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1.
Dev Comp Immunol ; : 104015, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460679

RESUMO

Tumour necrosis factor receptor associated factor 3 (TRAF3) is a crucial transducing protein for linking upstream receptor signals and downstream antiviral signalling pathways. Previous studies mostly clarified the functions of TRAF3 in mammals, birds and fish, but little is known about the characterization and function of TRAF3 in amphibians. In this study, the molecular and functional identification of two TRAF3 genes, AdTRAF3A and AdTRAF3B, were investigated in the Chinese giant salamander Andrias davidianus. The complete open reading frames (ORFs) of AdTRAF3A and AdTRAF3B were 1,698 bp and 1,743 bp in length, encoding 565 and 580 amino acids, respectively. Both AdTRAF3A and AdTRAF3B deduced proteins contained a RING finger, two TRAF-type zinc fingers, a coiled-coil and a MATH domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the AdTRAF3 protein clustered together with other known TRAF3 proteins. Gene expression analysis showed that AdTRAF3s were broadly distributed in all examined tissues with similar distribution patterns. AdTRAF3s in the blood or spleen positively responded to Chinese giant salamander iridovirus (GSIV) and poly (I:C) induction but exhibited distinct response patterns. Silencing AdTRAF3A/B remarkably suppressed the expression of IFN signalling pathway-related genes when leukocytes were treated with DNA virus and the viral RNA analogue. Moreover, overexpression of AdTRAF3A may induce the activation of the IFN-ß promoter, and the zinc finger, coiled coil and MATH domains of AdTRAF3A were essential for IFN-ß promoter activation. However, the overexpression of AdTRAF3B significantly suppressed IFN-ß promoter activity, and its inhibitory effect was enhanced when the RING finger or MATH domain was deleted. Furthermore, AdTRAF3A rather than AdTRAF3B significantly induced NF-κB activation, implying that AdTRAF3A may function as an enhancer in both the IFN and NF-κB signalling pathways. Taken together, our results suggest that the two TRAF3 genes play different crucial regulatory roles in innate antiviral immunity in Chinese giant salamanders.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 11, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397889

RESUMO

Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) provides a noninvasive approach to elucidate a patient's genomic landscape and actionable information. Here, we design a ctDNA-based study of over 10,000 pan-cancer Chinese patients. Using parallel sequencing between plasma and white blood cells, 14% of plasma cell-free DNA samples contain clonal hematopoiesis (CH) variants, for which detectability increases with age. After eliminating CH variants, ctDNA is detected in 73.5% of plasma samples, with small cell lung cancer (91.1%) and prostate cancer (87.9%) showing the highest detectability. The landscape of putative driver genes revealed by ctDNA profiling is similar to that in a tissue-based database (R2 = 0.87, p < 0.001) but also shows some discrepancies, such as higher EGFR (44.8% versus 25.2%) and lower KRAS (6.8% versus 27.2%) frequencies in non-small cell lung cancer, and a higher TP53 frequency in hepatocellular carcinoma (53.1% versus 28.6%). Up to 41.2% of plasma samples harbor drug-sensitive alterations. These findings may be helpful for identifying therapeutic targets and combined treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , DNA Tumoral Circulante/análise , Neoplasias/sangue , Neoplasias/genética , DNA Tumoral Circulante/sangue , DNA Tumoral Circulante/genética , Células Clonais , Estudos de Coortes , Genoma Humano , Hematopoese , Humanos , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Mutação/genética , Carga Tumoral/genética
3.
Food Chem ; 337: 127755, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777567

