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1.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 110: 150-159, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593186

RESUMO

Environmental impact of pollutants can be analyzed effectively by acquiring fish behavioral signals in water with biological behavior sensors. However, a variety of factors, such as the complexity of biological organisms themselves, the device error and the environmental noise, may compromise the accuracy and timeliness of model predictions. The current methods lack prior knowledge about the fish behavioral signals corresponding to characteristic pollutants, and in the event of a pollutant invasion, the fish behavioral signals are poorly discriminated. Therefore, we propose a novel method based on Bayesian sequential, which utilizes multi-channel prior knowledge to calculate the outlier sequence based on wavelet feature followed by calculating the anomaly probability of observed values. Furthermore, the relationship between the anomaly probability and toxicity is analyzed in order to achieve forewarning effectively. At last, our algorithm for fish toxicity detection is verified by integrating the data on laboratory acceptance of characteristic pollutants. The results show that only one false positive occurred in the six experiments, the present algorithm is effective in suppressing false positives and negatives, which increases the reliability of toxicity detections, and thereby has certain applicability and universality in engineering applications.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Água , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Probabilidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
2.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2021: 9955168, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34602860

RESUMO

Severe community-acquired pneumonia (sCAP) early in life is a leading cause of morbidity, mortality, and irreversible sequelae. Herein, we report the clinical, etiological, and immunological characteristics of 62 children age < 1 year. We measured 27 cytokines in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from 62 children age < 1 year who were diagnosed with CAP, and then, we analyzed correlations among disease severity, clinical parameters, and etiology. Of the entire cohort, three cytokines associated with interleukin-17- (IL-17-) producing helper T cells (Th17 cells), IL-1ß, IL-6, and IL-17, were significantly elevated in sCAP patients with high fold changes (FCs); in BAL, these cytokines were intercorrelated and associated with blood neutrophil counts, Hb levels, and mixed bacterial-viral infections. BAL IL-1ß (area under the curve (AUC) 0.820), BAL IL-17 (AUC 0.779), and plasma IL-6 (AUC 0.778) had remarkable predictive power for sCAP. Our findings revealed that increased local Th17 cell immunity played a critical role in the development of sCAP in children age < 1 year. Th17 cell-related cytokines could serve as local and systemic inflammatory indicators of sCAP in this age group.

3.
J Hazard Mater ; 424(Pt A): 127288, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592594

RESUMO

It is crucial to deeply understand the fate and removal mechanism of various organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) in specified wastewater treatment processes. However, concentration fluctuation and matrix effect in wastewater challenge quantification of PFR flux for both field observation and model validation. We present measured seasonal distribution profiles of time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations by in situ hydrophobic and polar passive samplers and modeled mass transport and transformation by means of fugacity for 11 PFRs with varied structures in an anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A-A-O) municipal wastewater treatment system, and provided a systematic approach to characterize fate and removal mechanism of PFRs in major compartments via various treatment processes. We find evidence that PFRs have a unique structural-dependent fate and removal in the A-A-O system. Hydrophilic chlorinated-PFRs present persistent in all major compartments and dominate in effluents with significant variations; alkyl-PFRs are majorly reduced by biodegradation; whereas hydrophobic aryl-PFRs have the highest removal percentage, contributed by both sorption on solids and biotransformation. Sensitive analysis shows the most influential operation parameters on removal efficiency varied among the PFRs with different properties. We also conclude passive sampling can be effectively applied to estimate TWA wastewater concentrations and to validate fugacity model prediction.

