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1.
Sci Total Environ ; : 159084, 2022 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36179834

RESUMO

The mobility of biochar in saturated quartz sand under a direct current (DC) electric field was investigated by column transport test. The effects of biochar preparation temperature (350 and 550 °C), solution chemistry (pH of 4, 7, and 10, and ion strength of 1, 10, 100 mM) and voltage gradient (0, 0.5 and 1.0 V cm-1) on the mobility of biochar were explored. It was found that DC electric field could significantly promote the migration of biochar, and the recovery rate of particles could be improved by 0.5-6.1 folds under 0.5 V cm-1. Higher voltage potential, solution pH and ionic strength were more favorable for biochar migration. The transport of biochar could be well interpreted by deterministic nonequilibrium convection-dispersion equation model. The enhanced mobility caused by DC electric field was attributed to the following reasons: enhanced electromigration following electrostatic attraction from the anode; increasing surface negative charges and functional groups on biochar surface as a result of electrochemical oxidization; reducing size blocking of biochar particles by decreasing particle size. Moreover, the interaction between biochar particles and electrode could alter solution chemistry, in particular, increasing solution pH, which in turn facilitated the transport of biochar. This study provided a perspective to modulate the transport behavior of biochar particle in the soil for the remediation of polluted sites.

2.
Scand J Gastroenterol ; 57(7): 832-841, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35293268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of Metastatic lymph node ratio (MLNR) after curative gastrectomy in patients with gastric cancer (GC) and the potential for new indicators to strengthen the current guidelines. METHODS: We retrospectively researched 3864 GC patients with curative gastrectomy between February 2011 and February 2016. The following clinical data were collected from the included patients: gender, type of gastrectomy, tumor location, T stage, N stage, ELN, tumor size, age at surgery, perineural invasion, vascular invasion, TNM stage, survival time and survival status. Patients were divided into low-MLNR (L-MLNR), and high-MLNR (H-MLNR) groups based on adjusted the X-tile cutoff-value of 0.25 for MLNR, the survival rates and clinicopathological characteristics of each group were compared. For the assessment of significant associations between clinicopathological characteristics and patients' survival, univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards analysis. The log-rank test was used to examine the statistical significance of differences among different survival curves. Clinicopathological features significantly associated with MLNR were assessed by the Chi-square test and multinomial logistic regression. The discriminative ability was measured by calculating the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) values for each category. Assessment of the effect of clinicopathological features on MLNR for predicting prognosis of GC patients used stratum analysis through Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional risk Analysis. RESULTS: Survival analysis indicated that MLNR was negatively associated with overall survival (OS) (p < .001) and was an independent prognostic predictor in 3864 GC patients (p < .001). MLNR had significant prognostic significance in various subgroups with clinicopathological characteristics (gender, type of gastrectomy, tumor location, T stage, N stage, ELN, tumor size, age at surgery, perineural invasion, vascular invasion, and TNM stage) (p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The MLNR may become a new indicator to assess the prognosis of GC patients who underwent curative gastrectomy. The results may have potential clinical implications that should be considered when developing clinical practice guidelines or the design of the future investigation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gástricas , Teorema de Bayes , Gastrectomia , Humanos , Razão entre Linfonodos , Linfonodos/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia
4.
J Gene Med ; 24(5): e3413, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35106863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play vital roles in tumorigenesis. Here, we explored how lncRNA HOXA11-AS functions in the progression of breast cancer (BC). METHODS: HOXA11-AS and miR-125a-5p levels were measured by a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, whereas western blotting determined TMPRSS4 levels in BC tumor tissues, adjacent normal tissues and BC cell lines. The roles of HOXA11-AS, miR-125a-5p and TMPRSS4 in BC proliferation were investigated using cell counting kit-8, colony formation and flow cytometry assays, whereas scratch and transwell assays were used to measure metastasis. RNA pull-down assays and dual-luciferase assays assessed direct interactions between HOXA11-AS and miR-125a-5p. The effects of HOXA11-AS in vivo were investigated in a BC xenograft model. RESULTS: HOXA11-AS was upregulated in tumor tissues of 56 BC patients compared to adjacent non-tumor tissues, with high levels being associated with worse overall survival. Silencing of HOXA11-AS inhibited the proliferation and metastasis of BC cells, leading to cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 and induction of apoptosis. We identified miR-125a-5p as a target of HOXA11-AS, with miR-125a-5p inhibitors partially restoring the reduction of cell proliferation and metastasis induced by HOXA11-AS silencing. We also determined that miR-125a-5p targeted TMPRSS4 mRNA, with HOXA11-AS knockdown and miR-125a-5p mimics suppressing TMPRSS4. Overexpression of TMPRSS4 partially compensated for the reduction of cell proliferation and metastasis induced by HOXA11-AS silencing. Finally, we confirmed the mechanism of HOXA11-AS in the regulation of tumorigenesis in the mouse model. CONCLUSIONS: HOXA11-AS regulates the tumorigenic ability of BC via the miR-125a-5p/TMPRSS4 axis. This provides insights for regulatory mechanisms involved in BC progression, and may enable new treatment strategies in the clinical setting.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , MicroRNAs , RNA Longo não Codificante , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinógenos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/genética
5.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(19): 28480-28494, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34993814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer (BC) accounts for a significant share of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Ongoing investigations have shown that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) drive BC progression but their underlying mechanisms remain largely undescribed. LncRNA KCNQ1OT1 was previously identified in BC but its functional significance remained to be fully investigated. METHODS: KCNQ1OT1 and its downstream target genes were analyzed in breast cancer tissues and cell lines using methods including RT-qPCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. The effects of KCNQ1OT1, miR-34a and Notch3 on BC cells were investigated using assays measuring proliferation (CCK-8, colony formation), apoptosis, and migration/invasion (scratch and Transwell assays). MS2-RIP and dual-luciferase reporter assays were used to study RNA interactions. Xenograft studies were employed to define the tumorigenic potential of KCNQ1OT1 in vivo. RESULTS: KCNQ1OT1 expression was up-regulated in BC tissues and high levels were associated with poorer prognosis. ShRNA inhibition of KCNQ1OT1 expression in BC cell lines retarded proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Up-regulation of KCNQ1OT1 was shown to inhibit miR-34a which was associated with blocking the inhibitory effect of miR-34a on BC cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Notch3 was found to be a downstream target of miR-34a with KCNQ1OT1 markedly inducing Notch3 expression in BC. Evidence for KCNQ1OT1/miR-34a/Notch3 axis was further established in clinical BC samples. CONCLUSION: We identified a KCNQ1OT1/miR-34a/Notch3 axis which promotes BC progression through effects on cell proliferation and metastasis that was further associated with poor patient prognosis. These results propose targeting this axis as novel treatment approach for BC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , MicroRNAs , RNA Longo não Codificante , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Canais de Potássio de Abertura Dependente da Tensão da Membrana , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Receptor Notch3/genética , Receptor Notch3/metabolismo
6.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(8): 11966-11975, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558049