RESUMO

Since the beginning of the widespread use of pesticides, their removal from food has become a serious concern. In this study, the removal of residual pesticides (malathion and carbosulfan) from pak choi via treatment with ozonated water was investigated. Under the optimal treatment conditions, i.e., 2.0 mg/L ozonated water and a treatment duration of 15 min, malathion and carbosulfan were degraded by 53.0 and 33.0%, respectively, without any significant changes in color. Even though there was a slight decrease in vitamin C content (~7.9 mg/100 g) following the treatments, a significant decrease in the microbial colonies on the vegetables was observed. Additionally, the pesticide degradation mechanism showed good fitting with a "first + first"-order kinetic model (R2 > 0.9), and the slope (k) indicated that ozone had a more prominent degradation effect on malathion than on carbosulfan. Therefore, this study provides a theoretical basis for controlling agricultural pesticide residues in household applications.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/química , Carbamatos/química , Carbamatos/isolamento & purificação , Malation/química , Malation/isolamento & purificação , Ozônio/química , Contaminação de Alimentos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/isolamento & purificação , Verduras/química
4.
Life Sci ; 266: 118938, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347878

RESUMO

Oxidative stress is a promoting factor in the pathologic process of glucocorticoid - induced osteoporosis (GIO), while the mechanism is still unclear. Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) is a vital protein responsible for regulation of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation elicited by mitochondrial oxidative stress, and which may activate oxidative phosphorylation under the pathogenic status. In this research, the results showed that signaling pathway associated with the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (MOP) down-regulated under conditions of TXNIP siRNA in MG63 cells. Furthermore, the evidence revealed that the expression level of TXNIP in serum and bone was elevated in a rat of GIO. Moreover, the differential proteins (Ndufs3, SDHD, Cyt B, COX IV, and ATP B) related to MOP pathway were identified to down-regulate in the proteomics of bone tissues by using isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantification (iTRAQ) method in TXNIP knockout mice treated with glucocorticoid, and the proteins were also verified by simple western blot. Taken together, the present findings highlights that TXNIP involves in triggering the process of bone loss via up-regulation of the MOP pathway, resulting to GIO, while TXNIP knockout can prevent the pathogenesis of GIO to some extent.

5.
Food Chem ; : 128712, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33267980

RESUMO

A sensitive and reliable method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of 49 amino acids, B vitamins, flavonoids, and phenolic acids based on a rapid metabolomic extraction procedure combined with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) in a single chromatographic run and applied in analysis of 26 commonly consumed vegetables. The chromatographic and sample preparation conditions were optimized, given the high diversity of the target analytes. Eight isotope-labeled standards were applied to validate the method in terms of recovery, linearity, matrix effects, precision, and sensitivity. Most recoveries in four vegetable matrices ranged from 65.0% to 105.3% with associated RSDs < 20%. Low LOQs ranged from 0.06 to 17 µg/kg. Linear calibration curves with different ranges were established with R2 > 0.993. Among the 26 vegetables, purple cabbage, broccoli, and red lettuce were found to contain the highest concentrations of free amino acids, B vitamins, and phenolic compounds.

6.
Front Oncol ; 10: 595466, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33194761

RESUMO

Radiation resistance is linked to immune escaping and radiation sensitivity. In this study, we found that the PD-L1 expressions of non-killed tumor cells in NSCLC were enhanced after radiotherapy, and dihydroartemisinin (DHA) could synergistically enhance the antitumor effect of radiotherapy in NSCLC. A total of 48 NSCLC patients with sufficient tumor tissues for further analyses were enrolled. The PD-L1 expressions of NSCLC were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry, and the relationship between the PD-L1 expression and radiation resistance was investigated in patient specimens, xenograft model, and cell lines. First, the results indicate that the PD-L1 expression of NSCLC was positively related with the radiation resistance. Second, we found that DHA could eliminate the radiation resistance and synergistically enhance the antitumor effect of radiotherapy in the NSCLC cells lines and xenograft model. Finally, mechanistically, DHA could inhibit the PD-L1 expression to avoid immune escaping by inhibiting TGF-ß, PI3K/Akt, and STAT3 signaling pathways. In addition, DHA could activate TRIM21 and regulate the EMT-related proteins by inhibiting the PD-L1 so as to enhance the radiation sensitivity and eliminate radiation resistance to NSCLC. Collectively, this study established a basis for the rational design of integrated radiotherapy and DHA for the treatment of NSCLC.