4.
Metabolism ; 124: 154874, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517014

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We aimed to evaluate the effect of NAFLD on the risk of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)-based chronic kidney disease (CKD), and further test the joint effects and interactions between NAFLD status and individual metabolic element, as well as the total 'ABCs' metabolic goal achievement, on the CVD and CKD risk among 101,296 patients with prediabetes or diabetes from a prospective cohort study. METHODS: We conducted the study based on the China Cardiometabolic Disease and Cancer Cohort (4C) study, a large-scale, population-based prospective cohort. After excluding alcohol abuse and other cause of hepatic diseases, we used fatty liver index (FLI) ≥ 60 as a proxy of NAFLD and stratified the probability of fibrosis by aspartate transaminase/alanine transaminase ratio (AAR) with cut-offs of 0.8 and 1.4. 'ABCs' metabolic goal was defined as subjects who had HbA1c < 6.5% (A), SBP/DBP < 130/80 mmHg (B), and LDL-C < 100 mg/dL (C). During 3.8 years follow-up, we validated 2340 CVD events based on medical records and identified 1943 participants developed CKD based on centrally tested eGFR. RESULTS: The multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were 1.15 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-1.27) for CVD events and 1.33 (95% CI, 1.20-1.48) for CKD among NAFLD patients, compared with participants without NAFLD. Of NAFLD patients, relative to individuals with low AAR (<0.8), those with high AAR (≥1.4) were more likely to experience CVD events [1.62 (1.21-2.18)] and CKD [1.63 (1.17-2.28)]. Participants with NAFLD and comorbid poorly controlled metabolic risk factors had higher risk of CVD events or CKD than having either alone, with a significant interaction between poor glycemic control and NAFLD on the risk of vascular complications. CONCLUSIONS: NAFLD was associated with incident CVD and CKD among patients with prediabetes or diabetes. Such associations were substantially modified by the comprehensive achievement of metabolic goal.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448477

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Observational studies have associated obesity with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and arterial stiffness, but the causality remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the causality of obesity with CKD and arterial stiffness using Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis. METHODS: We genotyped 14 body mass index (BMI)-associated variants validated in East Asians in 11384 Chinese adults. A genetic risk score based on the 14 variants and the 14 individual single nucleotide polymorphisms were respectively used as instrumental variables (IVs). CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m 2. Arterial stiffness was defined as brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity >1550 cm/s. RESULTS: Using the genetic risk score as the IV, we demonstrated causal relations of each 1-standard deviation increment in BMI with CKD (odds ratio [OR]: 2.36; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11-5.00) and arterial stiffness (OR: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.22-2.39). Using the 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms individually as IVs, each 1-standard deviation increment in BMI casually associated with CKD (OR: 2.58; 95% CI: 1.39-4.79) and arterial stiffness (OR: 1.87; 95% CI: 1.24-2.81) in the inverse-variance weighted analysis, and MR-Egger regression revealed no evidence of horizontal pleiotropy (Both P for intercept≥0.34). The causality between obesity and CKD was validated in two-sample MR analysis among Europeans (681275 of Genetic Investigation of ANthropometric Traits and 133413 of CKD Genetics). CONCLUSIONS: This study provided novel insights into causality of obesity with CKD and arterial stiffness, highlighting the importance of weight management for primary prevention and control of subclinical vascular diseases.

6.
J Diabetes ; 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is increasingly diagnosed at a younger age worldwide and in China. Limited data are available regarding the association between age at diabetes diagnosis and risks of albuminuria. This study sought to examine the independent effect of age at diagnosis of type 2 diabetes on the risk of albuminuria. METHODS: We used data from a nationwide multicenter study with 207 961 participants in mainland China. Age, sex, and study site were matched for 31 366 screen-detected type 2 diabetes cases and 31 366 normal controls. Age, sex, study site, and diabetes duration were matched for 7490 self-reported type 2 diabetes cases and 7490 normal controls. Risks of having albuminuria in matched type 2 diabetes vs controls were examined using multivariable logistic regression analysis in strata of age at diabetes diagnosis. RESULTS: Although the absolute rate of albuminuria is higher in older adults, the odds ratio of albuminuria in type 2 diabetes vs matched controls decreased with increasing age at diagnosis. For participants with diabetes diagnosed at an age of <50, 50 to 59, 60 to 69, or ≥70 years, the multivariable adjusted risk of albuminuria increased by 81%, 60%, 45%, and 33% for screen-detected diabetes, and 135%, 121%, 90%, and 58% for self-reported diabetes compared with their normal controls, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A younger age at diagnosis of type 2 diabetes is associated with a more significantly elevated risk of albuminuria than an older age at diagnosis in Chinese adults.