RESUMO

To enhance the remediation efficiency of arsenic (As) and chromium (Cr)co-contaminated soil, the effect of various combinations of reducing and chelating agents on the removal of As and Cr was studied in the present work by using electrokinetic technology coupled with a permeable reactive barrier (EK-PRB). In an experiment with EK-PRB, reducing agents (ascorbic acid and citric acid) and chelating agents (EDTA-2Na) were applied together with CaAl-layered double hydroxide (CaAl-LDH) to pretreat As and Cr co-contaminated soil. The chelating agents increased the removal efficiency of As and Cr, while the reducing agent only improved As removal in co-contaminated soil. The best removal efficiencies of As and Cr were 41.2% and 46.8%, respectively. The reducing agents promoted the production of As(III) and enhanced the migration of As. However, a large amount of Cr(VI) was reduced to Cr(III), which affected the migration of Cr. Although the addition of chelating agents partly increased the migration of Cr(III), the removal of total chromium (TCr) still decreased. In this remediation system, a PRB can effectively capture and fix As and Cr. The results indicated that As was mainly adsorbed on the surface of CaAl-LDH, while the surface adsorption and intercalation of CaAl-LDH were the main mechanisms for Cr.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Poluentes do Solo , Cromo/análise , Cinética , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
7.
Plant Physiol ; 188(2): 1248-1263, 2022 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34791461

