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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533005

RESUMO

The pyrolyzation of sewage sludge (SS) could efficiently transform inherent phosphorus (P) into bioavailable phosphate forms, which endows SS-derived biochar (SSB) the potential as a soil fertilizer. However, the details about the release behavior of P in SSB have not been systematically investigated. This study evaluated the fast and slow P releasing behaviors from SSB and CaO-amended SSB prepared under different pyrolysis temperature. The higher pyrolysis temperature and CaO addition could enhance the conversion of non-apatite inorganic phosphorus (NAIP) into more bioavailable apatite inorganic phosphorous (AP). Acidic and alkaline conditions were favorable for the fast release of P from SSB. Higher ionic strength condition gave greater releasing amounts of TP and the SO42- facilitating a rapid release of TP than those for Cl- and NO3-. SSBs with CaO addition showed a much slower TP release than those without CaO both in fast release (24 h, with CaO: 0.05~0.4 mg TP g-1 SSB, e.g., without CaO 0.5~5 mg TP g-1 SSB) and slow release tests (21 days, with CaO: 1.2~4.1 mg TP g-1 SSB, e.g., without CaO 1.8~5.7 mg TP g-1 SSB). Ortho-P release was more remarkable for the SSB amended with CaO (~54% of TP), which was likely due to the formation of orthophosphate. The results of this study suggested that SSB prepared by high pyrolysis temperature and CaO addition had high potential as a slow P-releasing fertilizer for the soil.

2.
Chemosphere ; 268: 129391, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360138

RESUMO

The anaerobic fermentation (AF) of waste activated sludge (WAS) with an electrochemical pretreatment (EPT) was investigated to determine its correlation with the release of phosphorus and the disintegration of WAS. The sludge was pretreated by holding under 4.5 V for 60 min, followed by AF for 9 days. Untreated sludge was used as the control group (no-EPT). Results showed that, with pretreatment, the total dissolved P (TDP), orthophosphate (PO43--P) and organic P (OP) reached the maximum values of 7.30 mg/L, 4.77 mg/L and 2.35 mg/L on day 8, respectively, which were approximately 5.3, 9.2 and 2.7 times greater than that in the control group. The analysis of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), protein and polysaccharides showed that the EPT promoted the disintegration of sludge, thereby enhancing the P release. The SCOD reached 1625 mg/L on day 6 in pretreatment experiment, which was about 9.8 times greater than that in control group. Additionally, the EPT contributed to fewer metal ions in sludge supernatant. This mechanism might have been due to the anions accumulating in the supernatant from the greater degree of sludge collapse after EPT, which caused the released metal ions to combine with anions to form insoluble compounds. In conclusion, EPT could be a promising method for the dissolution of sludge and the recovery of phosphorus from WAS under AF. Besides, the economic benefit evaluation showed the potential value of EPT for P recovery.


Assuntos
Fósforo , Esgotos , Anaerobiose , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Fermentação , Esgotos/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(49): e23209, 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33285697

RESUMO

Intracranial aneurysm (IA) is one of the main causes of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) leading to a high percentage of disability and mortality worldwide. In addition to environmental factors, the risk of rupture or prognosis of intracranial aneurysm is also closely related to gene. Thus, a lot of genetic studies have been used to explore associated risk genes as well as variant loci of intracranial aneurysm and found several chromosome variates including 9p21.3 (CDKN2BAS) related to Intracranial aneurysm. However, due to differences in population and the existence of SNP, it is still not determined that whether these genetic changes can be identified as independent risk factors for intracranial aneurysm. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis of CDKN2BAS SNPs to explore its association with intracranial aneurysms and the results show a significance relation between rs10757272, rs1333040, and rs6475606 with intracranial aneurysm. This will open a new perspective for future intracranial aneurysm gene research and therapy.

4.
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue ; 26(2): 143-148, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33346418