7.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 317, 2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biliary atresia (BA) is a severe cholangiopathy possibly resulting from virus-induced and immune-mediated injury of the biliary system. IFN-γ, secreted from CD4+ Th1 cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells, is a major mediator of liver pathology. Programmed death protein-1 (PD-1) signaling suppresses T cell function. However, how PD-1 modify T cell function in BA remains incompletely understood. METHODS: Frequencies of PD-1 expressing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were analyzed in the liver and blood from BA and control subjects. Associations of PD-1+CD4+/CD8+T cell abundances with liver function indices were measured. Function of PD-1 was measured by administration of an anti-PD-1 antibody in a Rhesus Rotavirus (RRV)-induced BA model. Survival, histology, direct bilirubin, liver immune cell subsets and cytokine production were analyzed. RESULTS: PD-1 was significantly upregulated in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in patients with BA compared with control subjects. PD-1 expression in T cells was negatively associated with IFN-γ concentration in liver (PD-1+CD4+T cells in liver vs. IFN-γ concentration, r = - 0.25, p = 0.05; PD-1+CD8+T cells in liver vs. IFN-γ concentration, r = - 0.39, p = 0.004). Blockade of PD-1 increased IFN-γ expression in CD4+ T and CD8+ T cells (RRV vs. anti-PD-1 treated RRV mice: 11.59 ± 3.43% vs. 21.26 ± 5.32% IFN-γ+ in hepatic CD4+T cells, p = 0.0003; 9.33 ± 4.03% vs. 22.55 ± 7.47% IFN-γ+ in hepatic CD8+T cells, p = 0.0001), suppressed bilirubin production (RRV vs. anti-PD-1 treated RRV mice: 285.4 ± 47.93 vs. 229.8 ± 45.86 µmol/L total bilirubin, p = 0.01) and exacerbated liver immunopathology. CONCLUSIONS: PD-1 plays a protective role in infants with BA by suppressing IFN-γ production in T cells. Increasing PD-1 signaling may serve as a therapeutic strategy for BA.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Interferon gama/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1 , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Lactente , Fígado , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
8.
Environ Res ; 201: 111602, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214559

RESUMO

Freshwater ecosystems have been threatened by complicated disturbances from both natural and anthropogenic variables, especially in dynamic and complex river basins. The environmental DNA (eDNA)-based approach provides a broader spectrum and higher throughput way of biomonitoring for biodiversity assessment compared with traditional morphological survey. Most eDNA metabarcoding studies have been limited to a few specific taxa/groups and habitat scopes. Here we applied the eDNA metabarcoding to characterize the structures and spatial variations of zooplankton and fish communities among different habitat types in a highly dynamic and complex freshwater ecosystem of the Daqing River basin (DRB). The results showed that varied species spectra of zooplankton and fish communities were identified and unique dominant species occurred across habitats. Additionally, markedly spatial distributions of biotic community structures were observed in areas with different habitat characteristics. Natural variables, including geographic distances and gradient ratio, as well as anthropogenic factors of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and organic chemicals demonstrated significant effects but different outcomes on the structures of zooplankton and fish communities. Moreover, the relative abundances of specific aquatic taxa were associated with the gradient of particular environmental variables. This case study verified the distribution patterns and differentiation mechanisms of biotic communities under habitat heterogeneity could be captured by application of eDNA biomonitoring. And habitat-specific and even species-specific environmental stressors would be diagnosed for improving management of complex river basins.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Ecossistema , Água Doce , Animais , DNA Ambiental , Peixes/genética , Zooplâncton
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 798: 148985, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329931

RESUMO

Bisphenol analogues (BPs) are emerging contaminants that have been widely detected in water environments. The presence of substituted hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups in the molecule may lead to unclear performance in passive sampling. This study tested the accumulation capacity and passive sampling of fifteen BPs in a triolein-embedded cellulose acetate membrane (TECAM) passive sampler. In a dynamic accumulation experiment, twelve hydrophobic BPs accumulated in the TECAM with concentrations ranging from 251 ng g-1 to 6283 ng g-1, and three hydrophilic BPs did not accumulate during the 72 h exposure duration. BPs accumulations were determined by the hydrophilic and hydrophobic substituent groups in molecule structures. The estimated passive sampling parameters showed correlations to both the log Kow values and chemical structures, and compared to other contaminants, such as organophosphorus flame retardants. Environmental factors, including flow rate, temperature, salinity, and pH, that affect the accumulation of BPs in the TECAM were tested, and the flow rate was found to be an important factor affecting the uptake rate. The isotropic exchange kinetics for BPs in the TECAM were verified, and the results indicated that BPs can be calibrated with performance reference compounds (PRCs) in field applications. Finally, a field deployment of TECAM in river waters successfully estimated the time-weighted concentrations of two hydrophobic BPs. To address the inherent weaknesses of TECAM in sampling hydrophilic and moderately hydrophobic BPs, future studies should explore alternative passive samplers, such as hydrophilic-lipophilic balance sorbent-embedded cellulose acetate membranes, to sample BPs in surface waters.


