Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.110
Filtrar
1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 188: 109904, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704326

RESUMO

Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is the largest brominated flame retardant which can be released to environment and cause long-term hazard. In this work, we developed a rapid and highly sensitive fluorescence enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (FELISA) for monitoring of TBBPA in soil samples. TBBPA specific nanobody derived from camelid was fused with alkaline phosphatase to obtain the bi-functional fusion protein, which enable the specific binding of TBBPA and the generation of detection signal simultaneously. The assay showed an IC50 of 0.23 ng g-1, limit detection of 0.05 ng g-1 and linear range from 0.1 to 0.55 ng g-1 for TBBPA in soil samples. Due to the high resistance to organic solvents of the fusion protein, a simple pre-treatment by using 40% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as extract solvent can eliminate matrix effect and obtain good recoveries (ranging from 93.4% to 112.4%) for spiked soil samples. Good relationship between the results of the proposed FELISA and that of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was obtained, which indicated it could be a powerful analytical tool for determination of TBBPA to monitor human and environmental exposure.

2.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31728469

RESUMO

A detailed mechanism study on the anion ligand promoted selective C-H bond fluorination is reported. The role of the anion ligand has been clarified by experimental evidence and DFT calculations. Moreover, the nitrate promoted C-F bond reductive elimination enabled a selective C-H bond fluorination of various symmetric and asymmetric azobenzenes to access diverse o-fluoroanilines.

3.
Clin Biochem ; 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672649

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore the auxiliary diagnostic value of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and anti-citrullinated alpha-enolase peptide 1 (CEP-1) in lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 99 in-patients with LRTIs [62 community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), 14 acute exacerbated chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (AECOPD), 23 other diseases] and 50 healthy subjects. NGAL, CEP-1 and IL-6 were measured and compared. IL-6 was tested by electrochemiluminescence assay kit on Roche E601 immunology analyzer, CEP-1 was assessed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, and NGAL was detected by latex immunoturbidimetric assay kit on Beckman Coulter AU2700. RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls, NGAL and IL-6 levels were significantly increased in the patients with LRTIs, the area under the curves (AUC) was 0.97 and 0.88 respectively (P < 0.01). The sensitivity and specificity of NGAL at a cut-off of 86 ng/ml were 93.0% and 96.0%, respectively, in which the sensitivity was consistent with IL-6 (P = 0.21) and the specificity was better than IL-6 (P < 0.01). CEP-1 slightly increases in the patient group, however the difference was not significant (P = 0.41). The levels of NGAL and IL-6 was no differences in different diseases, the P-value was 0.50 and 0.29, respectively. LRTIs with and without underlying diseases have similar NGAL and IL-6 values. CONCLUSIONS: NGAL, rather than CEP-1, may be appealing adjuncts for diagnosis of LRTIs. NGAL proved to be a better biomarker than IL-6.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696593

RESUMO

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has extraordinary promise for the treatment of many cancers. Yet, its clinical progress is impaired by the intrinsic hypoxic tumor microenvironment that limits PDT efficacy and the safety concern associated with biological specificity of photosensitizers or vehicles. Here, we demonstrate that rationally designed DNA nanosponges can load and delivery photosensitizer effectively, target tumor precisely, and relieve hypoxia-associated resistance remarkably to enhance the efficacy of PDT. Specifically, the approach exhibits a facile assembly process, provides programmable and versatile nanocarriers, and enables robust in vitro and in vivo anti-cancer efficacy with excellent biosafety. These findings represent a practical and safe approach by designer DNA nanoassemblies to combat cancer effectively and suggest a powerful strategy for broad biomedical application of PDT.