7.
Ann Transl Med ; 8(20): 1310, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33209890

RESUMO

Background: Circulating immune cells influence the efficacy of cancer therapy. This study aimed to investigate the prognostic values of different peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL) biomarkers in non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with chemoradiotherapy. Methods: An independent cohort of 176 stage III NSCLC patients who were diagnosed at Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital and Zhejiang Cancer Hospital between April, 2010, and September, 2018, and had available pretreatment peripheral blood tests was enrolled. The patients were all treated with concurrent or sequential chemoradiotherapy according to international clinical guidelines, with conventional fractionated radical radiotherapy. The receiver operating characteristic curve and the Youden index were used to determine the optional cutoff values of PBL biomarkers for distinguishing prognosis. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were performed to identify the factors significantly correlated with overall survival. Results: The cohort had a median follow-up time of 21.7 (3.1-121) months. The 3- and 5-year OS rates of all patients were 34.7% and 27.5%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that gender (P=0.011), smoking (P=0.011), tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage (P=0.002), pretreatment peripheral blood neutrophil-to-leukocyte ratio (P=0.013), and systemic inflammation response index (SIRI, P<0.001) were all correlated with OS in NSCLC patients. Moreover, multivariate analysis revealed that TNM stage (HR =1.541, 95% CI: 1.166-2.036, P=0.010) and SIRI (HR =1.868, 95% CI: 1.016-3.436, P=0.018) were significantly and independently associated with OS. However, the median OS of stage IIIB NSCLC patients with low SIRI (≤2.0) was longer than that of stage IIIA NSCLC patients with high SIRI (>2.0) (33.9±4.1 vs. 19.6±2.5 months). Conclusions: Pretreatment peripheral blood SIRI was found to be a simple independent predictor of OS in stage III NSCLC patients who underwent chemoradiotherapy. As a novel prognostic marker, the prognostic value of the SIRI is superior to that of the NLR. Low SIRI could be a better prognostic stratification factor for NSCLC patients with different TNM stages.

8.
Ann Transl Med ; 8(18): 1169, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33241018

RESUMO

Background: Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), a limiting enzyme in the IDO/kynurenine (Kyn) pathway, converts tryptophan (Trp) into Kyn, and plays a significant role in immune suppression and tumor immune evasion. This study aimed to investigate the association between IDO activity and clinical outcomes in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who underwent radiotherapy (RT). Methods: Serum Kyn and Trp levels were measured in 104 NSCLC patients by high-performance liquid chromatography at baseline, and the following RT. The correlation between IDO activity, as computed by Kyn: Trp ratios and survival was estimated using Kaplan-Meier curves. Cox proportional hazard models are used in the univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: Both the Kyn levels and Kyn:Trp ratios were reduced after RT at a biologically equivalent dose (BED) of <70 Gy, while these increased at a BED of ≥70 Gy. Post/pre-Kyn levels were positively correlated with an objective response. Patients with a higher Kyn:Trp ratio pre-RT had the worse median progression-free survival (mPFS, 13.5 vs. 24.5 months, P=0.049). Higher post/pre-Kyn:Trp ratios were correlated with improved median overall survival (mOS, 23.8 months vs. not reached, P=0.032). On the multivariate analysis, pre-RT Kyn:Trp and post/pre-Kyn:Trp ratios remained as independent predictive factors for PFS and OS, respectively. Conclusions: It was proved that RT could alter IDO-mediated immune activity and establish strong correlations between IDO activity and survival outcomes in NSCLC patients treated with RT. These present findings suggest that the profiling of IDO activity might allow for the prompt adjustment of RT doses and better predict patient response to RT.

