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1.
Respir Res ; 21(1): 58, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and irreversible disease characterized by excessive fibroblast to myofibroblast differentiation with limited therapeutic options. Curdione, a sesquiterpene compound extracted from the essential oil of Curcuma aromatica Salisb, has anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects. However, the role of curdione in IPF is still unclear. METHODS: The effects of curdione were evaluated in a bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis mouse model. C57BL/6 mice were treated with BLM on day 0 by intratracheal injection and intraperitoneal administered curdione or vehicle. In vitro study, expression of fibrotic protein was examined and the transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß-related signaling was evaluated in human pulmonary fibroblasts (HPFs) treated with curdione following TGF-ß1 stimulation. RESULTS: Histological and immunofluorescent examination showed that curdione alleviated BLM-induced lung injury and fibrosis. Specifically, curdione significantly attenuated fibroblast to myofibroblast differentiation in the lung in BLM induced mice. Furthermore, curdione also decreased TGF-ß1 induced fibroblast to myofibroblast differentiation in vitro, as evidenced by low expression of α-SMA, collagen 1 and fibronectin in a dose dependent manner. Mechanistically, curdione suppressed the phosphorylation of Smad3 following TGF-ß1 treatment, thereby inhibiting fibroblast differentiation. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, curdione exerted therapeutic effects against pulmonary fibrosis via attenuating fibroblast to myofibroblast differentiation. As curdione had been shown to be safe and well-tolerated in BLM-induced mouse model, curdione might be useful for developing novel therapeutics for IPF.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32110006

RESUMO

Objective: To develop a practicable nomogram aimed at predicting the risk of severe exacerbations in COPD patients at three and five years. Methods: COPD patients with prospective follow-up data were extracted from Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study (SPIROMICS) obtained from National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Biologic Specimen and Data Repository Information Coordinating Center. We comprehensively considered the demographic characteristics, clinical data and inflammation marker of disease severity. Cox proportional hazard regression was performed to identify the best combination of predictors on the basis of the smallest Akaike Information Criterion. A nomogram was developed and evaluated on discrimination, calibration, and clinical efficacy by the concordance index (C-index), calibration plot and decision curve analysis, respectively. Internal validation of the nomogram was assessed by the calibration plot with 1000 bootstrapped resamples. Results: Among 1711 COPD patients, 523 (30.6%) suffered from at least one severe exacerbation during follow-up. After stepwise regression analysis, six variables were determined including BMI, severe exacerbations in the prior year, comorbidity index, post-bronchodilator FEV1% predicted, and white blood cells. Nomogram to estimate patients' likelihood of severe exacerbations at three and five years was established. The C-index of the nomogram was 0.74 (95%CI: 0.71-0.76), outperforming ADO, BODE and DOSE risk score. Besides, the calibration plot of three and five years showed great agreement between nomogram predicted possibility and actual risk. Decision curve analysis indicated that implementation of the nomogram in clinical practice would be beneficial and better than aforementioned risk scores. Conclusion: Our new nomogram was a useful tool to assess the probability of severe exacerbations at three and five years for COPD patients and could facilitate clinicians in stratifying patients and providing optimal therapies.

3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(7): e19118, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049827

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking is considered the main risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), although the mechanism remains unknown. surfactant protein A (SP-A) is thought to protect the lung from smoking-induced damage, but related studies performed in China are scarce. The aim of the study is to assess alterations of SP-A expression and distribution in lung samples from Chinese smokers with or without COPD.This cross-sectional study assessed 45 men in Wuhan Tongji Hospital after lobectomy for lung cancer in June 2010 to September 2010. Peripheral lung specimens were collected from control nonsmokers without airflow obstruction (nonsmoking group, n = 15), smokers without airflow obstruction (smoking group, n = 15), and patients with COPD (COPD group, n = 15). SP-A expression levels in lung tissue samples and its distribution in lung cells, type II pneumocytes (PNII), and alveolar macrophages (MACR) were determined by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry.SP-A levels were significantly decreased in the COPD group (1.00 ±â€Š0.25) compared with the smoking (2.31 ±â€Š0.64) and nonsmoking (8.03 ±â€Š2.80) groups; the smoking group also showed significantly reduced levels compared with the nonsmoking group (P < .05). PNII expressing SP-A were less abundant in the COPD group (39.3% ±â€Š7.1%) compared with the smoking group (76.2% ±â€Š29.8%), whereas SP-A MACR were more abundant (92.4% ±â€Š7.1% vs 68.5% ±â€Š20.2%) (all P < .05). Among the 30 smokers, forced expiratory volume in one second (% predicted) was positively correlated with SP-A levels (r = 0.739) and the rate of SP-A+ PNII (r = 0.811), and negatively correlated with the rate of SP-A+ MACR (r = -0.758) (all P < .05).Changes in SP-A expression and distribution in lung tissues may be involved in COPD pathogenesis in smokers.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Proteína A Associada a Surfactante Pulmonar/metabolismo , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Estudos Transversais , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
Carbohydr Polym ; 230: 115671, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887926