5.
Chem Asian J ; 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724299

RESUMO

Graphene, the one-atom-thick two-dimensional (2D) carbon material, has attracted tremendous interest in both academia and industry due to its outstanding electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties. For electronic applications, the challenging task is to make it as a semiconductor. Bottom-up synthesis of semiconducting one-dimensional (1D) nanometer-wide graphene strips, namely graphene nanoribbons (GNRs), has attracted much attention owing to its promising electronic, optical, and magnetic properties. In this regard, we report the fabrication of a cove-type 2D GNRs networks (GNN) via the interconnection of 1D self-assembled GNRs on the surface of Au(111). The cove-type 2D GNRs networks (GNNs) was fabricated from the GNR, 5-CGNR-1-1 , synthesized using the precursor of DBSP. Annealing of high-density self-assembled GNRs on the surface of Au(111) through two-zone chemical vapour deposition (2Z CVD) successfully generated 2D interconnected structure with high yield via the fusion and ladder coupling reactions of GNR chains . In order to validate the later fusion reaction, we have also synthesized the GNR, 7-AGNR-1-1, using the precursor of DBBA . The GNNs, which consists of hybridized metallic-like and semiconducting GNRs, is a new class of carbon-based materials. Further, we applied this material for thermoelectric (TE) applications and found that a very low cross-plane thermal conductivity of 0.11 W m -1 K -1 , which is the lowest value among the carbon-based materials as well as inorganic semiconductors, while maintaining the cross-plane electrical conductivity of 188 S m -1 .

6.
Nurs Ethics ; : 969733019876298, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The three-dimensional model of nurses' moral sensitivity has typically been studied using a variable-centered rather than a person-centered approach, preventing a more complete understanding of how these forms of moral sensitivity are expressed as a whole. Latent profile analysis is a person-centered approach that classifies individuals from a heterogeneous population into homogeneous subgroups, helping identify how different subpopulations of nurses use distinct combinations of different moral sensitivities to affect their service behaviors. OBJECTIVE: Latent profile analysis was used to identify three distinct profiles of nurses' moral sensitivity. Associations of the profiles with service behaviors were then examined. METHODS: Five hundred twenty-five nurses from three tertiary hospitals in China were investigated with Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire and Nurses' Service Behavior Scale. Latent profile analysis was used to analyze the data. ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS: Approval was obtained from the Ethics committee for biomedical research of Medical College, the Hebei University of Engineering. RESULTS: A three-profile moral sensitivity model provided the best fit to the data. The resulting profiles were low moral sensitivity, moderate moral sensitivity, and high moral sensitivity. There were significant differences in service behaviors among different profiles of moral sensitivity. CONCLUSION: The results provide a new and expanded view of nurses' moral sensitivity, which may be used to monitor nurses' service behaviors comprehensively and to evaluate nursing ethics management strategies.

7.
Biomolecules ; 9(10)2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614550

RESUMO

Histamine (HA) is an important food contaminant generated during food fermentation or spoilage. However, an immunoassay for direct (derivatization free) determination of HA has rarely been reported due to its small size to induce the desired antibodies by its current hapten-protein conjugates. In this work, despite violating the classical hapten design criteria which recommend introducing a linear aliphatic (phenyl free) linker into the immunizing hapten, a novel haptens, HA-245 designed and synthesized with a phenyl-contained linker, exhibited significantly enhanced immunological properties. Thus, a quality-improved monoclonal antibody (Mab) against HA was elicited by its hapten-carrier conjugates. Then, as the linear aliphatic linker contained haptens, Hapten B was used as linker-heterologous coating haptens to eliminate the recognition of linker antibodies. Indirect competitive ELISA (ic-ELISA) was developed with a 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) of 0.21 mg/L and a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.06 mg/L in buffer solution. The average recoveries of HA from spiked food samples for this ic-ELISA ranged from 84.1% and 108.5%, and the analysis results agreed well with those of referenced LC-MS/MS. This investigation not only realized derivatization-free immunoassay for HA, but also provided a valuable guidance for hapten design and development of immunoassay for small molecules.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583522