RESUMO

Vacuolar H+-pumping pyrophosphatases (VPs) provide a proton gradient for Na+ sequestration in the tonoplast; however, the regulatory mechanisms of VPs in developing salt tolerance have not been fully elucidated. Here, we cloned a barley (Hordeum vulgare) VP gene (HVP10) that was identified previously as the HvNax3 gene. Homology analysis showed VP10 in plants had conserved structure and sequence and likely originated from the ancestors of the Ceramiales order of Rhodophyta (Cyanidioschyzon merolae). HVP10 was mainly expressed in roots and upregulated in response to salt stress. After salt treatment for 3 weeks, HVP10 knockdown (RNA interference) and knockout (CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing) barley plants showed greatly inhibited growth and higher shoot Na+ concentration, Na+ transportation rate and xylem Na+ loading relative to wild-type (WT) plants. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction and microelectronic Ion Flux Estimation results indicated that HVP10 likely modulates Na+ sequestration into the root vacuole by acting synergistically with Na+/H+ antiporters (HvNHX1 and HvNHX4) to enhance H+ efflux and K+ maintenance in roots. Moreover, transgenic rice (Oryza sativa) lines overexpressing HVP10 also showed higher salt tolerance than the WT at both seedling and adult stages with less Na+ translocation to shoots and higher grain yields under salt stress. This study reveals the molecular mechanism of HVP10 underlying salt tolerance and highlights its potential in improving crop salt tolerance.


Assuntos
Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/metabolismo , Pirofosfatase Inorgânica/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Tolerância ao Sal/fisiologia , Sódio/metabolismo , Evolução Biológica , Transporte Biológico/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Vacúolos/metabolismo
8.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131784, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371358

RESUMO

Humus is an important parameter to affect the environmental fate of arsenic (As) in tailing soil. According to the batch and column experiment, the effects of humus (HS) including humic acid (HA), fulvic acid (FA) on the As release and basic properties of soil were studied in the soil from a mining region. In addition, HA was modified by 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (3-MPTS) with different sulfur content (S%) to improve the release capacity of As. The results indicated that HS could destroy the binding of As with Fe, Mn, Al and Ca without affecting the basic properties of tailings soil, thus achieving the co-release of As and associated metals. Besides, the As release capacity of FA (25.47 %) was slightly higher than that of HA (21.90 %). The ability of thiol-modified HAs to release As from tailings soil after being modified with different S% of 3-MPTS was significantly improved, of which 2 % had the best treatment. The thiol groups (-SH) reached 45.00 % of total S. With the increase of S%, the surface thoil content, aromatization degree and total reduction capacity (TRC) of HA increased. The study demonstrated that HS and thiol-modified HA could promote the migration of As and could advance the treatment of heavy metal contaminated tailing soil.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Poluentes do Solo , Benzopiranos , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Compostos de Sulfidrila
9.
Bioengineered ; 12(2): 9150-9161, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34720049

RESUMO

Bladder cancer (BC) is one of the most common malignant tumors in the urinary system. Our research aimed to explore the function and underlying mechanisms of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) PSMA3-AS1 in BC. RT-qPCR was utilized to detect the levels of PSMA3-AS1, miR-214-5p, and PD-L1. ChIP assay was employed to confirm the transcription factor of PSMA3-AS1. Luciferase reporter assay was carried out to demonstrate the relationships between miR-214-5p and PSMA3-AS1 or PD-L1. The diagnostic value of PSMA3-AS1 was evaluated by the ROC curve. CCK-8, wound healing, transwell, and flow cytometry assays were applied to analyze cell viability, migration, invasion, and apoptosis. Western blotting was used to confirm the expression of cleaved caspase-3. The present study revealed that BC tissues and cells exhibited an increased expression in PSMA3-AS1. High expression of PSMA3-AS1 was related to poor prognosis in BC patients. Then, the area under the ROC curve for PSMA3-AS1 was up to 0.8954. Moreover, ChIP assay elaborated that YY1 could bind to the PSMA3-AS1 promoter region. Furthermore, it was found that that PSMA3-AS1 knockdown repressed BC cell viability and metastasis, and promoted apoptosis. In addition, miR-214-5p was inversely correlated with PSMA3-AS1 or PD-L1 levels. MiR-214-5p deletion reversed the impacts of PSMA3-AS1 deletion on BC progression, and PD-L1 inhibition also abrogated the influence of miR-214-5p deletion in BC development. In conclusion, YY1-induced PSMA3-AS1 exerted an oncogenic function in BC cells via targeting miR-214-5p and enhancing PD-L1, providing potential biomarkers for BC therapy.