Assuntos
Trioleína , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Celulose/análogos & derivados , Monitoramento Ambiental , Membranas Artificiais , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
10.
J Hazard Mater ; 417: 125882, 2021 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975162

RESUMO

Organophosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) are a group of emerging contaminants which have been detected in worldwide waters. However, source of various PFRs in the large-scale area like coastal water environment have not been clearly revealed. In this study, fifteen PFRs in coast of Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay area (GBA), China were investigated, and a method of spatial pattern analysis was firstly used for pollution source identification. Seawater samples from different segments of GBA coast were analyzed and thirteen PFRs were quantified with total concentrations ranging from 32.7 to 1032.7 ng L-1. GBA coasts have been seriously polluted by PFRs. A hierarchical cluster analysis of the PFR concentrations in different GBA sites showed significant spatial distributions for different types of PFRs. A series of correlation analysis between PFRs distributions and spatial pattern of GBA socio-economic indicators were performed, and multiple sources including human settlement, wastewater, manufacture, construction industry, vehicles, and shipping transport were found to be correlated to PFRs pollutions in the coasts. This study indicates that spatial pattern analysis based on statistical analysis would be a promising method of analyzing environmental data and exploring pollution source in large-scale area.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Hong Kong , Humanos , Organofosfatos , Compostos Organofosforados
11.
Environ Res ; 199: 111318, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34019897

RESUMO

Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) in both of water and sludge phase of influent and effluent of the STP were investigated in Beijing of China in five seasons. Total OPFRs concentrations in water phase of influent in five seasons were between 600 and 838 ng/L, where total OPFRs concentration was the lowest in summer of 2018. In water phase of influent and effluent, two chlorinated OPFRs (TCEP and TCPP) were major. Alkyl OPFRs decreased the most in water phase from influent to effluent. In sludge phase, the OPFRs amounts in winter were the lowest. The main OPFRs in sludge phase were TEHP and EHDP, which can be explained by the two OPFRs properties (log Kow and log Koc). Higher the values of the log Kow and log Koc of OPFRs, more amounts in sludge phase. The mass flow of OPFRs in influent were analysed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA), indicating that the influent amounts of TCEP, TDCP, TCPP and DCP were main OPFRs in four seasons to influence the characteristics of influent. Compared to OPFRs reduction in some STPs in other countries, alkyl and aryl OPFRs reduction rates were higher than chlorinated OPFRs. TBEP, TEHP and TPHP can always be effectively removed in different seasons and different STPs. The analysis methods of Pearson correlation and linear correlation were processed to check the possible factors affecting OPFRs reduction in STP. OPFRs reduction was related to some STP working parameters. Significant correlation also was found between OPFRs properties and reduction.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , Purificação da Água , Pequim , China , Organofosfatos , Compostos Organofosforados , Estações do Ano
12.
Water Res ; 198: 117168, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962238

RESUMO

Novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs), which have been developed as replacements for legacy flame retardants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), are a class of alternative flame retardants with emerging and widespread applications. The ubiquitous occurrence of NBFRs in the aquatic environments and the potential adverse effects on aquatic organisms have initiated intense global concerns. The present article, therefore, identifies and analyzes the current state of knowledge on the occurrence, bioaccumulation, fates, and environmental and health risks of NBFRs in aquatic environments. The key findings from this review are that (1) the distribution of NBFRs are source-dependent in the global aquatic environments, and several NBFRs have been reported at higher concentrations than that of the legacy flame retardants; (2) high bioaccumulative properties have been found for all of the discussed NBFRs due to their strong hydrophobic characteristics and weak metabolic rates; (3) the limited information available suggests that NBFRs are resistant to biotic and abiotic degradation processes and that sorption to sludge and sediments are the main fate of NBFRs in the aquatic environments; (4) the results of ecological risk assessments have indicated the potential risks of NBFRs and have suggested that source areas are the most vulnerable environmental compartments. Knowledge gaps and perspectives for future research regarding the monitoring, toxicokinetics, transformation processes, and development of ecological risk assessments of NBFRs in aquatic environments are proposed.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados , Bioacumulação , Monitoramento Ambiental , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados , Medição de Risco
13.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(7): 10075-10086, 2021 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818417

