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1.
J Affect Disord ; 296: 189-197, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The symptoms that patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) experience are the dominant contributing factors to its heavy disease burden. This study sought to identify key symptoms leading to disability in patients with MDD. METHODS: Subjects consisted of patients who had a 12-month MDD diagnosis based on the China Mental Health Survey (CMHS). World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) was used to assess the degree of disability. The associations between depressive symptoms and disability were analyzed using a linear regression and logistic regression with a complex sampling design. RESULTS: Of the 32,552 community residents, 655 patients were diagnosed with 12-month MDD. The disability rate due to MDD was 1.06% (95% CI: 0.85%-1.28%) among adults in Chinese community and 50.7% (95% CI: 44.3%-57.1%) among MDD patients. Depression was associated with all functional losses measured by the WHODAS. Feelings of worthlessness in life or inappropriate guilt, and psychomotor agitation or retardation were the key symptoms related to disability. Economic status, co-morbidity of physical diseases or anxiety disorders were correlates of disability scores. LIMITATIONS: The disability rate might be underestimated due to the exclusion of MDD patients living in hospitals. The effect of treatments on disability was excluded. CONCLUSIONS: Psychological symptoms, not somatic symptoms, contribute to disability in MDD patients. Disability worsens when physical diseases or anxiety disorders are present. More attention could be paid to psychological symptoms, physical diseases, and anxiety disorders in MDD patients with disabilities.

2.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 430, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Measurement-based care (MBC) is an evidence-based practice for depression, but its use by clinicians remains low. Enhanced MBC (eMBC), which uses digital technologies, can help to facilitate the use of MBC by clinicians and patients. Understanding factors that act as barriers and drivers to the implementation of MBC and eMBC is important to support the design of implementation strategies, promoting uptake by clinicians and patients. OBJECTIVE: This situational analysis identifies barriers and facilitators to the implementation of standard and eMBC at mental health centers in Shanghai, China. METHODS: We used mixed methods to develop a comprehensive understanding of the factors influencing MBC and eMBC implementation in Shanghai. This study took place across three mental health centers in Shanghai. We used situational analysis tools to collect contextual information about the three centers, conducted surveys with n = 116 clinicians and n = 301 patients, conducted semi-structured interviews with n = 30 clinicians and six focus groups with a total of n = 19 patients. Surveys were analysed using descriptive statistics, and semi-structured interviews and focus groups were analysed using framework analysis. RESULTS: Several potential barriers and facilitators to MBC and eMBC implementation were identified. Infrastructure, cost, attitudes and beliefs, and perceptions about feasibility and efficacy emerged as both challenges and drivers to MBC and eMBC implementation in Shanghai. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study will directly inform the design of an implementation strategy for MBC and eMBC in Shanghai, that will be tested via a randomized controlled trial. This study contributes to the emerging body of literature on MBC implementation and, to the best of our knowledge, is the first such study to take place in Asia. This study identifies several factors that are relevant to the equitable delivery of MBC, recognizing the need to explicitly address equity concerns in global mental health implementation research.


Assuntos
Depressão , Saúde Mental , China , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Int Heart J ; 62(5): 1135-1144, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588407

RESUMO

Myocardial fibrosis is an important pathological phenomenon of cardiac remodeling that is induced by hypertension, myocardial ischemia, valvular heart disease, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and other heart diseases and can progress to heart failure. Urotensin II (UII) is regarded as a cardiovascular autacoid/hormone that is not only the most potent vasoconstrictor in mammals but also involved in cardiac remodeling. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for UII-induced cardiac fibrosis have not yet been fully elucidated. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect of UII on myocardial fibrosis in cardiac hypertrophy and the mechanism of UII-induced cardiac fibrosis. Cardiac tissue from mice subjected to Transverse aortic constriction (TAC) was collected. Cardiac hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis, and the expression of UII protein were assessed using echocardiography and pathological and molecular biological analyses. The effect of UII on fibrosis was evaluated in UII-treated mice and isolated rat primary cardiac fibroblasts, and the results indicated that UII induced significant myocardial fibrosis and increases in the proliferation and fibrotic responses both in mice and cultured fibroblasts. Mechanistically, UII treatment induced activation of the TGF-ß/Smad signaling pathway, which was suppressed by the UII receptor antagonist. In conclusion, UII plays critical roles in cardiac fibrosis by modulating the TGF-ß/Smads signaling pathway, which may be a promising therapeutic target in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and related problems, such as cardiac remodeling and heart failure.