Assuntos
Apoptose/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Fator de Transcrição YY1/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Progressão da Doença , Deleção de Genes , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Metástase Neoplásica , Ligação Proteica , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética
10.
Transl Androl Urol ; 10(9): 3646-3655, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34733660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To study the incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and kidney stones in a healthy screening population and to explore the correlation between them. METHODS: The physical examination data of 11,827 people screened at the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University from August 2019 to July 2020 were analyzed. MetS diagnostic criteria were based on the 2004 guidelines of Chinese Diabetes Society (CDS). Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the correlation between MetS and various characteristics and kidney stones. Trend analysis was represented by P value, and P<0.05 indicated statistical significance. RESULTS: The present study comprised 6,570 males (55.6%, aged 46.15±13.653 years) and 5,257 females (44.4%, aged 41.41±11.712 years). Of these, 1,036 (8.8%) had kidney stones and 1,552 (13.1%) had MetS. Among the MetS patients, 35.1% had a body mass index (BMI) ≥25, 27.7% had hypertension, 10.8% had hyperglycemia, and 31.2% had dyslipidemia. Kidney stone morbidity was 14.5% in the MetS group and 7.9% in the non-MetS group (P<0.05). As the number of MetS characteristics increased, kidney stone morbidity showed a linear increasing trend (P<0.05 for trend). With an increase in BMI and blood triglycerides (TG), and a decrease in lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), the incidence of kidney stones had an increasing trend (P<0.05 for trend). Sex, age and MetS were independent risk factors for the occurrence of kidney stones, with and odds ratio (OR) of 1.493 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.264-1.763] for MetS. Of the MetS characteristics, BMI ≥25 and blood pressure (BP) ≥140/90 mmHg were independent risk factors for kidney stones, with OR values of 1.209 (95% CI: 1.047-1.396) and 1.248 (95% CI: 1.071-1.453), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: MetS is an independent risk factor for kidney stones. Appropriate medication and dietary advice may help to correct urinary metabolic abnormalities and prevent the recurrence of kidney stones.

11.
Theor Appl Genet ; 134(12): 3951-3962, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471944

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: A major QTL for Hessian fly resistance was precisely mapped to a 2.32 Mb region on chromosome 3B of the US hard winter wheat cultivar 'Overland'. The Hessian fly (HF, Mayetiola destructor) is a destructive insect pest of wheat in the USA and worldwide. Deploying HF-resistant cultivars is the most effective and economical approach to control this insect pest. A population of 186 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was developed from 'Overland' × 'Overley' and phenotyped for responses to HF attack using the HF biotype 'Great Plains'. A high-density genetic linkage map was constructed using 1,576 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers generated by genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS). Two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with a significant epistatic effect on HF resistance were mapped to chromosomes 3B (QHf.hwwg-3B) and 7A (QHf.hwwg-7A) in Overland, which are located in similar chromosome regions as found for H35 and H36 in the cultivar 'SD06165', respectively. QHf.hwwg-3B showed a much larger effect on HF resistance than QHf.hwwg-7A. Five and four GBS-SNPs, respectively, in the QHf.hwwg-3B and QHf.hwwg-7A QTL intervals were converted into Kompetitive allele specific polymerase chain reaction (KASP) markers. QHf.hwwg-3B was precisely mapped to a 2.32 Mb interval (2,479,314-4,799,538 bp) using near-isogenic lines (NILs) and RILs that have recombination within the QTL interval. The US winter wheat accessions carrying contrasting alleles at KASP markers KASP-3B4525164, KASP-7A47772047 and KASP-7A65090410 showed significant difference in HF resistance. The combination of the two KASP markers KASP-3B3797431 and KASP-3B4525164 is near-diagnostic for the detection of QHf.hwwg-3B in a US winter wheat panel and can be potentially used for screening the QTL in breeding programs.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Herbivoria , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Triticum/genética , Alelos , Animais , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Ligação Genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
12.
Cancer Cell Int ; 21(1): 409, 2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cumulating evidence reveals the key role of aberrant lipogenesis and immunogenomic features in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, there are still obstacles in our understanding of the complicated interaction between metabolic reprogramming and tumor immune microenvironment. METHODS: We compared metabolomic, transcriptomic and immunogenomic characteristics of portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT) and primary tumor to seek valuable markers. Human HCC samples with PVTT (n = 28) was analyzed through ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS). Transcript levels of mRNA in two cohorts from published database GEO (n = 60) and TCGA (n = 411) were downloaded to explore differentially expressed genes and functional enriched gene set. Evaluation of immune infiltration was estimated and validated from transcriptomic data in both cohorts through six immune deconvolution algorithms and in a high-resolution mode (CIBERSORTx). Survival analysis (Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox regression model) was performed to examine prognostic value of ACLY, related immune checkpoints and immune infiltration levels from TCGA cohort. LASSO regression was further conducted to determine a gene panel to further predict survival outcomes associated with ACLY. RESULTS: We identified a novel signature, ATP citrate lyase, through transcriptomic and metabolomic approaches. We demonstrated that the metabolism adaptations in both fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis triggered by ACLY oncogenic activation. We illustrated the crucial function of ACLY in lipogenesis and its potential interaction with immune microenvironment. CD276, a promising target in immune checkpoint blockade, showed correlation to ACLY and differential expression in ACLY risk classification. Combination of ACLY, CD276 and immune infiltration level and a novel ACLY-associated panel from a predictive model retrieved from published database validated the prognostic value to risk stratification in patients with HCC.ACLY blockade to counteract metabolic activation and immunosuppressive status of the tumor microenvironment highlighted attractive prospect for translational application. CONCLUSIONS: We investigated ACLY and its indispensable role in metabolism, immune function and a prognostic gene panel in HCC. We anticipate that the multifaced role of ACLY may reveal the potential value for mechanistic research and combinational therapy, suggesting that the combination blockade of ACLY and immune checkpoints may work as a promising strategy.