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between stage 1 hypertension defined by the 2017 American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guideline and risk of developing arterial stiffness. METHODS: During 2010-2015, 4595 adults aged ≥40 years without cardiovascular disease were followed up for a median of 4.3 years. BP levels at baseline were categorized into normal, elevated, stage 1 hypertension, and stage 2 hypertension. The development of arterial stiffness was defined as a normal brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV) at baseline and an increased ba-PWV at follow-up. RESULTS: Compared with participants with normal BP, participants with stage 1 hypertension had a 1.48-fold increased risk of developing arterial stiffness [odds ratio (OR) =2.48; 95% confidence interval (CI) =1.59-3.85] after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors. The association was more evident in adults aged 40-59 years (OR =4.08; 95% CI =2.06-8.08) than that in those aged ≥60 years (OR =1.47; 95% CI =0.81-2.67). A systolic BP 130~139 mmHg was significantly associated with arterial stiffness independent of diastolic BP (OR =2.90; 95% CI =1.86-4.52). Stage 1 hypertension either at baseline or at follow-up was associated with increased risks compared with normal BP at both baseline and follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The 2017 ACC/AHA stage 1 hypertension was significantly associated with higher risks of arterial stiffness.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Rigidez Vascular/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , American Heart Association , Índice Tornozelo-Braço , Índice de Massa Corporal , Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
14.
Metabolism ; 120: 154779, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33895182

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) has been proposed and diagnosed based on modified criteria. However, evidence for the risks of developing subclinical atherosclerosis with MAFLD transitions according to its new definition has never been reported. METHODS: Using data from a community-based cohort, 6232 participants aged 40 years or older were included and were followed up for a median of 4.3 years during 2010-2015. Participants were categorized into four groups (stable non-MAFLD, MAFLD regressed to non-MAFLD, non-MAFLD progressed to MAFLD, and stable MAFLD). Subclinical atherosclerosis was defined as elevated carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), elevated brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV), or microalbuminuria. RESULTS: Compared with the stable non-MAFLD category, participants who progressed to MAFLD at follow-up visit had a 1.356-fold increased risk of developing elevated CIMT [odds ratio (OR) = 1.356; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.134-1.620], and a 1.458-fold increased risk of incident microalbuminuria (OR = 1.458; 95% CI = 1.034-2.056) after adjustment for confounders, respectively. In addition, participants with stable MAFLD showed 17.6%, 32.4%, and 35.4% increased risks of developing elevated CIMT, elevated ba-PWV and microalbuminuria, respectively. Compared with the stable MAFLD category, participants with MAFLD and low probability of fibrosis at baseline who regressed to non-MAFLD at follow-up visit had a 29.4% decreased risk of developing elevated CIMT (OR = 0.706; 95% CI = 0.507-0.984), a 43.1% decreased risk of developing elevated ba-PWV (OR = 0.569; 95% CI = 0.340-0.950), but was not significantly associated with incident microalbuminuria (OR = 0.709; 95% CI = 0.386-1.301). The decreased risks attributed to MAFLD regression were more evident in participants without diabetes or dyslipidemia, as well as in those with 0-1 metabolic risk abnormalities, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: MAFLD was significantly associated with higher risks of developing subclinical atherosclerosis. Moreover, the regression of MAFLD might modify the risks of developing subclinical atherosclerosis, especially among those with low probability of fibrosis or less metabolic risk abnormalities. Since 40% of baseline participants with missing data on MAFLD measurement at follow-up were excluded, the conclusions should be speculated with caution.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/etiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice Tornozelo-Braço , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Aterosclerose/patologia , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/complicações , Doenças Metabólicas/diagnóstico , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Remissão Espontânea , Fatores de Risco
15.
BMJ Open ; 11(3): e040890, 2021 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33658258