RESUMO

Objective: To study the ultrasonographic manifestations and clinical features of common pediatric testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) in children. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the laboratory, ultrasonographic and clinical data on 92 children with TGCT diagnosed in Shanghai Children's Hospital from March 2013 to January 2019, and investigated the values of the serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level and maximum diameter of tumors in the diagnosis of benign and malignant tumors using the ROC curve. RESULTS: Of the 92 cases of pediatric TGCT, 64 (69.6%) were pathologically confirmed as benign tumors, including 40 cases of teratoma (62.5%), 18 cases of epidermoid cyst (28.1%) and 6 cases of dermoid cyst (9.4%), and the other 28 (30.4%) as malignant neoplasms, including 26 cases of yolk sac tumor (YST, 92.9%) and 2 cases of mixed germ cell tumor (MGCT, 7.1%). Ultrasonography showed that 62.5% of the teratomas were cystic-solid mixed (25/40) and 32.5% solid masses (12/40), that 33.3% of the epidermoid cysts exhibited a typical sign of "onion ring" (6/18) and 22.2% that of capsular calcification (4/18), and that 42.3% of the YSTs displayed isoechoic (11/26), 30.9% hypoechoic (8/26) solid masses without calcium and 26.9% cystic anechoic lesions (7/26). Color Doppler blood flow imaging manifested abundant blood flow signals in most of the YSTs (25/26, 96.2%) but none in either the epidermoid or the dermoid cysts. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of the serum AFP value was 0.985, with an optimal cutoff value of 124.2 ng/ml, and the sensitivity and specificity of AFP in the diagnosis of benign and malignant tumors were 92.9% and 93.7%, respectively. The AUC of the maximum diameter of the tumors was 0.796, with an optimal cutoff value of 2.7 cm, and the sensitivity and specificity of the maximum diameter of the tumors in the diagnosis of benign and malignant neoplasms were 57.1% and 93.7%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasonographic images have different characteristic manifestations for different pathological types of pediatric TGCT. Pediatric TGCT has a good prognosis and radical orchiectomy should be considered for the treatment of the tumors with serum AFP ≥ 124.2 ng/ml and a diameter ≥ 2.7 cm.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Testiculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 529, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33225903

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kernel weight and morphology are important traits affecting cereal yields and quality. Dissecting the genetic basis of thousand kernel weight (TKW) and its related traits is an effective method to improve wheat yield. RESULTS: In this study, we performed quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis using recombinant inbred lines derived from the cross 'PuBing3228 × Gao8901' (PG-RIL) to dissect the genetic basis of kernel traits. A total of 17 stable QTLs related to kernel traits were identified, notably, two stable QTLs QTkw.cas-1A.2 and QTkw.cas-4A explained the largest portion of the phenotypic variance for TKW and kernel length (KL), and the other two stable QTLs QTkw.cas-6A.1 and QTkw.cas-7D.2 contributed more effects on kernel width (KW). Conditional QTL analysis revealed that the stable QTLs for TKW were mainly affected by KW. The QTLs QTkw.cas-7D.2 and QKw.cas-7D.1 associated with TKW and KW were delimited to the physical interval of approximately 3.82 Mb harboring 47 candidate genes. Among them, the candidate gene TaFT-D1 had a 1 bp insertions/deletion (InDel) within the third exon, which might be the reason for diversity in TKW and KW between the two parents. A Kompetitive Allele-Specific PCR (KASP) marker of TaFT-D1 allele was developed and verified by PG-RIL and a natural population consisted of 141 cultivar/lines. It was found that the favorable TaFT-D1 (G)-allele has been positively selected during Chinese wheat breeding. Thus, these results can be used for further positional cloning and marker-assisted selection in wheat breeding programs. CONCLUSIONS: Seventeen stable QTLs related to kernel traits were identified. The stable QTLs for thousand kernel weight were mainly affected by kernel width. TaFT-D1 could be the candidate gene for QTLs QTkw.cas-7D.2 and QKw.cas-7D.1.

6.
Chemosphere ; 259: 127403, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603963

RESUMO

The ability of thiol-modified humic acids (HAs) to release arsenic in tailings soil after being modified with different sulfur-containing reagents were significantly improved. The structure and physicochemical properties of humic acid (HA) before and after thiol-modification were characterized. The 3-MPTS-HA treated with 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (3-MPTS) effectively improved the mobility of arsenic, and its reducing ability was increased from 2 mmol g-1 to 3.54 mmol g-1. The S content of humic acids were also significantly increased after treatment with sulfur-containing reagents, in which the oxygen-containing functional group (e.g., C = O, C-O) on the surface of HA may be the active sites for binding with sulfur-containing reagents. It was found in the XPS spectrum that because the thiol group is easily oxidized, there are many S forms in thiol-modified HA. The -SH content in Na2S·9H2O-HA, l (+)-Cysteine-HA (Cys-HA), thioglycolic acid (TGA-HA) and 3-MPTS-HA was determined by fluorescence method to be 13.9, 78.45, 90.34, and 192.29 µmol g-1, respectively. The study demonstrated that surface thiol modification can increase the abundance of thiol in HA and enhance reactivity, which will further promote the application of HA in the treatment of heavy metal contaminated tailing soil.