RESUMO

Cellulose-based materials are widely used in the biomedical field. However, the lack of antibacterial activities of cellulose fibers inevitably causes bacterial infection damages. In this study, Schiff base was first introduced to endow the cellulose fibers good antibacterial property and copper ions were complexed with Schiff base to form a complex. The prepared complex greatly enhanced the antibacterial properties of the cellulose fibers. FT-IR, XRD, UV-vis and SEM-EDS results proved the successful synthesis of Schiff base and its copper (II) complex. The antibacterial tests indicated that the width of the inhibition zone of the as-prepared cellulose-based Schiff base-Cu (II) complex against E. coli and S. aureus increased by 472 % and 823 %, respectively, in comparison to the Schiff base ligand. This significant increase could be attributed to the incorporation of the copper ions (II). This Schiff base-Cu (II) complex containing cellulose-based antibacterial materials are expected to be widely used for biomedical application.

5.
Curr Microbiol ; 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915986

RESUMO

Enteritis comprises one of the most common diseases affecting the survival of farmed yellow seahorse (Hippocampus kuda), an important economic fish species cultured worldwide. Although there are several studies describing bacteria associated with seahorse, the microbial alternations associated with enteritis in seahorse has not been extensively investigated. In the present study, high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to explore the changes in the intestinal microbiota of seahorse suffering from enteritis. The results showed that the diversity, structure, and function of intestinal microbiota were significantly different between healthy and diseased seahorse. Particularly, significant increase was observed in Brevinema, Mycobacterium, and Vibrio, as well as significant decrease in Psychrobacter, Bacillus, and Shewanella in diseased seahorse (P < 0.05). In addition, PICRUSt predictions revealed that the intestinal microbiota significantly changed the specific metabolic pathways (related to metabolic diseases, replication and repair, transport and catabolism, infectious diseases and immune system) in diseased seahorse (P < 0.05). Altogether, our findings point out the association between changes of the intestinal microbiota and enteritis in seahorse, which provide basic information useful for optimization of breeding regimes and improvements in the health of this endangered species in captivity.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952113

RESUMO

Lack of adequate dietary knowledge may result in poor health conditions. This study aims to measure income-related inequality in dietary knowledge, and to explain the sources of the inequality. Data were from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) conducted in 2015. A summary of the dietary knowledge score and dietary guideline awareness was used to measure the dietary knowledge of respondents. The concentration index was employed as a measure of socioeconomic inequality and was decomposed into its determining factors. The study found that the proportion of respondents who correctly answered questions on dietary knowledge was significantly low for some questions. Compared to rural residents, urban residents had a higher proportion of correctly answered dietary knowledge questions. In addition, there are pro-rich inequalities in dietary knowledge. This observed inequality is determined not only by individual factors but also high-level area factors. Our study recommends that future dietary education programs could take different strategies for individuals with different educational levels and focus more on disadvantaged people. It would be beneficial to consider local dietary habits in developing education materials.