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the associations of urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) levels with risks of subclinical atherosclerosis, cardiovascular events and all-cause deaths. METHODS: Data from a large population-based cohort were used, which included 9580 participants aged ≥40 years free from cardiovascular diseases. Carotid intima-media thickness, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and ankle-brachial index were measured at baseline to assess subclinical atherosclerosis. After a median of 4.53 years' follow-up, 486 cardiovascular events and 230 all-cause deaths were recorded. RESULTS: The urinary ACR levels were categorised into three groups. Compared with the normal group (0≤ACR <7.82 mg/g), people with low-grade albuminuria (7.82≤ACR <30 mg/g) and albuminuria (ACR ≥30 mg/g) had higher levels of subclinical atherosclerosis. In prospective analysis, people with low-grade albuminuria was not significantly associated with cardiovascular events (HR=1.18; 95% CI 0.95 to 1.46], whereas people with albuminuria had a 50% higher risk of cardiovascular events (HR=1.50; 95% CI 1.11 to 2.03). People with low-grade albuminuria and albuminuria had 43% (HR=1.43; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.93) and 87% (HR=1.87; 95% CI 1.24 to 2.81) higher risks of all-cause deaths during follow-up, respectively. In stratified analysis, the association of higher ACR with risks of cardiovascular events and all-cause deaths was stronger among individuals with concomitant subclinical atherosclerosis, the presence of diabetes and more cardiovascular risk factors, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: ACR levels were positively associated with subclinical atherosclerosis and predicted the risks of cardiovascular events and all-cause deaths. Evaluation of ACR levels should be integrated into risk stratification and prevention of cardiovascular events and all-cause deaths, especially among those with pre-existing subclinical atherosclerosis and cardiometabolic abnormalities.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Adulto , Albuminas , Albuminúria , Índice Tornozelo-Braço , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Creatinina , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Fatores de Risco
16.
J Pediatr ; 235: 203-211.e3, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581106

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical and laboratory predictors for early macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) associated with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA). STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective cohort study of 149 patients with sJIA, of whom 27 had 31 episodes of MAS. We evaluated the clinical and laboratory features of patients with sJIA and MAS and compared them with those without MAS. We focused our analysis on the overall process of MAS development, especially MAS onset. RESULTS: As shown in previous studies, we found a high percentage of fever, absence of arthritis, and central nervous system dysfunction at MAS onset in our study cohort. We also found that 35% of patients with MAS had hypotension although not shock, and 22.6% of patients with MAS had gastrointestinal involvement at MAS onset. Compared with patients with MAS without hypotension, patients with MAS and hypotension had greater rates of admission to the intensive care unit; presented with more arthritis, serositis, pneumonia, and gastrointestinal involvement; and had greater white blood cell and absolute neutrophil counts and serum bilirubin levels and lower serum total protein. We confirmed laboratory markers such as platelet counts, lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase can help to identify early MAS and that ferritin/erythrocyte sedimentation rate ratio of approximately 20.0 had a high diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for MAS. In addition, we discovered that the combination of interferon-γ >17.1 pg/mL and interleukin-10 >7.8 pg/mL appeared to be a good cytokine pattern for the recognition of MAS onset. CONCLUSIONS: Sudden hypotension, elevated ferritin/erythrocyte sedimentation rate ratio, and the cytokine pattern of significantly increased interferon-γ and interleukin-10 levels are important markers for early identification of MAS in addition to the traditional characteristics of sJIA-associated MAS.