Assuntos
Arsênico/química , Poluentes do Solo/química , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Metais Pesados/química , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Compostos de Sulfidrila
7.
Theor Appl Genet ; 133(10): 2927-2935, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32617615

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: The recessive Hessian fly resistance gene h4 and flanking SNP markers were located to a 642 kb region in chromosome 1A of the wheat cultivar 'Java.' Hessian fly (HF), Mayetiola destructor, is one of the most destructive insect pests in wheat worldwide. The wheat cultivar 'Java' was reported to carry a recessive gene (h4) for HF resistance; however, its chromosome location has not been determined. To map the HF resistance gene in Java, two populations of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were developed from 'Bobwhite' × Java and 'Overley' × Java, respectively, and were phenotyped for responses to infestation of HF Great Plains biotype. Analysis of phenotypic data from the F1 and the RIL populations confirmed that one recessive gene conditioned HF resistance in Java. Two linkage maps were constructed using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers generated by genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS). The h4 gene was mapped to the distal end of the short arm of chromosome 1A, which explained 60.4 to 70.5% of the phenotypic variation for HF resistance in the two populations. The GBS-SNPs in the h4 candidate interval were converted into Kompetitive Allele-Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (KASP) markers to eliminate the missing data points in GBS-SNPs. Using the revised maps with KASP markers, h4 was further located to a 642 kb interval (6,635,984-7,277,935 bp). The two flanking KASP markers, KASP3299 and KASP1871, as well as four other closely linked KASP markers, may be useful for pyramiding h4 with other HF resistance genes in breeding.

8.
J Food Prot ; 83(12): 2102-2106, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663262

RESUMO

Salmonella, a bacterial foodborne pathogen, can contaminate meat, milk, and vegetables. While appropriate measures are available to control Salmonella, the inhibitory phytochemicals from plants are gaining increased attention. Punicalagin, a natural antimicrobial, is one of the main active tannins isolated from Punica granatum L. To obtain a broader understanding of the effect of punicalagin on the cell membranes of Salmonella Typhimurium, the growth curves, extracellular potassium concentration, release of cell constituents, intracellular pH, membrane potential, and morphological features were characterized to elucidate the mechanisms of action. Treatment with punicalagin induced an increase in the extracellular concentrations of potassium and a release of cell constituents. A higher pH gradient, an increase in the intracellular pH, and cell membrane depolarization were observed after punicalagin treatment. Electron microscopy observations showed that the cell membrane structures of Salmonella Typhimurium were damaged by punicalagin. It is concluded that punicalagin inhibits the proliferation of Salmonella Typhimurium and destroys the integrity of the cell membrane, leading to a loss of cell homeostasis. These findings indicate that punicalagin has the potential to be developed as a future alternative to control Salmonella Typhimurium contamination in foods and reduce the risk of salmonellosis.

9.
Theor Appl Genet ; 133(8): 2343-2353, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32436021

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Two new Hessian fly resistance QTLs (H35 and H36) and tightly linked SNP markers were identified in a US hard winter wheat SD06165. Hessian fly (HF), Mayetiola destructor (Say), is one of the most destructive pests in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) worldwide. Growing resistant cultivars is the most effective approach to minimize Hessian fly damage. To identify new quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for HF resistance, a recombinant inbred line population was developed by crossing HF resistant wheat line SD06165 to a susceptible line OK05312. The population was genotyped with 1709 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) generated from genotyping-by-sequencing and phenotyped for HF resistance in greenhouses. Two novel QTLs for HF resistance were identified from SD06165. The major QTL, designated as H35, was closely linked to SNP marker SDOKSNP7679 on chromosome 3BS that explained 23.8% and 36.0% of the phenotypic variations; the minor QTL, designated as H36, was flanked by SNP markers SDOKSNP1618 and SDOKSNP8089 on chromosome 7AS and explained 8.5% and 13.1% of the phenotypic variation in the two experiments. Significant interaction was detected between the two QTLs. Seventeen SNPs that tightly link to H35 and eight SNPs that tightly link to H36 were converted to kompetitive allele specific polymerase chain reaction markers for selecting these QTLs in breeding programs.

