was developed. The multiple heart-cutting 2D-LC separation was implemented on 2D-LC system with three chiral columns with immobilized polysaccharide chiral stationary phases, namely Chiralpak IB, IC and IF3. In the system, the column Chiralpak IB was used as the 1D separation column and IC and IF3 columns were used parallelly for the 2D separation. The twelve stereoisomers were all well separated in one run by the multiple heart-cutting chiral-chiral 2D-LC system.

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