17.
World J Pediatr ; 17(2): 205-209, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The underlying etiology of juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) is unknown. T cell deficiency as well as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection had been suspected to be involved in the pathogenesis, but it has been poorly evaluated in JDM patients. METHODS: This study described the traits of T and B lymphocyte subsets in newly onset JDM patients and the incidence of EBV infection in JDM patients compared with match controls. Newly developed JDM patients from 2014 to 2018 were included in the study. Lymphocytes with different markers (CD3+, CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+, CD3-CD19+ and CD3-CD16+CD56+) were tested with flow cytometry in the first admission or after 6 months of treatment. Statistical analysis was conducted to compare the EBV infection in the group of JDM patients and controls. RESULTS: We observed that JDM patients had higher positive rate of Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-immunoglobulin G (IgG) (P < 0.0001) as well as EBV capsid antigen-IgG (P < 0.05) than normal controls. CD3-CD16+CD56+ lymphocyte was found to be extremely low in early stage of JDM patients, but increased after 6 months of treatment (P = 0.0091). CONCLUSIONS: The level of CD3-CD16+CD56+ cells may associate with the clinical course of JDM. EBV may act as an environmental factor predisposing patients to the development of JDM.

18.
Sci Total Environ ; 760: 143385, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33243516

RESUMO

The degradation by bacteria has been considered the main process for eliminating nonhalogenated organophosphate esters (OPEs) from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), but limited research has reported the biodegradation processes and clarified the microbial-mediated mechanisms for nonhalogenated OPE degradation in WWTPs. The aim of this study was to monitor the biodegradation of the most common nonhalogenated OPEs, namely, tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP), tris (n-butyl) phosphate (TNBP) and trisphenyl phosphate (TPHP), under aerobic conditions by sludge cultures from a conventional sewage plant. The microbial cultures were enriched separately with each OPE from activated sludge cultures, and the presence of glucose significantly enhanced degradation of the OPEs during the enrichment. The removal ratios for the three OPEs reached 29.3-89.9% after 5 cycles (25 days) of cultivation, and the first-order degradation kinetics followed the order of TPHP > TBOEP > TNBP, with their half-lives ranging between 12.8 and 99.0 h. Pathways of hydrolysis, hydroxylation, methoxylation, and substitution were confirmed for the aerobic biodegradation of these nonhalogenated OPEs, but only di-alkyl phosphates (DAPs) largely accumulated in culture medium as the most predominant transformation products. Phylotypes in Klebsiella were significantly more abundant during OPE biodegradation than in the initial sludge, which indicated that these microorganisms are associated with the biodegradation of nonhalogenated OPEs in sludge culture. Biodegradation of all investigated nonhalogenated OPEs was associated with a significant reduction in the residual toxicity to Vibrio fischeri, indicating a rather positive ecotoxicological outcome of the aerobic biotransformation processes achieved by the enriched sludge culture.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , Esgotos , Bactérias , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ésteres , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Cinética , Organofosfatos/toxicidade
20.
Cell ; 183(7): 1867-1883.e26, 2020 12 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33248023

RESUMO

Biliary atresia (BA) is a severe cholangiopathy that leads to liver failure in infants, but its pathogenesis remains to be fully characterized. By single-cell RNA profiling, we observed macrophage hypo-inflammation, Kupffer cell scavenger function defects, cytotoxic T cell expansion, and deficiency of CX3CR1+effector T and natural killer (NK) cells in infants with BA. More importantly, we discovered that hepatic B cell lymphopoiesis did not cease after birth and that tolerance defects contributed to immunoglobulin G (IgG)-autoantibody accumulation in BA. In a rhesus-rotavirus induced BA model, depleting B cells or blocking antigen presentation ameliorated liver damage. In a pilot clinical study, we demonstrated that rituximab was effective in depleting hepatic B cells and restoring the functions of macrophages, Kupffer cells, and T cells to levels comparable to those of control subjects. In summary, our comprehensive immune profiling in infants with BA had educed that B-cell-modifying therapies may alleviate liver pathology.


Assuntos
Atresia Biliar/imunologia , Atresia Biliar/terapia , Fígado/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos CD20/metabolismo , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Atresia Biliar/sangue , Atresia Biliar/tratamento farmacológico , Biópsia , Receptor 1 de Quimiocina CX3C/metabolismo , Morte Celular , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células , Transdiferenciação Celular , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Lactente , Inflamação/patologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Macrófagos do Fígado/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/sangue , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/imunologia , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Depleção Linfocítica , Linfopoese , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Fagocitose , RNA/metabolismo , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Rituximab/farmacologia , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Rotavirus/fisiologia , Análise de Célula Única , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia
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