9.
J Chromatogr A ; 1633: 461637, 2020 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152553

RESUMO

In this study, in-source fragmentation in ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS) was investigated and applied for pesticide residue analysis. Over 400 pesticides were tested, among which 26 pesticides were found to be sensitive to in-source fragmentation, producing 33 in-source fragments. The fragment pathways were studied and severe in-source fragmentation was observed due to the cleavage of C-O bond of carbamate, phosphate, ester, and ether groups, especially for isocarbophos and methoprene, leading to false negative results. High source temperatures could significantly increase the extent of in-source fragmentation. A multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) based multiresidue method was established for the pesticide residue analysis in vegetables and fruits, applying both pesticides and in-source fragments as precursors. The quantification ability of the method was validated and compared in terms of recovery, linearity, and the limit of quantification. In-source fragmentswere found to be more suitable than their parent pesticides as precursor ions for MRM analysis.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Frutas/química , Verduras/química
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33220395

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to compare erlotinib (E) and etoposide/cisplatin (EP) with concurrent radiotherapy (RT) for patients with stage IIIA/B unresectable advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with activating epidermal growth factor receptor mutation (EGFRm+). METHODS: and patients: This was a multicenter, randomized, open-label, phase 2 trial conducted across 19 institutions in China (December 2012 to January 2016). Enrolled patients were randomized (1:1) to E+RT (oral erlotinib 150 mg/day for 2 years or until disease progression or intolerable toxicity and RT 200 cGy/day, 5 days/week for 6 weeks from the first day of erlotinib) or EP+RT (etoposide 50 mg/m2 intravenously on days 1-5 and 29-33; cisplatin 50 mg/m2 intravenously on days 1, 8, 29 and 36; and RT as above). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints included objective response rate (ORR) and safety. RESULTS: A total of 252 patients were screened and 20 patients with EGFRm+ in each group received the allocated E+RT or EP+RT treatment. Patient characteristics were well-balanced between groups. Compared with EP+RT, median PFS with E+RT was significantly longer (24.5 vs 9.0 months [hazard ratio, 0.104; 95% confidence interval, 0.028-0.389; P < 0.001]). ORR in the E+RT and EP+RT groups was 70% and 61.9%, respectively (P = 0.744). The incidence of adverse events (any grade) was similar between E+RT and EP+RT groups (88.9% and 84.2%). CONCLUSIONS: The primary endpoint of PFS was met, and the data showed that E+RT might provide PFS improvement compared with EP+RT, with similar tolerability. However, definitive statements regarding the efficacy of concurrent E+RT in patients with unresectable stage III NSCLC with activating EGFRm+ cannot be made, and slow patient accrual will likely make it infeasible to conduct a phase 3 study.

11.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 1078, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33238994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The accurate identification of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis implementation barriers is an important part of prophylaxis prevention. However, in China, data to help identify these barriers is limited. This study has two objectives: 1) to determine the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAPs) of healthcare professionals regarding graduated compression stockings (GCS) since the launch of the National Program for the Prevention and Management of Pulmonary Embolism (PE) and Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT) in October 2018 and 2) to identify the obstacles and assist the program. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 5070 healthcare professionals in China. We used exploratory factor and reliability analyses to evaluate the researcher-designed questionnaire's reliability and validity. The formal questionnaire, which included demographic data, knowledge, attitudes, and clinical practice patterns, was distributed to healthcare professionals. RESULTS: Of the 5070 respondents, 32.5% had a good knowledge of GCS, 78.5% had a positive attitude towards their use, and 34.0% exhibited normative behavior when applying them. The KAPs of healthcare professionals towards GCS were significantly correlated with one another. Binary logistic regression suggested that the training received by healthcare professionals was an important factor affecting their knowledge regarding GCS usage. CONCLUSIONS: The training provided for the use of GCS in China cannot meet medical staff needs and deserves more attention from policy makers. This represents an obstacle for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis, which restricts the effective implementation of the National Program for Prevention and Management of PE and DVT.