13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(42): 60268-60275, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34156616

RESUMO

Phosphorus (P) recovery from sewage sludge (SS) have been regarded as an effective method of P recycling. The effects of incineration temperature, incineration time, and chlorine additives on the distribution of P speciation during sludge incineration were studied. Moreover, the reactions between model compounds AlPO4 and additives (MgCl2 and CaCl2) were investigated by thermogravimetric differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction measurements. The results demonstrated that the increase in temperature and time stimulated the volatilization of non-apatite inorganic phosphorus (NAIP) instead of apatite phosphorus (AP). MgCl2 and CaCl2 can greatly promote the conversion of NAIP to AP. Additionally, AlPO4 reacted with MgCl2 are incinerated at 500-600 °C to form Mg3(PO4)2, which is mainly due to the reaction of the intermediate product MgO and AlPO4. Reactions between AlPO4 and CaCl2 occurred at 700-750 °C and produced Ca2PO4Cl, which can be directly used with high bioavailability. These findings suggested that chlorine additives in the SS incineration process can obtain phosphorus-containing minerals with higher bioavailability to realize the resource utilization of P in sludge.


Assuntos
Incineração , Esgotos , Apatitas , Cloreto de Cálcio , Fósforo
14.
Food Res Int ; 144: 110343, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34053539

RESUMO

Cronobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic pathogen that can survive extreme desiccation, heat, acid, and osmotic stress. This can increase the risk of infection, resulting in severe diseases, mainly in neonates. The inactivation effect of 405 ± 5-nm light-emitting diode (LED) illumination on C. sakazakii with different initial concentrations and C. sakazakii strains isolated from powdered infant formula (PIF) and baby rice cereal (BRC) were firstly evaluated. Then, the effect of 405 ± 5-nm LED on the tolerance of diverse environmental conditions of C. sakazakii in PIF was investigated. Conditions involving desiccation [PIF, Water activity (aw): 0.2-0.5], heat (45, 50, and 55 °C), acid (simulated gastric fluid: SGF, pH 4.75 ± 0.25), and bile salt (0.2%, bile salt solution) were used to study the effects of 405-nm LED on C. sakazakii resistance. The transcription levels of ten tolerance-associated genes and changes in bacterial cell membrane were examined to understand the response of C. sakazakii to LED illumination. The results showed that 405-nm LED effectively inactivated C. sakazakii ATCC 29544 with initial concentration from 8 to 1 log CFU/g in PIF and strains isolated from PIF and BRC. Moreover, 405-nm LED could decrease the tolerance of C. sakazakii in PIF to desiccation, heat treatment at 50 and 55 °C, SGF, and bile salt to different degrees, but the resistance to the heat treatment at 45 °C was not influenced by LED illumination. In addition, the transcription levels of the ten tolerance-associated genes measured in the LED-illuminated C. sakazakii cells were significantly downregulated compared with those in unilluminated controls. The damage on cell membrane was confirmed for LED-treated cells by LIVE/DEAD® assay. These results indicate that 405-nm LED illumination may be effective at reducing the environmental resistance of C. sakazakii in PIF. Furthermore, this study suggests the potential for applying 405-nm LED technology in the prevention and control of pathogens in food processing, production, and storage environments.