4.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 2): 132148, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509756

RESUMO

Nitrate/nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (n-DAMO) is an important process linking nitrogen and carbon cycle. It is recently demonstrated that n-DAMO archaea are able to couple n-DAMO to dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA). In this work, a mathematical model is developed to describe DNRA by n-DAMO archaea for the first time. The anabolic and catabolic processes of n-DAMO archaea, n-DAMO bacteria and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) bacteria are involved. The different impacts of exogenous and endogenous nitrite on DNRA and n-DAMO microbes are considered. The developed model is calibrated and validated using experimental data collected from a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and a counter-diffusion membrane biofilm bioreactor (MBfR). The model outputs fit well with the profiles of nitrogen (N) dynamics and biomass changes in both reactors, demonstrating its good predictive ability. The developed model is further used to simulate the counter-diffusion MBfR incorporating n-DAMO and Anammox process to treat sidestream wastewater. The simulated distribution profiles of N removal/production rates by different microbes along biofilm depth reveal that DNRA by n-DAMO archaea plays an important role in N transformation of the integrated n-DAMO and Anammox process. It is further suggested that the counter-diffusion MBfR under the investigated conditions should be operated at proper hydraulic retention times (HRTs) (i.e. 6h and 8h) with exogenous NO2- in the range of 0-10 mg N/L or at HRTs >3h with the absence of exogenous NO2- in order to achieve dischargeable effluent.

5.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In China, depressive disorders have been estimated to be the second leading cause of years lived with disability. However, nationally representative epidemiological data for depressive disorders, in particular use of mental health services by adults with these disorders, are unavailable in China. The present study, part of the China Mental Health Survey, 2012-15, aims to describe the socioeconomic characteristics and the use of mental health services in people with depressive disorders in China. METHODS: The China Mental Health Survey was a cross-sectional epidemiological survey of mental disorders in a multistage clustered-area probability sample of adults of Chinese nationality (≥18 years) from 157 nationwide representative population-based disease surveillance points in 31 provinces across China. Trained investigators interviewed the participants with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0 to ascertain the presence of lifetime and 12-month depressive disorders according to DSM-IV criteria, including major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, and depressive disorder not otherwise specified. Participants with 12-month depressive disorders were asked whether they received any treatment for their emotional problems during the past 12 months and, if so, the specific types of treatment providers. The Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) was used to assess impairments associated with 12-month depressive symptoms. Data-quality control procedures included logic check by computers, sequential recording check, and phone-call check by the quality controllers, and reinterview check by the psychiatrists. Data were weighted according to the age-sex-residence distribution data from China's 2010 census population survey to adjust for differential probabilities of selection and differential response, as well as to post-stratify the sample to match the population distribution. FINDINGS: 28 140 respondents (12 537 [44·6%] men and 15 603 [55·4%] women) completed the survey between July 22, 2013, and March 5, 2015. Ethnicity data (Han or non-Han) were collected for only a subsample. Prevalence of any depressive disorders was higher in women than men (lifetime prevalence odds ratio [OR] 1·44 [95% CI 1·20-1·72] and 12-month prevalence OR 1·41 [1·12-1·78]), in unemployed people than employed people (lifetime OR 2·38 [95% CI 1·68-3·38] and 12-month OR 2·80 [95% CI 1·88-4·18]), and in people who were separated, widowed, or divorced compared with those who were married or cohabiting (lifetime OR 1·87 [95% CI 1·39-2·51] and 12-month OR 1·85 [95% CI 1·40-2·46]). Overall, 574 (weighted % 75·9%) of 744 people with 12-month depressive disorders had role impairment of any SDS domain: 439 (83·6%) of 534 respondents with major depressive disorder, 207 (79·8%) of 254 respondents with dysthymic disorder, and 122 (59·9%) of 189 respondents with depressive disorder not otherwise specified. Only an estimated 84 (weighted % 9·5%) of 1007 participants with 12-month depressive disorders were treated in any treatment sector: 38 (3·6%) in speciality mental health, 20 (1·5%) in general medical, two (0·3%) in human services, and 21 (2·7%) in complementary and alternative medicine. Only 12 (0·5%) of 1007 participants with depressive disorders were treated adequately. INTERPRETATION: Depressive disorders in China were more prevalent in women than men, unemployed people than employed, and those who were separated, widowed, or divorced than people who were married or cohabiting. Most people with depressive disorders reported social impairment. Treatment rates were very low, and few people received adequate treatment. National programmes are needed to remove barriers to availability, accessibility, and acceptability of care for depression in China. FUNDING: National Health Commission and Ministry of Science and Technology of People's Republic of China. TRANSLATION: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.