12.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 8: 563316, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33102474

RESUMO

Octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4) has been recently implicated as a proangiogenic regulator in several induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), however, its role in cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) remain unclear. We report here that Oct4 participates in tumor vasculogenesis in liver CSCs (LCSCs). We identify that LCSCs possess the potential of endothelial trans-differentiation under endothelial induction, present endothelial specific markers and their functions in vitro, and participate in neovasculogenesis in vivo. The knockdown of the Oct4A by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in LCSCs represses endothelial trans-differentiation potential, but induces endothelial lineage-restricted differentiation, the latter is positively regulated by Oct4B1. Furthermore, Oct4 regulates vasculogenesis in LCSCs may be via the AKT-NF-κB-p65 signaling pathway. This work reveals Oct4, which is a crucial regulator, plays a critical role in tumor endothelial-like cells transition of LCSCs through Oct4A and Oct4B1 by different ways. The simultaneous inhibition of both the isoforms of Oct4 is hence expected to help regress neovascularization derived from CSCs. Our findings may provide insights to the possible new mechanisms of tumor vasculogenesis for primary liver cancer.

13.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046514

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We investigated the value of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in predicting tumor response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT), monitoring tumor burden, and prognosing survival in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: This prospective multicenter trial recruited 106 patients with LARC for treatment with nCRT followed by surgery. Serial ctDNAs were analyzed by next-generation sequencing at four timepoints: at baseline, during nCRT, presurgery, and postsurgery. RESULTS: In total, 1,098 mutations were identified in tumor tissues of the 104 patients being analyzed (median, seven mutations/patient). ctDNA was detected in 75%, 15.6%, 10.5%, and 6.7% of cases at the four timepoints, respectively. None of the 29 patients with pathologic complete response (ypCR) had preoperative ctDNA detected. The preoperative ctDNA-positive rate was significantly lower in the well-responded patients with pathologic tumor regression grade of ypCAP 0-1 than ypCAP 2-3 group (P < 0.001), lower in ypCR than non-ypCR group (P = 0.02), and lower in pathologic T stage (ypT) 0-2 than ypT 3-4 group (P = 0.002). With a median follow-up of 18.8 months, 13 patients (12.5%) experienced distant metastasis. ctDNA positivity at all four timepoints was associated with a shorter metastasis-free survival (MFS; P < 0.05). Multivariate analyses showed that the median variant allele frequency (VAF) of mutations in baseline ctDNA was a strong independent predictor of MFS (HR, 1.27; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We show that ctDNA is a real-time monitoring indicator that can accurately reflect the tumor burden. The median VAF of baseline ctDNA is a strong independent predictor of MFS.

15.
Transl Lung Cancer Res ; 9(4): 1472-1482, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32953519

RESUMO

Background: Previous research has shown that stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) can achieve a high level of tumor control in patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, to date, such studies have mainly focused on peripheral early-stage patients. This study aimed to assess the clinical outcomes and toxicity of patients with central lung cancer treated with SBRT in our institution. Methods: A total of 31 consecutive central early-stage NSCLC patients who were treated with SBRT using the biologically effective dose (BED; α/ß =10) 100-119 Gy in 4-10 fractions between April, 2013, and August, 2016, were reviewed. The RTOG 0813 trial standard was used to define whether the NSCLC was centrally located. All patients received four-dimensional computed tomography (4D CT) simulation. Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D CRT) techniques were used in treatment planning. The dose to the planning target volume (PTV) was prescribed to the 95% isodose line. Mainly dosimetric parameters, clinical outcomes, and toxicity were analyzed. Results: The 31 patients enrolled in the study had a median follow-up time of 47.7 months, and the median tumor diameter was 2.2 cm (range, 1.3-5.0 cm). A total of 15 patients (48.4%) developed disease recurrence. The incidences of local, regional, and distant disease recurrence at 3 years were 11.7%, 9.7%, and 30.7%, respectively; at 5 years, they were 21.5%, 15.0%, and 35.0%, respectively. The 3- and 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 55.1% and 40.5%, respectively; the corresponding overall survival (OS) rates were 85.3% and 68.4%, respectively. Toxicities of grade 3 or higher were observed in 6.5% of the patients. None of the patients experienced grade 4 or 5 acute adverse events; however, 2 patients possibly died of treatment-related late toxicity. Conclusions: SBRT with a BED 100 Gy in 4-10 fractions is effective and acceptable for treating patients with central early-stage NSCLC. Further studies are warranted.