7.
J Cell Physiol ; 235(1): 538-547, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256425

RESUMO

Tribbles homolog 3 (TRB3) has been accounted for regulation of a few cell processes through interaction with other significant proteins. The molecular mechanisms underlying TRB3 in tumorigenesis in lung adenocarcinoma have not been entirely elucidated. The present study is aimed at determining the function and fundamental mechanisms of TRB3 in lung adenocarcinoma progression. TRB3 was highly expressed in A549 and H1299 cells and lung adenocarcinoma tissues compared with human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEpC) and adjacent normal lung tissues. Hypoxia significantly upregulated the expression of TRB3 protein in A549 and H1299 cells in a time-dependent way. Gene expression profiling interactive analysis data analysis indicated that patients with lung adenocarcinoma with excessive expression of TRB3 mRNA had fundamentally shorter survival time. TRB3 knockdown in A549 cells can inhibit cell proliferation and migration, and promote cell apoptosis. TRB3 knockdown reduced the expression of p-ERK and p-JNK, but did not affect the expression of p-P38 MAPK. TRB3 overexpression enhances the malignant transformation abilities of HBEpC such as cell proliferation, migration and colony formation, which could be reversed by U0126 and SP600125. TRB3 overexpression promotes the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) but was not affected by U0126 and SP600125. The results of coimmunoprecipitation experiments indicated that TRB3 binds directly to ERK and JNK. This study suggests that TRB3 has a potentially carcinogenic role in lung adenocarcinoma by binding to ERK and JNK and promoting the phosphorylation of ERK and JNK. TRB3 can be a possible therapeutic focus for lung adenocarcinoma.

8.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 172, 2019 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ensuring equal access to preventive care has always been given a priority in health system throughout world. This study aimed to decompose inequality in utilization of preventive care services into its contributing factors and then explore its changes over the period of China's 2009-2015 health system reform. METHODS: The concentration index (CI) and decomposition of the CI was performed to capture income-related inequalities in preventive services utilization and identify contribution of various determinants to such inequality using data from China Health and Nutrition Survey. Then, changes in inequality from 2009 to 2015 were estimated using Oaxaca-type decomposition technique. RESULTS: The CI for preventive services utilization dropped from 0.2240 in 2009 to 0.1825 in 2015. Residential location and household income made the biggest contributions to income-related inequalities in these two years. Oaxaca decomposition revealed changes in residential location, regions and medical insurance made positive contributions to decline in inequality. However, alternation in household income, age and medical services utilization pushed the equality toward deterioration. CONCLUSION: The pro-rich inequality in preventive healthcare services usage is evident in China despite a certain decline in such inequality during observation period. Policy actions on eliminating urban-rural and income disparity should be given the priority to equalize preventive healthcare.

9.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1460, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Monitoring inequalities in chronic disease prevalence and their preventive care can help build effective strategies to improve health equality. Using hypertension and diabetes as a model, this study measures and decomposes socioeconomic inequalities in their prevalence and preventive care among Chinese adults aged 45 years and older in Shaanxi Province, an underdeveloped western region of China. METHODS: Data of 27,728 respondents aged 45 years and older who participated in the fifth National Health Services Survey conducted in 2013 in Shaanxi Province were analyzed. The relative indexes of inequalities based on Poisson regressions were used to assess disparities in the prevalence of hypertension and diabetes and their preventive care between those with the lowest and the highest socioeconomic status, and the concentration index was used to measure the magnitude of the socioeconomic-related inequality across the entire socioeconomic spectrum. The contribution of each factor to the inequality was further estimated via the concentration index decomposition. RESULTS: Our results indicate a higher prevalence of hypertension and diabetes among the rich than the poor individuals aged 45 years and older in Shaanxi Province, China. Among individuals with hypertension or diabetes, significant inequalities favoring the rich were observed in the use of preventive care, i.e. in adequate use of medication and of blood pressure/blood glucose monitoring. Furthermore, economic status, educational level, employment status, and urban-rural areas were identified as the key socioeconomic indicators for monitoring the inequalities in the patient preventive care. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that the existence of clear inequities in the prevalence of chronic diseases and preventive care among adults aged 45 and older in Shaanxi Province, China. These inequalities in chronic diseases could be as much a cause as a consequence of socioeconomic inequalities.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 90(11): 113315, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779416