6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17160, 2021 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433874

RESUMO

Negative life events (NLEs) are an important predictor of depressive symptoms (DS). College students experiencing NLEs are at risk of developing DS that could further weaken their academic engagement (AE), while social supports may assuage such negative effect. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between negative life events, depressive symptoms, and academic engagement, and how the NLE-DS-AE relationship is affected by the level of social support among Chinese college students. To test this hypothesis, we applied data from the Decoding Happiness Gene Cohort Study (DHGCS). Baseline depressive symptoms and academic engagement were measured at the beginning of the first academic year. Approximately 12 months later, negative life events and social support over the past year were assessed retrospectively along with current depressive symptoms and academic engagement. A total of 3629 college students (Age = 18.67 ± 0.82) were included in the study. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 26.7% and 36.7% in college students at the beginning of the first and second academic year, respectively. Depressive symptoms predicted subsequent academic engagement rather than the reverse based on cross-lagged analyses. Using structural equation modeling analyses, findings revealed a partial mediation effect of social support between negative life events and the development of depressive symptoms, and a partial mediation effect between negative life events and academic engagement. The findings presented negative life events jeopardize the academic engagement via depressive symptoms, while social supports are able to cancel such negative effect among college students under the Chinese cultural context.

7.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131806, 2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426137

RESUMO

Microplastics, as defined here as plastics with a diameter of <5 mm, can impose severely detrimental impacts on the environment and can now be commonly found in different water bodies. To date, the status of microplastics in limnic systems, which have different hydrologic systems compared to other water bodies such as oceans or rivers, has rarely been reviewed. In the present study, the microplastic pollutants in different countries and regions were comparatively investigated in terms of their abundances, morphologies, and polymer types in the water and sediments of lakes. The concentration and characteristics of microplastics were found to be largely different across countries and regions, which was related to the local development level and economic structure. The migration paths of microplastics in the inner and external limnic ecosystems further revealed the causes for the regional divergence in microplastics. Policy developments in different countries and regions were also discussed to highlight the urgency of better controlling microplastic pollution in lake systems. The characteristics of microplastics vary across countries and regions, depending on the local development level and economic structure.

8.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0253968, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the periodontal health of orthodontic patients in the maintenance stage in clinical practice. The focus of this meta-analysis was to compare the effects of vacuum-formed retainers (VFR) and Hawley retainers (HR) on periodontal health, in order to provide a reference for clinical selection. METHODS: From the establishment of the database until November 2020, a large number of databases were searched to find relevant randomized control trials, including the Cochrane Library databases, Embase, PubMed, Medline via Ovi, Web of Science, Scopus, Grey Literature in Europe, Google Scholar and CNKI. Related literature was manually searched and included in the analysis. Two researchers screened the literature according to relevant criteria. The size of the effect was determined using RevMan5.3 software, and the mean difference and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to estimate the results using a random effects model. RESULTS: This meta-analysis included six randomized controlled trials involving 304 patients. The results of the meta-analysis showed that there was no statistical difference in sulcus probing depth status between the VFR group and the HR group, including at 1, 3, and 6 months. Compared with the VFR group, the HR group showed a lower gingival index at 1 month (mean difference = 0.12, 95%CI: 0.06 to 0.19) and 3 months (mean difference = 0.11, 95%CI: 0.06 to 0.17), while there was no statistically significant difference at 6 months (mean difference = 0.10, 95%CI: -0.07 to 0.27). The plaque index of the HR group also showed a good state at 1 month (mean difference = 0.06, 95%CI: 0.01 to 0.12), 3 months (mean difference = 0.12, 95%CI: 0.08 to 0.16), and 6 months (mean difference = 0.19, 95%CI: 0.09 to 0.29). Subgroup analysis of PLI showed that when all teeth were measured, PLI status was lower in the HR group at 6 months (mean difference = 0.32, 95%CI: 0.18 to 0.46). PLI status was also low for the other teeth group (mean difference = 0.15, 95%CI: 0.08 to 0.22). CONCLUSION: Our meta-analysis showed that patients using the Hawley retainer had better periodontal health compared with those using vacuum-formed retainers. However, more research is needed to look at the periodontal health of patients using these two retainers.