16.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1620, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903763

RESUMO

Cyclin D1 (CCND1) amplification relevant to malignant biological behavior exists in solid tumors. The prevalence and utility of CCND1 amplification as a biomarker for the clinical response to treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are unknown. Our study is a preliminary investigation mainly focused on the predictive function of CCND1 amplification in the tumor microenvironment (TME) in the aspect of genome and transcriptome. We examined the prevalence of CCND1 amplification and its potential as a biomarker for the efficacy of ICI therapy for solid tumors using a local database (n = 6,536), The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database (n = 10,606), and the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) database (n = 10,109). Comprehensive profiling was performed to determine the prevalence of CCND1 amplification and the correlation with the prognosis and the response to ICIs. A CCND1 amplification occurs in many cancer types and correlates with shorter overall survival and inferior outcomes with ICI therapy. Transcriptomic analysis showed various degrees of immune cell exclusion, including cytotoxic cells, T cells, CD8+ T cells, dendritic cells (DCs), and B cells in the TME in a TCGA CCND1 amplification population. The gene set enrichment analysis suggested that CCND1 amplification correlates with multiple aggressive, immunosuppressive hallmarks including epithelial-mesenchymal transition, transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß signaling, KRAS signaling, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, p53 pathway, and hypoxia signaling in solid tumors. These findings indicate that CCND1 amplification may be a key point related to immunosuppression in TME and multiple malignancy hallmarks, and it hinders not only the natural host immune responses but also the efficacy of ICIs.

17.
Front Oncol ; 10: 1220, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32850360

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the leading causes of cancer death, partly due to the high recurrence rates for patients with PDAC. Current postoperative surveillance methods, including monitoring of clinical symptoms, tumor markers, and CT imaging, lack sensitivity and specificity for minimal residual disease (MRD). We investigated whether the detection of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) could identify MRD and predict relapse in postoperative patients with PDAC. In this study, we performed panel-captured sequencing to detect somatic mutations. Matched tissue samples were obtained to verify mutation. A total of 27 patients and 65 plasma samples were included. Among the somatic mutations, KRAS and TP53 were the most recurrent genes in both tissue and plasma samples. The detectable rate of ctDNA increased with the stage of PDAC. The maximal variant allele fraction (VAF) of ctDNA had a positive correlation with tumor largest diameter (p = 0.0101). Patients with ctDNA-positive status postoperatively had a markedly reduced disease-free survival (DFS) compared to those with ctDNA-negative status (HR, 5.20; p = 0.019). Positive vascular invasion significantly influenced disease-free survival (DFS) (p = 0.036), and positive postoperative ctDNA status was an independent prognostic factor for DFS (HR = 3.60; 95% CI, 1.15-11.28; p = 0.028). Postoperative ctDNA detection provides strong evidence of MRD and identifies patients with a high risk of relapse. ctDNA detection is a promising approach for personalized patient management during postoperative follow-up.