Assuntos
Cronobacter sakazakii , Manipulação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Fórmulas Infantis , Recém-Nascido , Pós
15.
Water Sci Technol ; 83(8): 1824-1833, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33905355

RESUMO

In this paper, combined with the addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), the electrochemical treatment of waste activated sludge (WAS) was investigated to explore its effect on the release of phosphorus (P) from WAS. The results showed that during the electrochemical treatment, the addition of EDTA could significantly promote the release of P from the WAS to the supernatant, the optimal amount of EDTA was 0.4 g/g total suspended solids (TSS), when the release of total dissolved phosphorus (TDP), organic phosphorus (OP) and molybdate reactive phosphorus (PO43--P) were 187.30, 173.84 and 13.46 mg/L, respectively. OP was the most likely form of P to be released during this process. Moreover, combined electrochemical-EDTA treatment could promote the release of P and metal ions from extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) to the supernatant, and increase the solubility and disintegration of sludge. EDTA chelated the metal ions of sludge flocs and phosphate precipitates to cause sludge floc decomposition, thereby promoting the release of P from WAS.


Assuntos
Fósforo , Esgotos , Ácido Edético , Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
16.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 18(6): 398-404, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709804

RESUMO

Coenzyme Q0 (CoQ0) is a natural compound found in Antrodia cinnamomea, which has a variety of biological activities. Here, the antibacterial activity and possible antibacterial mechanism of CoQ0 against Escherichia coli were investigated. The antibacterial effect was evaluated by determining minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values, and by assessing bacterial survival and the effect on the growth of E. coli after CoQ0 treatment in Luria-Bertani (LB) broth. To reveal the antibacterial mechanism of CoQ0, changes in intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration, membrane potential, and bacterial protein content, as well as effects on cell morphology and membrane integrity, were investigated. Both the MICs and MBCs of CoQ0 against E. coli were 0.1 mg/mL. After treatment of E. coli (6.5 log colony-forming units/mL) with 0.1 mg/mL of CoQ0 in LB broth for 3 h, the number of viable cells dropped below the detection limit. In addition, CoQ0 treatment resulted in the reduction in intracellular ATP concentration, cell membrane hyperpolarization, decreased bacterial protein concentrations, and damage to cell membrane integrity and cellular morphology. These results indicated that CoQ0 has effective antibacterial activity against E. coli, suggesting potential applications in food industry safety.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Benzoquinonas/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Polyporales/química
17.
Chemosphere ; 275: 129966, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662731

RESUMO

The Zn/Fe-modified biochar on nitrobenzene (NB) removal during the electrolysis was investigated in this study. Both the Fe and Zn-modified biochar enhanced the NB adsorption compared with the un-modified biochar due to their greater specific surface area and more abundant surface function groups, respectively. The electrolysis under 2-11 V with the assist of both Fe/Zn-modified biochar achieved effective NB removal (>93%). The removal rate under 2 V using Zn/Fe-modified biochar (∼94%) was higher than that of the un-modified biochar (∼80%), whereas the removal was similar for those under 5, 8 and 11 V. The NB removal under 2 and 5 V was attributed to both adsorption and electrochemical decomposition of NB molecules. Electrolysis under 5 V by Fe-modified biochar had a higher degree of NB mineralisation than that using un-modified and Zn-modified biochar. This was likely that the Fe-modified biochar exhibited higher electrocatalytic properties, facilitating the further NB mineralisation. The ∙OH played significant roles in the degradation of NB by Fe-modified and un-modified biochar but did not significantly participated for the test using Zn-modified biochar. This was possibly because the Zn-modified biochar could adsorb greater amounts of ∙OH into the inner pores of Zn-modified biochar via its greater porosity and specific surface area, which may prevent the contact between ∙OH and NB molecules.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Carvão Vegetal , Nitrobenzenos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(22): 28319-28328, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533005