9.
Chemosphere ; 285: 131417, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246101

RESUMO

The widespread occurrence of antibiotics in the environment poses a potential threat to human health. The photo-Fenton process has demonstrated better degradation performance compared with the conventional wastewater treatment processes. In this study, the degradation of cephalexin was evaluated comparatively by homogeneous (Fe2+/H2O2/UV) and heterogeneous (MoS2@Fe/H2O2/UV) photo-Fenton processes. Key influencing factors affecting photo-Fenton performance were assessed, confirming the optimum Fe2+ concentration at 0.2016 mg L-1 and H2O2/Fe2+ molar ratio at 6. Higher degradation efficiency (73.10%) and pseudo-first-order degradation rate constant (0.0078 min-1) were achieved with the assistance of MoS2@Fe as the heterogeneous catalyst. Completely different degradation products were identified in the homogeneous and heterogeneous photo-Fenton processes, with main degradation pathways proposed as ß-lactam ring-opening, sulfoxide formation, demethylation, N-dealkylation, decarbonylation, hydroxylation and deamination in the Fe2+/H2O2/UV system and ß-lactam ring-opening, hydroxylation, dehydration, amide hydrolysis, and demethylation and ring contraction in the MoS2@Fe/H2O2/UV system, respectively. The formation of newly identified products might root in the attack on cephalexin from active species (i.e., OH, h+, e-, O2-) photoinduced by the MoS2@Fe catalyst. Results also indicated the importance of understanding the underlying mechanisms and pathways to eliminate the antimicrobial activities of antibiotics in the future.

10.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(6)2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34172514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The discovery of checkpoint inhibitors towards cytotoxic T-lymphocyte protein 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) has been revolutionary for the treatment of cancers. These therapies have only offered an average of 20%-30% response rates across the tumor spectrum and the combination of agonists towards the tumor-necrosis superfamily members, such as 4-1BB and CD40, has shown potent efficacy in preclinical studies; however, these agonists have exhibited high degrees of toxicity with limited efficacy in human trials. In this study, we have generated a single-domain antibody towards a unique epitope of 4-1BB that limits its potential on-target toxicity while maintaining sufficient potency. This 4-1BB binder is ideal for use in the engineering of multispecific antibodies to localize 4-1BB activation within the tumor microenvironment, as shown here by a anti-PD-L1/4-1BB bispecific candidate (PM1003). METHODS: To determine the functional activity of the 4-1BB- and PD-L1-binding elements of PM1003, in vitro luciferase reporter and primary cell assays were used to test the potency of programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) blockade and PD-L1-mediated 4-1BB activation via cross-bridging. X-ray crystallography was conducted to resolve the binding epitopes of the respective binding arms, and accurate binding kinetics were determined using standard affinity measurement techniques. Human 4-1BB and/or PD-L1 knock-in mice were used in cancer models for testing the in vivo antitumor efficacy of PM1003, and safety was evaluated further. RESULTS: PM1003 shows potent activation of 4-1BB and blockade of PD-L1 in cell-based assays. 4-1BB activation was exerted through the bridging of PD-L1 on target cells and 4-1BB on effector cells. No PD-L1-independent activation of 4-1BB was observed. Through X-ray crystallography, a unique binding epitope in the cysteine-rich domain 4 (CRD4) region was resolved that provides high potency and potentially low on-target toxicity as determined by primary immune cell assays and toxicity evaluation in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: A unique single-domain antibody was discovered that binds to the CRD4 domain of 4-1BB. When incorporated into a 4-1BB/PD-L1 bispecific (PM1003), we have shown the potent inhibition of PD-L1 activity with 4-1BB agonism upon cross-bridging with PD-L1 in vitro. Antitumor activity with minimal toxicity was found in vivo. Thus, PM1003 is a uniquely differentiating and next generation therapeutic agent for cancer therapy.