RESUMO

South Asia is susceptible to drought due to high variation in monthly precipitation. The drought indices deriving from remote sensing data have been used to monitor drought events. To secure agricultural land in South Asia, timely and effective drought monitoring is very important. In this study, TRMM data was utilized along with remote sensing techniques for reliable drought monitoring. The Drought Severity Index (DSI), Temperature Vegetation Drought Index (TVDI), NDVI, and Normalized Vegetation Supply Water Index (NVSWI) are more helpful in describing the drought events in South Asia due to the dryness and low vegetation. To categorize drought-affected areas, the spatial maps of TRMM were used to confirm MODIS-derived TVDI, DSI, and NVSWI. The DSI, TVDI, NVSWI, and Normalized Monthly Precipitation Anomaly Percentage (NAP) indices with an integrated use of MODIS-derived ET/PET and NDVI were selected as a tool for monitoring drought in South Asia. The seasonal DSI, TVDI, NVSWI, NAP, and NDVI values confirmed that South Asia suffered an extreme drought in 2001, which continued up to 2003. The correlation was generated among DSI, NAP, NVWSI, NDVI, TVDI, and TCI on a seasonal basis. The significantly positive correlation values of DSI, TVDI, and NVSWI were in DJF, MAM, and SON seasons, which were described as good drought monitoring indices during these seasons. During summer, the distribution values of drought indicated that more droughts occurred in the southwest regions as compared to the northeast region of South Asia. From 2001 to 2017, the change trend of drought was characterized; the difference of drought trend was obviously indicated among different regions. In South Asia, generally, the frequency of drought showed declining trends from 2001 to 2017. It was verified that these drought indices are a comprehensive drought monitoring indicator and would reduce drought risk in South Asia.

9.
Mol Microbiol ; 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618469

RESUMO

The Gram-positive bacterium, Staphylococcus aureus, is a versatile pathogen that can sense and adapt to a wide variety of environments within the human host, in part through its 16 two-component regulatory systems. The ArlRS two-component system has been shown to affect many cellular processes in S. aureus, including autolysis, biofilm formation, capsule synthesis and virulence. Yet the molecular details of this regulation remained largely unknown. We used RNA sequencing to identify the ArlRS regulon, and found 70% overlap with that of the global regulator MgrA. These genes included cell wall-anchored adhesins (ebh, sdrD), polysaccharide and capsule synthesis genes, cell wall remodeling genes (lytN, ddh), the urease operon, genes involved in metal transport (feoA, mntH, sirA), anaerobic metabolism genes (adhE, pflA, nrdDG) and a large number of virulence factors (lukSF, lukAB, nuc, gehB, norB, chs, scn and esxA). We show that ArlR directly activates expression of mgrA and identify a probable ArlR-binding site (TTTTCTCAT-N4 -TTTTAATAA). A highly similar sequence is also found in the spx P2 promoter, which was recently shown to be regulated by ArlRS. We also demonstrate that ArlS has kinase activity toward ArlR in vitro, although it has slower kinetics than other similar histidine kinases.

10.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 3875418, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31662976

RESUMO

Background: Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) is considered the standard endoscopic treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), but traditional HoLEP surgery will cause some postoperative complications. This study was attempted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of modified two-lobe technique versus traditional three-lobe technique of HoLEP focusing mainly on incidences of retrograde ejaculation (RE) and urinary incontinence (UI). Methods: From March 2014 to February 2017, 191 men with BPH were randomly assigned to two groups: 97 underwent modified two-lobe technique; 94 underwent traditional three-lobe technique. All patients were followed up for 12 months. Primary outcomes were incidences of RE and UI, and secondary outcomes were international prostate symptom score (IPSS), quality of life (QOL), maximal urine flowing rate (MFR), and residual urine among the studied patients. Results: Compared with the traditional technique, patients in the modified group had a statistically significant decrease in frequency of UI (1.03% vs 8.51%, p=0.036) and RE in the 6th month (33.33% vs 63.64%, p=0.030) and 12th month (13.33% vs 50%, p=0.034) and a significant increase in ejaculatory volume in the 6th month (p=0.050) and 12th month (p=0.003). Besides, the modified HoLEP was more beneficial to patients according to the change of QoL score at 1 month (p=0.002), 3 months (p=0.004), 6 months (p=0.026), and 12 months (p=0.015). Conclusions: The modified two-lobe technology of HoLEP reduced the incidence of RE and UI, which improved the quality of life of the patients after surgery compared to the traditional three-lobe technology. This trial is registered with ChiCTR1800018553.