10.
J Hazard Mater ; 395: 122660, 2020 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32344298

RESUMO

Gestation and lactation are very sensitive and vulnerable stages for human growth and development. During these two periods, short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (MCCPs) can be transported to neonates via transplacental and breastfeeding transfers, and eventually posing potential adverse effects to neonates. Up to date, no simultaneous investigation of prenatal and postnatal exposure of CPs is reported. To bridge this knowledge gap, we have analyzed SCCPs and MCCPs in 20 complete sets of maternal serum, umbilical cord serum, placenta, and breast milk. The levels of both ∑SCCP and ∑MCCP followed the order of maternal serum > breast milk > cord serum > placenta. The breastfeeding transfer ratios (RBM, ≈ 1.0) of CPs were greater than the corresponding transplacental transfer ratios (RCM, < 1.0), demonstrating the higher transport of CPs during the lactation period. The placental retention/or accumulation ratios (RPM) showed that CPs were effectively retained by the placental barrier. Furthermore, the total exposure amount of SCCPs and MCCPs during the lactation period was> 100 times higher than the gestation exposure amounts. This study helps to better understand the prenatal and postnatal exposure of CPs and provides a solid basis for accurate human health risk assessment of CPs.

11.
Neurochem Res ; 45(7): 1729-1730, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323106

RESUMO

Since the publication of our article [1] it has come to our attention that there was an error in Figure 4 in which the bottom left immunochemistry panel Control/Bax was a duplication of the bottom right immunohistochemistry panel EGCG/GDNF in Figure 3.

12.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(10)2020 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169938

RESUMO

Biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa contributes to its survival on surfaces and represents a major clinical threat because of the increased tolerance of biofilms to disinfecting agents. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of 405-nm light-emitting diode (LED) illumination in eliminating P. aeruginosa biofilms formed on stainless steel coupons under different temperatures. Time-dependent killing assays using planktonic and biofilm cells were used to determine the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of LED illumination. We also evaluated the effects of LED illumination on the disinfectant susceptibility, biofilm structure, extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) structure and composition, and biofilm-related gene expression of P. aeruginosa biofilm cells. Results showed that the abundance of planktonic P. aeruginosa cells was reduced by 0.88, 0.53, and 0.85 log CFU/ml following LED treatment for 2 h compared with untreated controls at 4, 10, and 25°C, respectively. For cells in biofilms, significant reductions (1.73, 1.59, and 1.68 log CFU/cm2) were observed following LED illumination for 2 h at 4, 10, and 25°C, respectively. Moreover, illuminated P. aeruginosa biofilm cells were more sensitive to benzalkonium chloride or chlorhexidine than untreated cells. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopic observation indicated that both the biofilm structure and EPS structure were disrupted by LED illumination. Further, reverse transcription-quantitative PCR revealed that LED illumination downregulated the transcription of several genes associated with biofilm formation. These findings suggest that LED illumination has the potential to be developed as an alternative method for prevention and control of P. aeruginosa biofilm contamination.IMPORTANCE Pseudomonas aeruginosa can form biofilms on medical implants, industrial equipment, and domestic surfaces, contributing to high morbidity and mortality rates. This study examined the antibiofilm activity of 405-nm light-emitting diode (LED) illumination against mature biofilms formed on stainless steel coupons. We found that the disinfectant susceptibility, biofilm structure, and extracellular polymeric substance structure and composition were disrupted by LED illumination. We then investigated the transcription of several critical P. aeruginosa biofilm-related genes and analyzed the effect of illumination temperature on the above characteristics. Our results confirmed that LED illumination could be developed into an effective and safe method to counter P. aeruginosa biofilm contamination. Further research will be focused on the efficacy and application of LED illumination for elimination of complicated biofilms in the environment.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos da radiação , Desinfecção/métodos , Luz , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos da radiação , Aço Inoxidável , Iluminação , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , Temperatura
13.
Environ Technol ; : 1-9, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134366

RESUMO

The enhancement of phosphorus (P) released from waste activated sludge (WAS) by electrochemical treatment was investigated in this study. Results showed that the concentration of orthophosphate (ortho-P) and organic phosphorus (OP) in liquid both increased after electrochemical treatment. The ortho-P and OP concentration reached a maximum of 5.020 and 1.888 mg/L under the optimal condition respectively (voltage of 4.5 V and time of 60 min), which were 2.86 and 4.93 times higher than that in raw sludge. Meanwhile, the role of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in this process was also studied. The variation trends of P-release in tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS) and loosely bound EPS (LB-EPS) were different. In TB-EPS, the concentration of total phosphorus (TP) and ortho-P decreased when the voltage increased. In contrast, the concentration of TP and ortho-P in LB-EPS increased and reached the maximum under the optimal condition. Released metal ions (Ca, Mg, Fe, and Al) had some effects on P-release both in liquid and EPS, which indicated that EPS played an important role. SCOD and TSS revealed that the disintegration of sludge was also enhanced by electrochemical treatment. Additionally, the P fractions in sludge phase suggested that OP was more likely to be released in liquid phase.