11.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 343, 2021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clozapine is considered to be the most effective antipsychotic medication for schizophrenia. However, it is associated with several adverse effects such as leukopenia, and the underlying mechanism has not yet been fully elucidated. The authors performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in a Chinese population to identify genetic markers for clozapine-induced leukopenia (CIL) and clozapine-induced neutropenia (CIN). METHODS: A total of 1879 patients (225 CIL cases, including 43 CIN cases, and 1,654 controls) of Chinese descent were included. Data from common and rare single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested for association. The authors also performed a trans-ancestry meta-analysis with GWAS results of European individuals from the Clozapine-Induced Agranulocytosis Consortium (CIAC). RESULTS: The authors identified several novel loci reaching the threshold of genome-wide significance level (P < 5 × 10-8). Three novel loci were associated with CIL while six were associated with CIN, and two T cell related genes (TRAC and TRAT1) were implicated. The authors also observed that one locus with evidence close to genome-wide significance (P = 5.08 × 10-8) was near the HLA-B gene in the major histocompatibility complex region in the trans-ancestry meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The associations provide novel and valuable understanding of the genetic and immune causes of CIL and CIN, which is useful for improving clinical management of clozapine related treatment for schizophrenia. Causal variants and related underlying molecular mechanisms need to be understood in future developments.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Clozapina , Neutropenia , Esquizofrenia , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Clozapina/efeitos adversos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Neutropenia/induzido quimicamente , Neutropenia/tratamento farmacológico , Neutropenia/genética , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Esquizofrenia/genética
12.
Nanotechnology ; 32(40)2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34171848

RESUMO

Recently, Nb3O7F (NOF) semiconductor has been intensively studied owing to its excellent ultraviolet activity, good thermal stability and low carrier recombination. In this work, we report a five-step technique to synthesize hollow carbon spheres (HCSs)/NOF hybrids. Activating the surface of HCSs by creating oxyfluorinated functionalization can easily trigger an interaction between oxyfluorinated HCSs and NOF intermediates, finally resulting in the formation of HCSs/NOF hybrids. By manipulating the contents of HCSs with unexceptionable electron mobility, the hybrids can simultaneously achieve narrower band gap, stronger light absorption and rapider charge transfer. As a consequence, HCSs/NOF hybrids exhibit enhanced photodegradation performance towards RhB solutions under simulated sunlight irradiation. Specially, HCSs/NOF-1.0 catalysts with 95.7% degradation efficiency within 40 min demonstrate approximately four times higher photocatalytic activity than that of pure NOF catalysts. The results may offer new inspirations for a design of novel catalysts with higher photoactivity.

13.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(47): 5774-5777, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33997881

RESUMO

Herein, an efficient strategy is demonstrated to prepare a visible-light-driven Nb/Se co-doped BiOI photocatalyst with exposed (110) facets. The results show that its photocatalytic activity is around 17 times higher than that of pure BiOI. This work paves the way towards the fabrication of efficient photocatalysts that have tunable charge dynamics.