RESUMO

A negative ion source acts as a critical part in a neutral beam injector (NBI). A high current ion source is required for the high-power NBI. In this paper, a prototype radio frequency (RF) ion source and its test facility are developed in the Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, to demonstrate the key technology of the high power negative ion source. The structure design of the RF negative ion source is presented, involving the designs of the ion source plasma generator and accelerator. The detailed structure design and analysis of the key parts of the ion source are also presented, such as the Faraday shield (FS) and accelerator grids. The fluid-thermal-structural coupling characteristics of the FS and grid are explored with different mechanisms of fluid pressure, RF power, and the structure type on the thermal stress. Then, the processing and manufacturing scheme of the FS and grids are also given. Finally, the results were presented with a manufactured three cooling channel FS. The experimental results prove that the developed structure design of the RF ion source is effective and reliable, and the correctness of finite element analysis is also verified by experimental data comparison.

11.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 90(11): 115117, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779419

RESUMO

For a prestudy of the key science and technology of the RF negative ion source for fusion application, a negative RF ion source test facility was developed at the Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Science (ASIPP). The magnetic filter field in front of the extraction system plays an important role in reducing the loss of negative hydrogen ions and inhibiting coextraction of electrons. The existing filter field of the prototype ion source is generated by permanent magnets arranged on both sides of the expansion chamber; the gradient and the uniformity of the field are poor, resulting in a large plasma distribution unevenness in the experiment. In order to reduce the B→×∇B drift and the beam deflection, the plasma nonuniformity, and the beam alignment, its gradient should be as low as possible, especially near the Plasma Grid (PG), while its strength should be as low as possible inside both the driver and the extraction region. Hence, the magnetic filter field generated by the permanent magnet and the PG current with return wires is proposed. A finite element analysis method is used to calculate the distribution of the magnetic field throughout the ion source, especially the filter profile along the centerline perpendicular to the PG and the section parallel to the PG. Several cases were compared and the final design provides a more uniform magnetic field in the region within 70 mm above the plasma grid, while the field strength is around 5 mT and the integral BdL quantity is greater than 1.2 mTm.

12.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 90(11): 113319, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779444

RESUMO

Neutral beam injection (NBI) is one of the most effective tools of four auxiliary plasma heating methods for fusion plasma heating and current drive. Now, a next generation fusion device, China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor, is under design, and a large negative NBI is foreseen. In order to demonstrate the key technology and performance of a negative ion source, a negative radio frequency (RF) ion source test facility has been developed since 2017 in the Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Science. A prototype RF ion source with double drivers (having the same structure with an inner diameter of 200 mm) was developed and tested on the test facility to preresearch the key technology of the RF plasma generator. The driver is equipped with a water-cooled Faraday shield to protect the alumina cylinder from the plasma, and the plasma expands into the rectangular expansion chamber. The RF power of 100 kW with a frequency of 1 MHz is transferred to the RF driver by a matching unit. The characteristics of plasma discharge were studied with classical diagnostic tools, such as the Langmuir probe and water flow calorimeter. Based on the plasma performance tests, a high power of 82 kW plasma discharge for a long pulse of 1000 s was achieved. In this paper, the details of the ion source design, characteristics of plasma, and future research plan will be presented.