18.
Transl Lung Cancer Res ; 9(3): 713-721, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32676333

RESUMO

Background: Radiographic changes after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) have not been well studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the computed tomography (CT) appearance pattern of radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) and recurrence after SBRT in patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: We retrospectively analyzed clinical data of inoperable early stage NSCLC patients undergoing SBRT treatment from February 2012 to June 2018. All patients had undergone serial CT scanning before SBRT and after completion of SBRT. An experienced radiation oncologist and radiologist reviewed all CT images, and identified the RILI and CT high-risk features (HRFs). Results: A total of 60 patients were enrolled in this study; 55 patients had RILI (91.67%) and 7 patients had local failure. In the early CT findings of observers 1 and 2, there were diffuse ground glass opacities (GGOs) in 3 and 4 patients, diffuse consolidation in 10 and 12 patients, patchy consolidation in 22 and 15 patients, patchy GGOs in 19 and 24 patients, and no changes in 5 and 4 patients, respectively (kappa =0.706). In the late CT findings of observer 1 and 2, there were modified conventional patterns in 37 and 37 patients, mass-like patterns in 10 and 9 patients, scar-like patterns in 7 and 8 patients, and no changes in 5 and 5 patients, respectively (kappa =0.726). In the results of the CT-based HRFs of disease local failure, there were ≥1 HRFs in 7 patients, ≥2 HRFs in 7 patients, ≥3 HRFs in 6 patients, ≥4 HRFs in 5 patients, and ≥5 HRFs in 3 patients, respectively. Patients with only 1 HRF showed high sensitivity (100%) and low specificity (52.80%), with the specificity increasing and the sensitivity decreasing as the number of HRFs increased. Conclusions: The agreement of the CT appearance on RILI between 2 observers was good. Regular follow-up and attention to HRFs are vital for better identifying RILI and local disease failure.

19.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 105: 41-52, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629101

RESUMO

Transforming growth factor-ß type III receptor (TßR3), as a co-receptor of TGF-ß superfamily, plays critical roles in development and growth as well as some disease pathogeneses by presenting ligands to other receptors in vertebrates. However, the identification and functional characterization of TßR3 had not been reported yet in invertebrates. In the present study, TßR3 was first identified and characterized in mud crab Scylla paramamosain. The obtained cDNA length of SpTßR3 was 2, 424 bp with a 1, 854 bp open reading frame, which encoded a putative peptide of 617 amino acids containing a typical transmembrane region and a Zona pellucida (ZP) domain. Real-time PCR results showed that SpTßR3 was predominantly expressed at early embryonic development stage and early postmolt stage, suggesting its participation in development and growth. We report, for the first time in invertebrates, the challenge of both Vibro alginolyticus and Poly (I:C) could alter the expression patterns of SpTßR3. Notably, the expression levels of SpIKK, two NF-κB members (SpRelish and SpDorsal), and five antimicrobial peptide genes (SpCrustin and SpALF1-4) were significantly suppressed when SpTßR3 was interfered in vivo. Secondly, the overexpression of SpTßR3 in vitro could activate NF-κB signaling through the dual-luciferase reporter assays. Furthermore, the bacterial clearance assay after SpTßR3 was silenced in vivo highlighted the potential of SpTßR3 in activating the innate immune responses. These results implied the involvement of SpTßR3 in the innate immune responses by regulating the NF-κB pathway. This study first indicated that TßR3 was present in invertebrate, and it participated in not only the development and growth but also the innate immunity of S. paramamosain. It also provided new insights into the origin or evolution of TGF-ß receptors in crustacean species and even in invertebrates.

20.
Exp Cell Res ; 394(2): 112134, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540399

RESUMO

Surgical resection is the only curative treatment for patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer. However, approximately 33% of non-small cell lung cancer patients recur with the stage I disease, which may be attributed to a deficiency in antitumor immunity. In the present study, for early stage lung adenocarcinoma patients with early recurrence and early non-recurrence, we investigated the quantity of tumor-infiltrating T and B cells by immunohistochemistry, as well as the genes in the complementarity determining region 3 of the T-cell receptor ß chain and the B-cell receptor immunoglobulin heavy chain. A decreased number of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes cells (CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and CD20+) was present in early recurrence patients. A significant increase in oligoclones and a reduction in T-cell receptor diversity were observed in the early recurrence group. Furthermore, there was a preference for V, J gene, and VJ gene combinations in patients with early recurrence versus non-recurrence, suggesting that this may be a new biomarker for the recurrence of early stage lung adenocarcinoma. These data indicate that T and B cell receptor repertoires influence the depth of human adaptive immune responses, and in addition to the quantity of tumor infiltrating T and B cells, may contribute to the prevention of early stage lung adenocarcinoma recurrence after surgical resection. Our study illustrates the potential value of the immune repertoire for predicting clinical efficacy and patient outcomes.

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