14.
Comput Biol Med ; 134: 104452, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is prevalent in patients receiving atypical antipsychotic drugs (AADs), but there are few effective interventions. The Traditional Chinese herbal decoction Liu-Yu-Tang (LYT) has achieved clinical improvement for AAD-induced MetS, but its pharmacological mechanism remains unclear. METHOD: A network pharmacology-based method was utilized in this study. First, the TCMSP and SwissTargetPrediction database were used to acquire plasma-absorbed components and putative targets of LYT, respectively. Second, an interaction network between shared targets of LYT and MetS was constructed using STRING online tool. Topological analyses were performed to extract hub gene targets. Finally, we did a pathway analysis of gene targets using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) to find biological pathways of LYT. RESULTS: We obtained 655 putative targets of LYT, 434 known targets of AADs, and 1577 MetS-related gene targets. There are 232 shared targets between LYT and MetS. Interaction network construction and topological analysis yielded 60 hub targets, of which 18 were major hub targets, among which IL-6, IL-8, TNF, PI3K, MAPK, and NF-κB (RELA) are the most important in LYT's treatment of AAD-induced MetS. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed a statistically high significance of the AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications, lipid and atherosclerosis and the insulin resistance pathway. CONCLUSIONS: LYT may control activities of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8, TNF and the important signal transduction molecules PI3K, MAPKs, and NF-κB (RELA), regulating metabolic disturbance-related pathways like the AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications, lipid and atherosclerosis, and the insulin resistance pathway, generating therapeutic effects for AAD-induced MetS.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Aterosclerose , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Síndrome Metabólica , Antipsicóticos/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Síndrome Metabólica/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome Metabólica/tratamento farmacológico
16.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry ; : 48674211009595, 2021 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938268

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Genome-wide association studies have identified a significant risk gene, CACNA1C, for schizophrenia. In this study, we comprehensively investigated a large set of CACNA1C single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to identify the replicable risk alleles for schizophrenia and explore their biological functions. METHODS: One Jewish (1044 cases vs 2052 controls), one European (1350 cases vs 1378 controls) and one exploratory African American samples (98 cases vs 20 controls) were analyzed to identify replicable single-nucleotide polymorphism-schizophrenia associations. The regulatory effects of risk alleles on CACNA1C messenger RNA expression were examined. The most robust risk tagSNP (rs1006737) was meta-analyzed on 17 studies (74,122 cases vs 109,062 controls), and associated with the gray matter volumes of seven subcortical structures in 38,258 Europeans, and the surface areas and thickness of 34 cortical regions in 33,992 Europeans and 2944 non-Europeans. RESULTS: Forty-seven replicable risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms, including a 20-single-nucleotide polymorphism haplotype block, were identified in our samples (1.8 × 10-4 ⩽ p ⩽ 0.049). This variant block was consistently associated with schizophrenia across four independent Psychiatric Genomics Consortium cohorts (79,645 cases vs 109,590 controls; 2.5 × 10-17 ⩽ p ⩽ 0.017). This block showed significant expression quantitative trait loci in three independent European brain cohorts (5.1 × 10-12 ⩽ p ⩽ 8.3 × 10-3) and could be tagged by the most significant risk single-nucleotide polymorphism rs1006737. The minor allele A of rs1006737 significantly increased risk for schizophrenia across the Jewish and European samples (p = 0.029 and 0.004, respectively), and this association was highly significant in the meta-analysis (p = 1.62 × 10-42). This allele also significantly altered the CACNA1C messenger RNA expression in five brain regions (5.1 × 10-12 ⩽ p ⩽ 0.05), decreased the gray matter volume of thalamus (p = 0.010), the surface area of isthmus cingulate cortex (p = 0.013) and the thickness of transverse temporal and superior temporal sulcus cortexes (0.005 ⩽ p ⩽ 0.043). CONCLUSION: We identified an independent, replicable, functional, and significant risk variant block at CACNA1C for schizophrenia, which could be tagged by the most robust risk marker rs1006737, suggesting an important role of CACNA1C in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.

17.
J Vis Exp ; (168)2021 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720115

RESUMO

Nucleosides/nucleotides are building blocks of nucleic acids, parts of cosubstrates and coenzymes, cell signaling molecules, and energy carriers, which are involved in many cell activities. Here, we describe a rapid and reliable method for the absolute qualification of nucleoside/nucleotide contents in plants. Briefly, 100 mg of homogenized plant material was extracted with 1 mL of extraction buffer (methanol, acetonitrile, and water at a ratio of 2:2:1). Later, the sample was concentrated five times in a freeze dryer and then injected into an HPLC-MS/MS. Nucleotides were separated on a porous graphitic carbon (PGC) column and nucleosides were separated on a C18 column. The mass transitions of each nucleoside and nucleotide were monitored by mass spectrometry. The contents of the nucleosides and nucleotides were quantified against their external standards (ESTDs). Using this method, therefore, researchers can easily quantify nucleosides/nucleotides in different plants.