13.
Lancet ; 394(10196): 407-418, 2019 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is a common chronic airway disease worldwide. Despite its large population size, China has had no comprehensive study of the national prevalence, risk factors, and management of asthma. We therefore aimed to estimate the national prevalence of asthma in a representative sample of the Chinese population. METHODS: A representative sample of 57 779 adults aged 20 years or older was recruited for the national cross-sectional China Pulmonary Health (CPH) study using a multi-stage stratified sampling method with parameters derived from the 2010 census. Ten Chinese provinces, representative of all socioeconomic settings, from six geographical regions were selected, and all assessments were done in local health centres. Exclusion criteria were temporary residence, inability to take a spirometry test, hospital treatment of cardiovascular conditions or tuberculosis, and pregnancy and breastfeeding. Asthma was determined on the basis of a self-reported history of diagnosis by a physician or by wheezing symptoms in the preceding 12 months. All participants were assessed with a standard asthma questionnaire and were classed as having or not having airflow limitation through pulmonary function tests before and after the use of a bronchodilator (400 µg of salbutamol). Risk factors for asthma were examined by multivariable-adjusted analyses done in all participants for whom data on the variables of interest were available. Disease management was assessed by the self-reported history of physician diagnosis, treatments, and hospital visits in people with asthma. FINDINGS: Between June 22, 2012, and May 25, 2015, 57 779 participants were recruited into the CPH study. 50 991 (21 446 men and 29 545 women) completed the questionnaire survey and had reliable post-bronchodilator pulmonary function test results and were thus included in the final analysis. The overall prevalence of asthma in our sample was 4·2% (95% CI 3·1-5·6), representing 45·7 million Chinese adults. The prevalence of asthma with airflow limitation was 1·1% (0·9-1·4), representing 13·1 million adults. Cigarette smoking (odds ratio [OR] 1·89, 95% CI 1·26-2·84; p=0·004), allergic rhinitis (3·06, 2·26-4·15; p<0·0001), childhood pneumonia or bronchitis (2·43, 1·44-4·10; p=0·002), parental history of respiratory disease (1·44, 1·02-2·04; p=0·040), and low education attainment (p=0·045) were associated with prevalent asthma. In 2032 people with asthma, only 28·8% (95% CI 19·7-40·0) reported ever being diagnosed by a physician, 23·4% (13·9-36·6) had a previous pulmonary function test, and 5·6% (3·1-9·9) had been treated with inhaled corticosteroids. Furthermore, 15·5% (11·4-20·8) people with asthma reported at least one emergency room visit and 7·2% (4·9-10·5) at least one hospital admission due to exacerbation of respiratory symptoms within the preceding year. INTERPRETATION: Asthma is prevalent but largely undiagnosed and undertreated in China. It is crucial to increase the awareness of asthma and disseminate standardised treatment in clinical settings to reduce the disease burden. FUNDING: National Key R&D Program of China, Ministry of Science and Technology of China; the Special Research Foundation for Public Welfare of Health, Ministry of Health of China; the Chinese National Research Program for Key Issues in Air Pollution Control; and the National Natural Science Foundation of China.


Assuntos
Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/epidemiologia , Bronquite/epidemiologia , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Rinite Alérgica/epidemiologia , Administração por Inalação , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Asma/etiologia , Bronquite/complicações , China/epidemiologia , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia/complicações , Prevalência , Rinite Alérgica/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 120, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196090

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A multitude of epidemiological studies have shown that ambient fine particulate matter 2.5 (diameter < 2.5um; PM2.5) was associated with increased morbidity and mortality of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the underlying associated mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. We conducted this study to investigate the role of PM2.5 in the development of COPD and associated mechanisms. METHODS: We firstly conducted a cross-sectional study in Chinese han population to observe PM2.5 effects on COPD morbidity. Then, in vitro, we incubated human bronchial epithelial cells to different concentrations of PM2.5 for 24 h. The expression levels of IL-6 and IL-8 were detected by ELISA and the levels of MMPs, TGF-ß1, fibronectin and collagen was determined by immunoblotting. In vivo, we subjected C57BL/6 mice to chronic prolonged exposure to PM2.5 for 48 weeks to study the influence of PM2.5 exposure on lung function, pulmonary structure and inflammation. RESULTS: We found that the effect of PM2.5 on COPD morbidity was associated with its levels and that PM2.5 and cigarette smoke could have a synergistic impact on COPD development and progression. Both vitro and vivo studies demonstrated that PM2.5 exposure could induce pulmonary inflammation, decrease lung function, and cause emphysematous changes. Furthermore, PM2.5 could markedly aggravated cigarette smoke-induced changes. CONCLUSIONS: In short, we found that prolonged chronic exposure to PM2.5 resulted in decreased lung function, emphysematous lesions and airway inflammation. Most importantly, long-term PM2.5 exposure exacerbateed cigarette smoke-induced changes in COPD.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Progressão da Doença , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Adulto , Animais , Células Cultivadas , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30988604