RESUMO

The pyrolyzation of sewage sludge (SS) could efficiently transform inherent phosphorus (P) into bioavailable phosphate forms, which endows SS-derived biochar (SSB) the potential as a soil fertilizer. However, the details about the release behavior of P in SSB have not been systematically investigated. This study evaluated the fast and slow P releasing behaviors from SSB and CaO-amended SSB prepared under different pyrolysis temperature. The higher pyrolysis temperature and CaO addition could enhance the conversion of non-apatite inorganic phosphorus (NAIP) into more bioavailable apatite inorganic phosphorous (AP). Acidic and alkaline conditions were favorable for the fast release of P from SSB. Higher ionic strength condition gave greater releasing amounts of TP and the SO42- facilitating a rapid release of TP than those for Cl- and NO3-. SSBs with CaO addition showed a much slower TP release than those without CaO both in fast release (24 h, with CaO: 0.05~0.4 mg TP g-1 SSB, e.g., without CaO 0.5~5 mg TP g-1 SSB) and slow release tests (21 days, with CaO: 1.2~4.1 mg TP g-1 SSB, e.g., without CaO 1.8~5.7 mg TP g-1 SSB). Ortho-P release was more remarkable for the SSB amended with CaO (~54% of TP), which was likely due to the formation of orthophosphate. The results of this study suggested that SSB prepared by high pyrolysis temperature and CaO addition had high potential as a slow P-releasing fertilizer for the soil.


Assuntos
Fósforo , Esgotos , Carvão Vegetal , Pirólise
19.
Environ Technol ; 42(23): 3698-3706, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134366

RESUMO

The enhancement of phosphorus (P) released from waste activated sludge (WAS) by electrochemical treatment was investigated in this study. Results showed that the concentration of orthophosphate (ortho-P) and organic phosphorus (OP) in liquid both increased after electrochemical treatment. The ortho-P and OP concentration reached a maximum of 5.020 and 1.888 mg/L under the optimal condition respectively (voltage of 4.5 V and time of 60 min), which were 2.86 and 4.93 times higher than that in raw sludge. Meanwhile, the role of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in this process was also studied. The variation trends of P-release in tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS) and loosely bound EPS (LB-EPS) were different. In TB-EPS, the concentration of total phosphorus (TP) and ortho-P decreased when the voltage increased. In contrast, the concentration of TP and ortho-P in LB-EPS increased and reached the maximum under the optimal condition. Released metal ions (Ca, Mg, Fe, and Al) had some effects on P-release both in liquid and EPS, which indicated that EPS played an important role. SCOD and TSS revealed that the disintegration of sludge was also enhanced by electrochemical treatment. Additionally, the P fractions in sludge phase suggested that OP was more likely to be released in liquid phase.


Assuntos
Fósforo , Esgotos , Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas , Fosfatos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
20.
Chemosphere ; 268: 129391, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360138

RESUMO

The anaerobic fermentation (AF) of waste activated sludge (WAS) with an electrochemical pretreatment (EPT) was investigated to determine its correlation with the release of phosphorus and the disintegration of WAS. The sludge was pretreated by holding under 4.5 V for 60 min, followed by AF for 9 days. Untreated sludge was used as the control group (no-EPT). Results showed that, with pretreatment, the total dissolved P (TDP), orthophosphate (PO43--P) and organic P (OP) reached the maximum values of 7.30 mg/L, 4.77 mg/L and 2.35 mg/L on day 8, respectively, which were approximately 5.3, 9.2 and 2.7 times greater than that in the control group. The analysis of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), protein and polysaccharides showed that the EPT promoted the disintegration of sludge, thereby enhancing the P release. The SCOD reached 1625 mg/L on day 6 in pretreatment experiment, which was about 9.8 times greater than that in control group. Additionally, the EPT contributed to fewer metal ions in sludge supernatant. This mechanism might have been due to the anions accumulating in the supernatant from the greater degree of sludge collapse after EPT, which caused the released metal ions to combine with anions to form insoluble compounds. In conclusion, EPT could be a promising method for the dissolution of sludge and the recovery of phosphorus from WAS under AF. Besides, the economic benefit evaluation showed the potential value of EPT for P recovery.


Assuntos
Fósforo , Esgotos , Anaerobiose , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Fermentação , Esgotos/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
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