Assuntos
Métodos Analíticos de Preparação de Amostras , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Nucleosídeos/análise , Nucleotídeos/análise , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Calibragem , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Metaboloma , Nucleosídeos/química , Nucleotídeos/química , Padrões de Referência , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
18.
Chemistry ; 27(14): 4683-4690, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617102

RESUMO

Heterostructured photocatalysis is a significant issue owing to the unique band alignment, improved spectrum absorption, and enhanced photocatalytic activity. However, the construction of uniform, controllable, and effective heterojunctions is still a huge challenge. Herein, NaNbO3 /Nb3 O7 F heterojunctions are fabricated through an in situ corrosion technique for the first time. The influence of phase transformation on the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) activity is investigated systematically in terms of photocatalytic water splitting for H2 production. Interestingly, the band realignment and good interfacial contact endow the NaNbO3 /Nb3 O7 F heterojunctions with a high HER activity (43.3 mmol g-1 h-1 ), which is about 2.4 times that of pure Nb3 O7 F and 1.36 times that of pure NaNbO3 . The results may provide some new insights into the corrosion technique and HER activity of novel heterostructured catalysts.

19.
Chemosphere ; 270: 129481, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33423001

RESUMO

Fluoroquinolone antibiotics are frequently detected in the environment causing potential hazards to ecological and human health. Inadequate removal efficiencies were reported for fluoroquinolones during conventional wastewater treatment processes whereas the application of photo-Fenton reactions has attracted much attention due to their high reaction rate. This article summarizes the recent proceedings on homogeneous and heterogeneous photo-Fenton degradation of fluoroquinolones. Degradation efficiencies of fluoroquinolones were discussed as well as rate constants for a distinct comparison. The influences of initial fluoroquinolone concentration, H2O2, Fe2+, pH and temperature were also investigated on homogeneous photo-Fenton degradation of fluoroquinolones. The currently applied heterogenous catalysts were considered including iron oxides catalysts, iron-based composite catalysts and iron-based semiconductor. In addition, the degradation pathways for typical fluoroquinolones were proposed with the products identified in the literature. The results indicated the better performance with the aid of heterogeneous catalysts due to the generation of more active species. Intermediate products at smaller molecular weight were obtained through various types of pathways under heterogeneous photo-Fenton degradation of fluoroquinolones, implying a practical application with biological treatment processes for fully mineralization.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Catálise , Fluoroquinolonas , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Ferro , Oxirredução , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
20.
Clin Neuropharmacol ; 44(2): 53-56, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480616

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder and considered to be one of the most common mental diseases worldwide. The antidepressant venlafaxine, as a serotonin noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, is applied to MDD relief. Solute carrier family 6 member 4 (SLC6A4) has been reported to promote the reuptake of serotonin and to be closely correlated to depression. The present study examined whether rs6354 and rs1487971 in SLC6A4 are associated with remission after venlafaxine treatment in MDD patients. METHODS: This study consisted of 195 Han Chinese patients with MDD, who accepted a 6-week treatment with venlafaxine. Two SLC6A4 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected from database of SNP and genotyped by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometer in MassARRAY Analyzer 4 platforms. The 17-item Hamilton Depression Scale was used to access the severity of major depression. Allele and genotype frequencies between patients in remission and nonremission were calculated with online software SHEsis. RESULTS: No significant differences in allele or genotype frequencies were observed in rs6354 and rs1487971. There were no significant associations between 2 SNPs and venlafaxine treatment outcome. CONCLUSIONS: It suggested that rs6354 or rs1487971 within SLC6A4 appears not to be involved in the venlafaxine treatment outcome in Han Chinese patients with MDD.

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