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the expression profile of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in CD4+ T cells from COPD patients and explore the clinical value of the lncRNAs. Methods: First, microarray analysis was performed. Differentially expressed lncRNAs were validated by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) in samples from 56 patients with acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD), 56 patients with stable COPD, and 35 healthy controls. Meanwhile, the clinical value was tested by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The functions of lncRNAs were analyzed by the Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database. The potential target genes that might be regulated by NR-026690 and ENST00000447867 were identified by the lncRNA-mRNA network and competing endogenous RNA network. The transcriptional expression level of rap guanine nucleotide exchange factor 3 (RAPGEF3) was tested by qRT-PCR. The correlation of the expression between NR-026690, ENST00000447867, and RAPGEF3 was analyzed by Spearman's correlation test. Results: We found that the relative expression levels of ENST00000447867 and NR-026690 in the CD4+ T cells of AECOPD patients were significantly higher than in the stable COPD patients and control subjects by microarray and qRT-PCR validation. The transcriptional expression level of RAPGEF3 in the CD4+ T cells was significantly higher in the AECOPD group compared to the control group (P<0.01) and the stable COPD group (P<0.05). RAPGEF3 expression was positively associated with NR-026690 (r=0.4925, P<0.01) and ENST00000447867 (r=0.4065, P<0.01). Conclusion: NR-026690 and ENST00000447867 might be potential biomarkers for COPD. They might affect RAPGEF3 as miRNA sponges to regulate COPD development.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/sangue , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Citocinas/sangue , Citocinas/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Marcadores Genéticos , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/sangue , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/sangue , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Transcriptoma , Regulação para Cima
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917496

RESUMO

High out-of-pocket (OOP) payments for chronic disease care often contribute directly to household poverty. Although previous studies have explored the determinants of impoverishment in China, few published studies have compared levels of impoverishment before and after the New Health Care Reform (NHCR) in households with members with chronic diseases (hereafter referred to as chronic households). Our study explored this using data from the fourth and fifth National Health Service Surveys conducted in Shaanxi Province. In total, 1938 households in 2008 and 7700 households in 2013 were included in the analysis. Rates of impoverishment were measured using a method proposed by the World Health Organization. Multilevel logistic modeling was used to explore the influence of the NHCR on household impoverishment. Our study found that the influence of NHCR on impoverishment varied by residential location. After the reform, in rural areas, there was a significant decline in impoverishment, although the impoverishment rate remained high. There was little change in urban areas. In addition, impoverishment in the poorest households did not decline after the NHCR. Our findings are important for policy makers in particular for evaluating reform effectiveness, informing directions for health policy improvement, and highlighting achievements in the efforts to alleviate the economic burden of households that have members with chronic diseases.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/economia , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Características da Família , Feminino , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Política de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
Am J Transl Res ; 11(2): 641-654, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30899368

RESUMO

Hypoxia is a common cause of pulmonary vascular remodeling and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). Upon ER stress, the unfolded protein response (UPR) which activates the IRE1α, PERK and ATF6 signaling pathways is activated to cope with ERS in mammalian cells; however, the role of the three UPR arms in pulmonary vascular remodeling has not been defined. The present study showed that GRP78, a marker of ERS, was upregulated in hypoxic pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). Among the three arms of the UPR, the IRE1α pathway was noticeably upregulated in hypoxic PASMCs. An inhibitor of IRE1α/XBP1 pathway, 4u8c, inhibited hypoxia-induced cell proliferation and migration and increased cell apoptosis by downregulating PCNA and MMP9 and activating mitochondrial apoptosis by enhancing the expression of BAX, activating caspase-9 and caspase-3, and eventually cleaving PARP. Quercetin affects ERS in many cell types and was shown to relieve hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH) in our previous study. We demonstrated that quercetin evoked excessive GRP78 expression in hypoxic PASMCs compared with hypoxia alone by evaluating the expression of GRP78. The expression of IRE1α and XBP1s, a cleavage form of XBP1u, was upregulated by quercetin in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with 4u8c reversed the apoptosis-promoting effect of quercetin by inhibiting mitochondrial apoptosis. However, 4u8c amplified the effect of quercetin on proliferation and migration in hypoxic PASMCs. In conclusion, the study demonstrated that the IRE1α-XBP1 pathway is involved in the process of hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling; 4u8c could restrain hypoxia-induced cell proliferation and migration and reverse the hypoxia-induced apoptosis arrest, while quercetin excited excessive ERS and the IRE1α pathway in hypoxic PASMCs and promoted apoptosis. Our data suggest that intervening the IRE1α-XBP1 pathway may be useful for hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension therapy.