11.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 19(1): 186, 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ultrasound-guided lateral transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block can provide definite analgesia to the anterior abdominal wall. However, whether this method is useful in renal surgery through the lateral abdominal wall pathway remains unknown. The study aimed to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of lateral TAP block for retroperitoneoscopic partial or radical nephrectomy. METHOD: In this prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, eligible patients were randomized into two groups. After anaesthesia induction, ultrasound-guided lateral TAP block was performed with either 30 ml of 0.4% ropivacaine (Group T) or an equivalent volume of normal saline (Group C). The primary outcomes were opioid consumption during surgery and in the first 24 h after surgery. Secondary outcomes included postsurgical pain intensity immediately awakening from anaesthesia and at 0.5, 1, 2, 6, 12, and 24 h after surgery, as well as recovery variables including the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), sleep quality, time to first ambulation, drainage and length of hospital stay. RESULTS: A total of 104 patients were enrolled and randomized (53 in Group T and 51 in Group C). Laparoscopic surgery was converted to open surgery in one patient of Group T; this patient was excluded from the outcome analysis. The opioid consumption during surgery (intravenous morphine equivalent dose: median 35.0 mg [interquartile range 18.0, 49.6] in Group C vs. 40.3 mg [20.9, 59.0] in Group T, P = 0.281) and in the first 24 h after surgery (10.8 mg [7.8, 21.7] in Group C vs. 13.2 mg [8.0, 26.6] in Group T, P = 0.311) did not differ significantly between groups. There were no significant differences between groups regarding the pain intensity at all time points after surgery and the recovery variables (all P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that, in patients undergoing retroperitoneoscopic renal surgery, preoperative lateral TAP did not decrease intra- and postoperative opioid consumption, nor did it relieve pain intensity or promote postoperative recovery in the first 24 h after surgery. However, the trial might be underpowered. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was registered on November 4, 2017, in the Chinese Clinical Trail Registry with the identification number ChiCTR-INR-17013244 .

12.
Phys Med Biol ; 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639778

RESUMO

The destructive growth and collapse of cavitation bubbles are used for therapeutic purposes in focused ultrasound procedures and can contribute to tissue damage in traumatic injuries. Histotripsy is a focused ultrasound procedure that relies on controlled cavitation to homogenize soft tissue. Experimental studies of histotripsy cavitation have shown that the extent of ablation in different tissues depends on tissue mechanical properties and waveform parameters. Variable tissue susceptibility to the large stresses, strains, and strain rates developed by cavitation bubbles has been suggested as a basis for localized liver tumor treatments that spare large vessels and bile ducts. However, field quantities developed within microns of cavitation bubbles are too localized and transient to measure in experiments. Previous numerical studies have attempted to circumvent this challenge but made limited use of realistic tissue property data. In this study, numerical simulations are used to calculate stress, strain, and strain rate fields produced by bubble oscillation under histotripsy forcing in a variety of tissues with literature-sourced viscoelastic and acoustic properties. Strain field calculations are then used to predict a theoretical damage radius using tissue ultimate strain data. Simulation results support the hypothesis that differential tissue responses could be used to design tissue--selective treatments. Results agree with studies correlating tissue ultimate fractional strain with resistance to histotripsy ablation and are also consistent with experiments demonstrating smaller lesion size under exposure to higher frequency waveforms. Methods presented in this study provide an approach for modeling tissue--selective cavitation damage in general.