14.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 45(11): E624-E630, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972745

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: This is an in vitro biomechanical study. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the biomechanical variations of lumbar spine motor units and that under different moments after screw heads blocking superior-adjacent bilateral facets through the cadaver specimen biomechanical experiment. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Facet joint violation by pedicle screws is not a rare adverse event in instrumented lumbar fusion surgery, and one of the most common types is the screw head blocking the superior-adjacent facet. However, its contribution to biomechanical instability at the supradjacent level is unknown. METHODS: The range of motion (ROM) of 12 lumbar spines (L4-S1) were measured in flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation for L4/5. All specimens were randomly divided into two groups: the control group and the blocking group, each with 6 specimens. Spine were tested on intact and instrumented specimens, respectively. The relative ROM changes were compared between the blocking and control groups. RESULTS: In the blocking group, the supradjacent-level flexion-extension ROM significantly decreased under all moments (7.5, 6.0, 4.5 Nm) relative to the intact spine and a significant decrease in the lateral bending relative ROM was found at 4.5 Nm. In the control group, no significant change of supradjacent-level ROM was found relative to the intact noninstrumented spine at each moment. When performing flexion-extension, the relative ROM change between the 2 groups was significantly different at 4.5 Nm. When performing lateral bending, the relative ROM change between the 2 groups was significantly different at moments of 6.0 and 4.5 Nm. CONCLUSION: When screw heads blocked superior-adjacent bilateral facets, the supradjacent-level flexion-extension ROM and lateral bending ROM decreased. In the long run, this may be a risk of persistent low-back pain due to frequent impingement. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: N/A.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Vértebras Lombares/fisiologia , Vértebras Lombares/cirurgia , Fusão Vertebral/métodos , Articulação Zigapofisária/fisiologia , Articulação Zigapofisária/cirurgia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cadáver , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parafusos Pediculares , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Rotação
15.
Environ Technol ; 41(20): 2618-2624, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30694112

RESUMO

Magnetic separation, a promising bioseparation technology, is confronted with the challenges in recovery and recycle of magnetic matters during algae harvesting for biofuel extraction. The thermodynamic method was used to characterize the surface interactions between MNPs and algae cells. Three methods were adopted to detach magnetic nanoparticles-algae (Microcystis aeruginosa, Synechocystis sp., Nannochloropsis maritima and Stigeoclonium sp.) and recover magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in this study. The thermodynamic method indicated that the greatest adhesion strength was expected for Stigeoclonium sp. on MNPs. High detachment efficiency of MNP-algae was achieved by ultrasonic-extracting, which got above 90% after 5 recycles. Moreover, the harvesting efficiencies of these four algae cells could remain more than 90% after 5 recycles using a mixture of the regenerated and the raw MNPs.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas de Magnetita , Microcystis , Estramenópilas , Campos Magnéticos , Magnetismo
16.
J Hazard Mater ; 381: 120935, 2020 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401458

RESUMO

Manganese slag is a hazardous waste, which lacks proper treatment. For the first time, an effective catalyst for selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide was synthesized from manganese slag by a sol-gel method. The obtained catalyst had an excellent low-temperature activity and high hydrothermal stability. It removed 46.3% of nitric oxide (990 ppm) at a temperature as low as 100 °C; its removal increased to 100% at 220 °C, which lasted for more than 2000 min. Moreover, hydrothermal treatment at 400 °C showed little influence on its activity. Even after hydrothermal treatment at 900 °C, the catalyst still removed 39.7% of NO at 220 °C, 22.7% higher than another catalyst synthesized from pure reagents. The hydrothermal stability was attributed to an amorphous layer of MnSixOy. This layer covered the catalyst surface, protected active metal species, pore size and pore volume from steam attacking. Manganese slag thus realized the high-value-added utilization by synthesizing a catalyst with the high hydrothermal stability.