18.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 52, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30845941

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a progressive and fatal disease. While cigarette smoke can change DNA methylation status, the role of such molecular alterations in smoke-associated PH is unclear. METHODS: A PH rat model was developed by exposing animals to cigarette smoke for 3 months. Right ventricular systolic pressure was measured with a right heart catheter. Histological changes (right ventricular hypertrophy index, medial wall thickness in pulmonary arteries (PAs)) and DNMT1 protein levels in rat PAs or primary human PA smooth muscle cells (HPASMCs) exposed to cigarette smoke extract were assessed. Methylation sequencing and MassArray® were used to detect genomic and RASEF promoter methylation status, respectively. After DNMT1 knockdown and cigarette smoke extract exposure, HPASMCs behavior (proliferation, migration) and RASEF methylation status were examined; RASEF mRNA expression was evaluated by real-time-polymerase chain reaction. RASEF overexpression viral vectors were used to assess the impact of RASEF on rat PH and HPASMCs remodeling. RESULTS: Higher right ventricular systolic pressure, medial wall thickness, and right ventricular hypertrophy index values were observed in the smoking group rats. Smoke exposure increased DNMT1 expression and RASEF methylation levels in rat PAs and HPASMCs. Cigarette smoke extract induced HPASMCs behavioral changes and RASEF hypermethylation followed by silencing, while DNMT1 knockdown markedly inhibited these changes. RASEF overexpression distinctly inhibited PH and HPASMCs remodeling, possibly through phospho-AKT (Ser473), PCNA, and MMP9 downregulation. CONCLUSIONS: Cigarette smoke caused PA remodeling in PH rats related to RASEF hypermethylation. These results expand our understanding of key epigenetic mechanisms in cigarette smoke-associated PH and potentially provide a novel therapeutic target for PH.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/metabolismo , Exposição por Inalação , Artéria Pulmonar/metabolismo , Remodelação Vascular/fisiologia , Fatores ras de Troca de Nucleotídeo Guanina/metabolismo , Animais , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Fumar Cigarros/patologia , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Metilação , Artéria Pulmonar/patologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
19.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 9(2)2019 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30781761

RESUMO

In this work, a novel nanocomposite hydrogel based on cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) and chitosan (CS) was fabricated and applied as a carrier for the controlled delivery of theophylline. CNC was firstly periodate-oxidized to obtain dialdehyde nanocellulose (DACNC). Then, chitosan was crosslinked using DACNC as both the matrix and crosslinker in different weight ratios, to fabricate CNC/CS composites. The prepared composites were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), zeta potential measurement and swelling ratio tests. FT-IR results confirmed the successful reaction between the free amino groups on chitosan and the aldehyde groups on DACNC. With the increase of chitosan percentage in the hydrogel, the isoelectric point was shifted towards an alkaline pH, which was probably caused by the higher content of free amino groups. The swelling ratio of the composite also increased, which may have been due to the decrease of crosslinking density. Because the swelling ratio of the drug-loaded hydrogels differed under varied pH values, the cumulative drug release percentage of the composite hydrogel was achieved to approximately 85% and 23% in the gastric (pH 1.5) and intestinal (pH 7.4) fluids, respectively. Therefore, CNC/CS hydrogel has application potential as a theophylline carrier.

20.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(2): 60, 2019 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683838

RESUMO

The authors have retracted the article [Hsa-miR-623 suppresses tumor progression in human lung adenocarcinoma, Cell Death & Disease volume 7, page e2388 (2016), doi 10.1038/cddis.2016.260] because it has recently come to their attention that the A549 cells used in this research were contaminated with Hela cells, which may have altered the outcome of their experiment. The conclusions of this article are therefore unreliable. All authors agree to this retraction.

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