13.
Biomolecules ; 9(10)2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591300

RESUMO

Nanobodies are one-tenth the size of conventional antibodies and are naturally obtained from the atypical heavy-chain-only antibodies present in camelids. Their small size, high solubility, high stability, and strong resilience to organic solvents facilitate their use as novel analytical reagents in immunochemistry. In this study, specific nanobodies against pesticide carbofuran were isolated and characterized from an immunized library via phage display platform. We further established an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using nanobody Nb316 to detect carbofuran in vegetable and fruit samples. The results showed a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 7.27 ng/mL and a detection limit of 0.65 ng/mL. A simplified sample pretreatment procedure omitting the evaporation of organic solvent was used. The averaged recovery rate of spiked samples ranged between 82.3% and 103.9%, which correlated with that of standard UPLC-MS/MS method. In conclusion, a nanobody with high specificity for carbofuran was characterized, and a nanobody-based sensitive immunoassay for simple and rapid detection of carbofuran in real samples was validated.

14.
J Cell Physiol ; 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625158

RESUMO

The anatomical structure of the mammalian cerebral cortex is the essential foundation for its complex neural activity. This structure is developed by proliferation, differentiation, and migration of neural progenitor cells (NPCs), the fate of which is spatially and temporally regulated by the proper gene. This study was used in utero electroporation and found that the well-known oncogene c-Myc mainly promoted NPCs' proliferation and their transformation into intermediate precursor cells. Furthermore, the obtained results also showed that c-Myc blocked the differentiation of NPCs to postmitotic neurons, and the expression of telomere reverse transcriptase was controlled by c-Myc in the neocortex. These findings indicated c-Myc as a key regulator of the fate of NPCs during the development of the cerebral cortex.

15.
J Immunol ; 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645417

RESUMO

The pharyngeal organ is located at the crossroad of the respiratory and digestive tracts in vertebrate, and it is continuously challenged by varying Ags during breathing and feeding. In mammals, the pharyngeal mucosa (PM) is a critical first line of defense. However, the evolutionary origins and ancient roles of immune defense and microbiota homeostasis of PM are still unknown. In this study, to our knowledge, we are the first to find that diffuse MALT is present in PM of rainbow trout, an early vertebrate. Importantly, following parasitic infection, we detect that strong parasite-specific mucosal IgT and dominant proliferation of IgT+ B cell immune responses occurs in trout PM, providing, to our knowledge, the first demonstration of local mucosal Ig responses against pathogens in pharyngeal organ of a nonmammal species. Moreover, we show that the trout PM microbiota is prevalently coated with secretory IgT and, to a much lesser degree, by IgM and IgD, suggesting the key role of mucosal Igs in the immune exclusion of teleost pharyngeal bacteria. Overall, to our knowledge, our findings provide the first evidence that pharyngeal mucosal immunity appear earlier than tetrapods.

16.
J Cell Physiol ; 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637713

RESUMO

Podosomes and tight junctions (TJs) are subcellular compartments that both exist in endothelial cells and localize at cell surfaces. In contrast to the well-characterized role of TJs in maintaining cerebrovascular integrity, the specific function of endothelial podosomes remains unknown. Intriguingly, we discovered cross-talk between podosomes and TJs in human brain endothelial cells. Tight junction scaffold proteins ZO-1 and ZO-2 localize at podosomes in response to phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate treatment. We found that both ZO proteins are essential for podosome formation and function. Rather than being derived from new protein synthesis, podosomal ZO-1 and ZO-2 are relocated from a pre-existing pool found at the peripheral plasma membrane with enhanced physical interaction with cortactin, a known protein marker for podosomes. Sequestration of ZO proteins in podosomes weakens tight junction complex formation, leading to increased endothelial cell permeability. This effect can be further attenuated by podosome inhibitor PP2. Altogether, our data revealed a novel cellular function of podosomes, specifically, their ability to negatively regulate tight junction and endothelial barrier integrity, which have been linked to a variety of cerebrovascular diseases.