17.
Chemosphere ; 241: 125038, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610455

RESUMO

The use of humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) as reinforcing agents to improve the efficiency of electrokinetic remediation (EKR) were investigated for the first time using an artificially contaminated soil. A series of soil leaching tests and bench-scale EKR experiments were performed to elucidate the mechanisms of As removed from artificially contaminated soil. The characterization of total reducing capacity (TRC) and functional group were carried out to reveal the difference of HA and FA. The observations demonstrated that with 0.1 M NaOH and KCl as the anolyte, using both HA and FA enhanced the efficiency of EKR. After 25 days of EKR, the removal efficiency of TAs in HA/FA-enhanced EKR was about 2.0-3.0 times greater than when unenhanced. Compared to HA, more As was removed in EKR with FA, which has more TRC and oxygen-containing groups. These EKR experimental results, with the support of data obtained from soil leaching test, indicate that competitive adsorption, reductive dissolution and complexation were the reasons why HA and FA promoted the release of As in the soil and further enhanced the remediation efficiency.


Assuntos
Arsênico/isolamento & purificação , Benzopiranos/farmacologia , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Poluentes do Solo/isolamento & purificação , Adsorção , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Temperatura
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 701: 135036, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710901

RESUMO

The catalytic activity of a new catalyst for NO reduction is usually obtained by a gas-solid phase experiment. For the first time, a relationship has been established between catalytic performance and electrochemistry property. A bimetallic catalyst showed a low-temperature activity and removed 67.27% of NO at 300 °C, 33.39% bigger than a single-metallic catalyst. The bimetallic catalyst removed 9.770 mmol/g of NO after 1440 min, 5.212 mmol/g bigger than the single-metallic one. At the same time, the bimetallic catalyst showed a reduction capacity of 0.441 mmole/g. In comparison, the single-metallic one only had 0.242 mmole/g. Moreover, the limiting current of bimetallic catalyst (4.020 e-4A) was also bigger than that of single-metallic one (3.698 e-4A). Therefore, a catalyst for NO reduction showed better catalytic activity and electron-transfer ability at the same time. In other words, the catalytic activity of a catalyst can be potentially estimated by detecting its electrochemistry properties.

19.
Food Microbiol ; 86: 103337, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703870

RESUMO

Coenzyme Q0 (CoQ0) has demonstrated antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and anti-angiogenic activities. Cronobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic foodborne pathogen associated with high mortality in neonates. In this study, the antimicrobial activity and possible antimicrobial mechanism of CoQ0 against C. sakazakii were investigated. Moreover, the inactivation effect of CoQ0 on C. sakazakii in biofilms was also evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of CoQ0 against C. sakazakii strains ranged from 0.1 to 0.2 mg/mL. Treatment caused cell membrane dysfunction, as evidenced by cell membrane hyperpolarization, decreased intracellular ATP concentration and cell membrane integrity, and changes in cellular morphology. CoQ0 combined with mild heat treatment (45, 50, or 55 °C) decreased the number of viable non-desiccated and desiccated C. sakazakii cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner in reconstituted infant milk. Furthermore, CoQ0 showed effective inactivation activity against C. sakazakii in biofilms on stainless steel, reducing the number of viable cells and damaging the structure of the biofilm. These findings suggest that CoQ0 has a strong inactivate effect on C. sakazakii and could be used in food production environments to effectively control C. sakazakii and reduce the number of illnesses associated with it.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Cronobacter sakazakii/efeitos dos fármacos , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cronobacter sakazakii/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cronobacter sakazakii/fisiologia , Fórmulas Infantis/análise , Fórmulas Infantis/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Plâncton/efeitos dos fármacos , Plâncton/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plâncton/fisiologia , Ubiquinona/farmacologia
20.
Expert Rev Med Devices ; 17(1): 27-32, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778610

RESUMO

Introduction: Potential complications associated with screw malposition may result in neurological deficits or vascular injuries. Spine surgery has significantly developed under the assistance of technological progress. The advantages of applying robotic technology in spine surgery include the possibility of improving screw accuracy, reducing complications, decreasing fluoroscopy use.Areas covered: We critically evaluated the current literature on the radiographic and clinical outcomes of robotic-assisted spine surgery, including accuracy, radiation exposure, operative time, and complication rates.Expert opinion: Robotic-assisted spine surgery shows promising results and has the potentials for further investigations. The robot-assisted spine surgery is appeared to be more accurate in pedicle screw placement than the free-hand technique. In general, the robot-assisted technique is associated with shorter radiation exposure time but longer operative time than free-hand technique. For higher accuracy of robotic-assisted spine surgery, technical advancement and high-quality researches are needed. Artificial intelligent technology, decompression function, and higher accuracy are the directions for the development of robotic-assisted spine surgery.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Humanos , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/efeitos adversos , Duração da Cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Exposição à Radiação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/efeitos adversos
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