17.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645660

RESUMO

Propofol is a commonly used intravenous anesthetic agent, which has been found to affect cell survival and proliferation especially in early life. Our previous studies show that propofol-induced neurodegeneration and neurogenesis are closely associated with cell autophagy. In the present study we explored the roles of autophagy-related gene 5 (ATG5) in propofol-induced autophagy in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) in vitro. We showed that ATG5 was functionally related to propofol-induced cell survival and damage: propofol significantly enhanced cell survival and proliferation at a clinically relevant dose (10 µM), but caused cell death at an extremely high concentration (200 µM) in ATG5-/- MEF, but not in WT cells. The dual effects found in ATG5-/- MEF could be blocked by intracellular Ca2+ channel antagonists. We also found that propofol evoked a moderate (promote cell growth) and extremely high (cause apoptosis) cytosolic Ca2+ elevation at the concentrations of 10 µM and 200 µM, respectively, only in ATG5-/- MEF. In addition, ATG5-/- MEF themselves released more Ca2+ in cytosolic space and endoplasmic reticulum compared with WT cells, suggesting that autophagy deficiency made intracellular calcium signaling more vulnerable to external stimuli (propofol). Altogether, our results reveal that ATG5 plays a crucial role in propofol regulation of cell survival and proliferation by affecting intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis.

18.
J Phys Chem B ; 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647873

RESUMO

The molecular mechanics with proton transfer (MMPT) force field is combined with multistate adiabatic reactive molecular dynamics (MS-ARMD) to describe proton transport in the condensed phase. Parametrization for small protonated water clusters based on electronic structure calculations at the MP2/6-311+G(2d,2p) level of theory and refinement by comparing with infrared spectra for a protonated water tetramer yields a force field which faithfully describes the minimum energy structures of small protonated water clusters. In protonated water clusters up to (H2O)100H+, the proton hopping rate is around 100 hops/ns. This rate converges for 21 ≤ n ≤ 31, and no further speedup in bulk water is found. This indicates that bulklike behavior requires the solvation of a Zundel motif by ∼25 water molecules, which corresponds to the second solvation sphere. For smaller cluster sizes, the number of available states (i.e., the number of proton acceptors) is too small and slows down proton-transfer rates. The cluster simulations confirm that the excess proton is typically located on the surface. The free-energy surface as a function of the weights of the two lowest states and a configurational parameter suggests that the "special pair" plays a central role in rapid proton transport. The barriers between this minimum-energy structure and the Zundel and Eigen minima are sufficiently low (∼1 kcal/mol, consistent with recent experiments and commensurate with a hopping rate of ∼100/ns or 1 every 10 ps), leading to a highly dynamic environment. These findings are also consistent with recent experiments which find that Zundel-type hydration geometries are prevalent in bulk water.

19.
Opt Express ; 27(15): 20608-20620, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510151

RESUMO

We introduce the concept of multifractal into vector optical fields (VOFs). We propose, design and generate new fractal VOFs-multifractal VOFs (MF-VOFs), in which multifractal structure and VOF act as the lattice and the base, respectively. We generate two kinds of MF-VOFs experimentally and explore their focusing behaviors. We also investigate the self-healing and information recovering abilities of MF-VOFs, comparing with those of single-fractal VOFs (SF-VOFs) when their lattices are composed of the same hierarchy of fractal geometries. The results show that MF-VOFs have better self-healing and information recovering abilities than that of traditional SF-VOFs, meaning that MF-VOFs have better ability to resist the information loss during the focusing and imaging processes. These properties may find potential applications in information transmission, optical communication, and so on.

20.
iScience ; 19: 821-835, 2019 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499339

RESUMO

The buccal mucosa (BM) is a critical first line of defense in terrestrial animals. To gain further insights into the evolutionary origins and primordial roles of BM in teleosts here we show that rainbow trout, a teleost fish, contains a diffuse mucosal associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) within its buccal cavity. Upon parasite infection, a fish immunoglobulin specialized in mucosal immunity (sIgT) was induced to a high degree, and parasite-specific sIgT responses were mainly detected in the buccal mucus. Moreover, we show that the trout buccal microbiota is prevalently coated with sIgT. Overall our findings revealed that the MALT is present in the BM of a non-tetrapod species. As fish IgT and mucus-producing cells are evolutionarily unrelated to mammalian IgA and salivary glands, respectively, our findings indicate that mucosal immune responses in the BM of teleost fish and tetrapods evolved through a process of convergent evolution.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA