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1.
Radiat Oncol ; 16(1): 12, 2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) can impair patients' cognitive function. Hippocampal avoidance during WBRT can potentially prevent this side effect. However, manually delineating the target area is time-consuming and difficult. Here, we proposed a credible approach of automatic hippocampal delineation based on convolutional neural networks. METHODS: Referring to the hippocampus contouring atlas proposed by RTOG 0933, we manually delineated (MD) the hippocampus on the MRI data sets (3-dimensional T1-weighted with slice thickness of 1 mm, n = 175), which were used to construct a three-dimensional convolutional neural network aiming for the hippocampus automatic delineation (AD). The performance of this AD tool was tested on three cohorts: (a) 3D T1 MRI with 1-mm slice thickness (n = 30); (b) non-3D T1-weighted MRI with 3-mm slice thickness (n = 19); (c) non-3D T1-weighted MRI with 1-mm slice thickness (n = 11). All MRIs confirmed with normal hippocampus has not been violated by any disease. Virtual radiation plans were created for AD and MD hippocampi in cohort c to evaluate the clinical feasibility of the artificial intelligence approach. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 23. P < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: The Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and Average Hausdorff Distance (AVD) between the AD and MD hippocampi are 0.86 ± 0.028 and 0.18 ± 0.050 cm in cohort a, 0.76 ± 0.035 and 0.31 ± 0.064 cm in cohort b, 0.80 ± 0.015 and 0.24 ± 0.021 cm in cohort c, respectively. The DSC and AVD in cohort a were better than those in cohorts b and c (P < 0.01). There is no significant difference between the radiotherapy plans generated using the AD and MD hippocampi. CONCLUSION: The AD of the hippocampus based on a deep learning algorithm showed satisfying results, which could have a positive impact on improving delineation accuracy and reducing work load.

2.
Biol Sex Differ ; 12(1): 16, 2021 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the growing number of studies on the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), little is known about the association of menopausal status with COVID-19 outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, we included 336 COVID-19 inpatients between February 15, 2020 and April 30, 2020 at the Taikang Tongji Hospital (Wuhan), China. Electronic medical records including patient demographics, laboratory results, and chest computed tomography (CT) images were reviewed. RESULTS: In total, 300 patients with complete clinical outcomes were included for analysis. The mean age was 65.3 years, and most patients were women (n = 167, 55.7%). Over 50% of patients presented with comorbidities, with hypertension (63.5%) being the most common comorbidity. After propensity score matching, results showed that men had significantly higher odds than premenopausal women for developing severe disease type (23.7% vs. 0%, OR 17.12, 95% CI 1.00-293.60; p = 0.003) and bilateral lung infiltration (86.1% vs. 64.7%, OR 3.39, 95% CI 1.08-10.64; p = 0.04), but not for mortality (2.0% vs. 0%, OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.04-19.12, p = 1.00). However, non-significant difference was observed among men and postmenopausal women in the percentage of severe disease type (32.7% vs. 41.7%, OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.37-1.24, p = 0.21), bilateral lung infiltration (86.1% vs. 91.7%, OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.22-1.47, p = 0.24), and mortality (2.0% vs. 6.0%, OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.06-1.69, p = 0.25). CONCLUSIONS: Men had higher disease severity than premenopausal women, while the differences disappeared between postmenopausal women and men. These findings support aggressive treatment for the poor prognosis of postmenopausal women in clinical practice.


Assuntos
/terapia , Pós-Menopausa , Pré-Menopausa , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , /mortalidade , China/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Vet Parasitol ; 290: 109351, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476903

RESUMO

The present study aimed to investigate the effects of death receptor adapter proteins, namely, TNF receptor-associated death domain (TRADD) and Fas-associated death domain (FADD) proteins, on Eimeria tenella-induced host cell apoptosis. Gene silencing, culture technique for primary chick embryo cecal epithelial cells, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Hoechst-Annexin V/PI apoptosis staining, fluorescence quantitative PCR, and flow cytometry were used to detect the E. tenella host cell apoptotic rate, RIP1 and FADD protein expression levels, and caspase-8 activity of the TRADD siRNA-treated and FADD siRNA-treated groups. Results showed that the apoptotic rate in the TRADD siRNA group was significantly higher than that in the NC siRNA group at 4 h post-infection with E. tenella (P < 0.05). The RIP1 protein expression level in the TRADD siRNA group was significantly lower than that in the NC siRNA group at 4-24 h (P < 0.05). The FADD expression and apoptotic rates in the TRADD siRNA group were significantly lower than those in the NC siRNA group at 24-120 h (P < 0.05). The caspase-8 activity and apoptotic rates in the FADD siRNA group were significantly lower than those in the NC siRNA group (P < 0.05) at 24-120 h. These findings indicated that E. tenella inhibited the host cell apoptosis through the TRADD-RIP1 pathway at the early developmental stage and promoted host cell apoptosis via the TRADD-FADD-caspase-8 apoptotic pathway at the middle and late developmental stages.

4.
Curr Microbiol ; 78(2): 479-489, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33386937

RESUMO

A total of 96 isolates were obtained from 375 segments, isolated from the healthy roots, stems, leaves, hypocotyls and flowers of Bruguiera sexangula (Lour.) Poir. collected at the Dong Zhai Gang Mangrove Garden on Hainan Island, and 20 independent representative isolates were identified using a combination of morphological and molecular approaches. The most frequent endophytic fungal species isolated were Diaporthe phaseolorum (relative frequency = 31.2%). The Shannon-Wiener diversity and Simpson's diversity index both showed that stems possessed the highest diversity compared to the other tissues estimated. Ethyl acetate extracts and the isolated metabolites were tested for antimicrobial activity using the serial dilution technique and for antioxidant activity using 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonicacid) (ABTS) radical-scavenging capacity assays, respectively. The fungal isolate HL18 (Gelasinospora endodonta) cultured on Czapek's agar (CA) displayed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities and was significantly active against Escherichia coli (MIC = 0.0625 mg ml-1). Antioxidant assays showed that most of the fungal isolates (60.0%) exhibited some degree of antioxidant capacity (%RSA > 50%). The stain HL14 (Pestalotiopsis mangiferae) grown on potato dextrose agar (PDA) exhibited the highest DPPH and ABTS radical-scavenging capability with IC50 values of 0.717 ± 0.012 mg ml-1 and 0.787 ± 0.027 mg ml-1, respectively. Furthermore, five known secondary metabolites 1-5 were isolated and identified from HL-14. Compounds 1 and 5 exhibited weak antioxidant activity.

5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(2)2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440785

RESUMO

Graph convolutional networks (GCNs) have brought considerable improvement to the skeleton-based action recognition task. Existing GCN-based methods usually use the fixed spatial graph size among all the layers. It severely affects the model's abilities to exploit the global and semantic discriminative information due to the limits of receptive fields. Furthermore, the fixed graph size would cause many redundancies in the representation of actions, which is inefficient for the model. The redundancies could also hinder the model from focusing on beneficial features. To address those issues, we proposed a plug-and-play channel adaptive merging module (CAMM) specific for the human skeleton graph, which can merge the vertices from the same part of the skeleton graph adaptively and efficiently. The merge weights are different across the channels, so every channel has its flexibility to integrate the joints. Then, we build a novel shallow graph convolutional network (SGCN) based on the module, which achieves state-of-the-art performance with less computational cost. Experimental results on NTU-RGB+D and Kinetics-Skeleton illustrates the superiority of our methods.

6.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 303: 113705, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359665

RESUMO

The present study aimed to investigate the effect of ghrelin on the degree of bursa of Fabricius (BF) fibrosis in infectious bursal disease virus-infected chickens. Specific pathogen free (SPF) chicks were divided into four groups. One group was used as the control ("C"). The other three groups were inoculated with IBDV on the 19th day, of which two were injected intraperitoneally with 0.5 nmol ("LG") or 1.0 nmol ("HG") ghrelin/100 g weight from the 18th day to the 22nd day, and one was injected intraperitoneally with PBS ("I"). Hematoxylin-eosin staining, Masson's staining, and quantitative real-time PCR were used to determine the effects of ghrelin on the degree of inflammatory cell infiltration, the bursal fibrosis degree, and the expression of TGF-ß and MMP-9 mRNA in IBDV-infected SPF chicks. The results showed that ghrelin administration reduced the number of infiltrated inflammatory cells in BF from 5 dpi and significantly attenuated the degree of fibrosis induced by IBDV from 2 dpi to 7 dpi (P < 0.05). Moreover, the TGF-ß expression in the LG and HG groups were significantly or highly significantly lower (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01) than those of I group from 2 dpi to 5 dpi. In addition, ghrelin administration downregulated MMP-9 expression evoked by IBDV from 2 dpi to 7 dpi (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). These results suggested that ghrelin attenuated the bursal fibrosis degree of IBDV-infected SPF chicks by reducing the number of inflammatory cells and by decreasing the expression of TGF-ß and MMP-9, which shortened the process of bursa recovery.

7.
Microb Pathog ; : 104601, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137404

RESUMO

Interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) are a family of transcription factors that play a role in a variety of biological processes including immune regulation of interferon and expression of inflammatory cytokines. However, the data on IRFs are rather limited in chickens. In the present study, qRT-PCR was used to study the tissue distribution of IRFs in chickens at D15 (the 15th day of raising) and developmental changes of all chIRFs (Chicken interferon regulatory factors) in BF from E15 (the 15th day of incubation) to D15. The effects of IBDV infection with chickens on the transcriptional level of chIRFs were also investigated. The results showed: (1) chIRF1 mRNA was expressed much more abundantly in intestinal tract, chIRF2, chIRF6, chIRF7, chIRF8 and chIRF10 distributed mainly in liver or/and kidney. The expression of chIRF5 was mainly in spleen and chIRF4 distributed uniquely abundantly in BF. (2) The mRNA expression levels of chIRF5, chIRF7, chIRF8 and chIRF10 was low before hatching of chicken and at D1 and increased significantly from D5 till to the experiment end and the fold change of chIRF5 at D10 and chIRF7 at D5 reached 41.0-fold and 15.7-fold compared to that of E15, respectively (P < 0.05). ChIRF4 mRNA level was always high during the whole experiment except for E15 and it was 11.9-fold at the highest time point than that of E15 (the lowest time point). (3) When chicken was infected with IBDV, the expression levels of chIRF2, chIRF7 and chIRF10 mRNA had the tendency of increasing first and then decreasing but they peaked at 1dpi, 2 dpi, and 3dpi, respectively. The expression of chIRF5 mRNA was suppressed obviously during the whole experiment stage in IBDV-infected chicken. And chIRF4 expression was up-regulated transitorily at 1dpi and then was suppressed on a very low level till to the experiment end. Conclusion: The chIRFs were constitutively expressed in different tissues examined and has tissue-specific expression. Of them, chIRF2, chIRF4, chIRF5, chIRF7, chIRF8 and chIRF10 were related closely with the development or immune response of BF, and when chicken was infected with IBDV, some of them were activated, earlier or later on, some of them were suppressed. These findings would help to sieve out a few antiviral chIRF candidate gene to improve the host's innate immune and provide a foundation of the further exploiting a new vaccine adjuvant.

8.
Poult Sci ; 99(11): 5399-5406, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33142456

RESUMO

Studies demonstrated that chicken ghrelin mRNA was expressed in immune organs of chicken. However, it was not known for its functions in chicken immune system. This study aimed to investigate the effects of ghrelin on infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV)-induced acute inflammatory and bursal injury. Chickens were divided into 4 groups. One group was used as control ("C"). The other three groups incubated with IBDV on the 19th d, of which 2 were injected intraperitoneally with 0.5 nmol ("LG") or 1.0 nmol ("HG") ghrelin/100g body weight from 18th to 22nd d, respectively, and one was injected intraperitoneally with PBS ("I"). Results showed that cytokines including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1ß, and IL-8 mRNA expression in I group were upregulated significantly after chickens infected with IBDV from 1 d post-infection (dpi) to 3 dpi (P < 0.05). However, the expression level of IL-6, IL-1ß, and IL-8 mRNA in LG and HG groups was 7.3, ∼43.3% as much as that of the I group at 2 dpi and 3 dpi (P < 0.05). Moreover, ghrelin administration attenuated significantly the bursal injury from 1 dpi to 7 dpi and prevents the reduction of bird weight gain at 5 dpi and 7 dpi, which were induced by IBDV (P < 0.05). The results indicated that ghrelin could play an important role in the immune system of chicken.

9.
J Appl Clin Med Phys ; 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128499

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Position accuracy of the multi-leaf collimator (MLC) is essential in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). This study is aimed to investigate the dosimetric impacts of the MU-weighted MLC positioning uncertainties of SBRT for patients with early stage peripheral non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Three types of MLC position error were simulated: Type 1, random error; Type 2, system shift, in which both MLC banks shifted to the left or right direction; and Type 3, in which both MLC banks moved with same magnitudes in the opposite directions. Two baseline plans were generated: an automatic plan (AP) and a manually optimized plan (MP). Multi-leaf collimator position errors were introduced to generate simulated plans with the preset MLC leaf position errors, which were then reimported into the Pinnacle system to generate simulated plans, respectively. The dosimetric parameters (CI, nCI, GI, etc.) and gEUD values of PTV and OARs were calculated. Linear regression between MU-weighted/unweighted MLC position error and gEUD was performed to obtain dose sensitivity. RESULTS: The dose sensitivities of the PTVs were -4.93, -38.94, -41.70, -55.55, and 30.33 Gy/mm for random, left shift, right shift, system close, and system open MLC errors, respectively. There were significant differences between the MU-weighted and the unweighted dose sensitivity, which was -38.94 Gy/mm vs -3.42 Gy/mm (left shift), -41.70 Gy/mm vs -3.56 Gy/mm (right shift), -55.55 Gy/mm vs -4.84 Gy/mm (system close), and 30.33 vs 2.64 Gy/mm (system open). For the system open/close MLC errors, as the PTV volume became larger, the dose sensitivity decreased. APs provided smaller dose sensitivity for the system shift and system close MLC errors compared to the conventional MPs. CONCLUSIONS: There was significant difference in dose sensitivity between MU-weighted and unweighted MLC position error of SBRT radiotherapy in peripheral NSCLC. MU is suggested to be included in the dosimetric evaluation of the MLC misalignments, since it is much closer to clinical radiotherapy.

10.
Strahlenther Onkol ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Frameless stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) requires dedicated systems to monitor patient motion in order to avoid inaccurate radiation delivery due to involuntary shifts. The purpose of this study is to assess the accuracy and sensitivity of two distinct motion monitoring systems used for frameless SRS. METHODS: A surface image-guided system known as optical surface monitoring system (OSMS), and a fiducial marker-based system known as high definition motion management (HDMM) as part of the latest Gamma Knife Icon® were compared. A 3D printer-based cranial motion phantom was developed to evaluate the accuracy and sensitivity of these two systems in terms of: (1) the capability to recognize predefined shifts up to 3 cm, and (2) the capability to recognize predefined speeds up to 3 cm/s. The performance of OSMS, in terms of different reference surfaces, was also evaluated. RESULTS: Translational motion could be accurately detected by both systems, with an accuracy of 0.3 mm for displacement up to 1 cm, and 0.5 mm for larger displacements. The reference surface selection had an impact on OSMS performance, with flat surface resulting in less accuracy. HDMM was in general more sensitive when compared with OSMS in capturing the motion, due to its faster frame rate, but a delay in response was observed with faster speeds. Both systems were less sensitive in detection of superior-inferior motion when compared to lateral or vertical displacement directions. CONCLUSION: Translational motion can be accurately and sensitively detected by OSMS and HDMM real-time monitoring systems. However, performance variations were observed along different motion directions, as well as amongst the selection of reference images. Caution is needed when using real-time monitoring systems for frameless SRS treatment.

11.
Molecules ; 25(17)2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867101

RESUMO

Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma is regarded as one of the most popular and commonly used herbal medicines and has been used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescriptions for over 2000 years. Pentacyclic triterpene saponins are common secondary metabolites in these plants, which are synthesized via the isoprenoid pathway to produce a hydrophobic triterpenoid aglycone containing a hydrophilic sugar chain. This paper systematically summarizes the chemical structures of triterpene saponins in Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and reviews and updates their main biological activities studies. Furthermore, the solubilization characteristics, influences, and mechanisms of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma are elaborated. Solubilization of the triterpene saponins from Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma occurs because they contain the nonpolar sapogenin and water-soluble sidechain. The possible factors affecting the solubilization of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma are mainly other crude drugs and the pH of the decoction. Triterpene saponins represented by glycyrrhizin from Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma characteristically form micelles due to amphiphilicity, which makes solubilization possible. This overview provides guidance regarding a better understanding of GlycyrrhizaeRadix et Rhizoma and its TCM compatibility, alongside a theoretical basis for the further development and utilization of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966222

RESUMO

The iterative design of radiotherapy treatment plans is time-consuming and labor-intensive. In order to provide a guidance to treatment planning, Asymmetric network (A-Net) is proposed to predict the optimal 3D dose distribution for lung cancer patients. A-Net was trained and tested in 392 lung cancer cases with the prescription doses of 50Gy and 60Gy. In A-Net, the encoder and decoder are asymmetric, able to preserve input in-formation and to adapt the limitation of GPU memory. Squeeze and excitation (SE) units are used to improve the data-fitting ability. A loss function involving both the dose distribution and prescription dose as ground truth are designed. In the experiment, A-Net is separately trained and tested in the 50Gy and 60Gy da-taset and most of the metrics A-Net achieve similar performance as HD-Unet and 3D-Unet, and some metrics slightly better. In the 50Gy-and-60Gy-combined dataset, most of the A-Net's metrics perform better than the other two. In conclusion, A-Net can ac-curately predict the IMRT dose distribution in the three datasets of 50Gy and 50Gy-and-60Gy-combined dataset.

13.
J Biol Chem ; 295(40): 13798-13811, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737199

RESUMO

Transforming growth factor ß (TGFß) signaling plays an important role in regulating tumor malignancy, including in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The major biological responses of TGFß signaling are determined by the effector proteins SMAD2 and SMAD3. However, the regulators of TGFß-SMAD signaling are not completely revealed yet. Here, we showed that the scaffolding protein PDLIM5 (PDZ and LIM domain protein 5, ENH) critically promotes TGFß signaling by maintaining SMAD3 stability in NSCLC. First, PDLIM5 was highly expressed in NSCLC compared with that in adjacent normal tissues, and high PDLIM5 expression was associated with poor outcome. Knockdown of PDLIM5 in NSCLC cells decreased migration and invasion in vitro and lung metastasis in vivo In addition, TGFß signaling and TGFß-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition was repressed by PDLIM5 knockdown. Mechanistically, PDLIM5 knockdown resulted in a reduction of SMAD3 protein levels. Overexpression of SMAD3 reversed the TGFß-signaling-repressing and anti-migration effects induced by PDLIM5 knockdown. Notably, PDLIM5 interacted with SMAD3 but not SMAD2 and competitively suppressed the interaction between SMAD3 and its E3 ubiquitin ligase STUB1. Therefore, PDLIM5 protected SMAD3 from STUB1-mediated proteasome degradation. STUB1 knockdown restored SMAD3 protein levels, cell migration, and invasion in PDLIM5-knockdown cells. Collectively, our findings indicate that PDLIM5 is a novel regulator of basal SMAD3 stability, with implications for controlling TGFß signaling and NSCLC progression.

15.
Life Sci ; 259: 118244, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791145

RESUMO

AIM: Protein therapeutics have potential to elicit immune responses resulting in undesirable anti-drug antibodies (ADA) that might affect product efficacy and patient safety, and should be assessed in animals before applying the treatment to humans. In this paper, we aim to assess the immunogenicity and toxicokinetics of the mono-PEGylated recombinant human interleukin-11 (rhIL-11), a novel protein therapeutic for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia, in repeated administration to cynomolgus monkeys. MAIN METHODS: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods were developed to measure ADA responses and plasma PEGylated IL-11 (PEG-IL11) concentration in monkeys. Assay parameters of immunogenicity and toxicokinetics methods were evaluated during validation in accordance with regulatory guidelines. We also employed cell-based assays to test the neutralizing activity of ADA provoked in monkeys. KEY FINDINGS: The results showed that weak immunogenicity occurred in some monkeys after receiving repeated dose of 0.1-0.3 mg/kg by subcutaneous administration and disappeared after the recovery period. More pronounced immunogenicity occurred at high dose of 0.9 mg/kg, with a higher positive rate and titer, and some ADAs had neutralizing activity, but it can be greatly reduced after recovery. Such ADAs generated in monkeys may be accounted for the plasma toxicokinetics changes of PEG-IL11 and a minor reduction in systemic exposure. SIGNIFICANCE: These methods have been successfully applied to immunogenicity and toxicokinetic studies of PEG-IL11 in repeated dose toxicity following subcutaneous administration to monkeys, and could be successfully used in clinical trials after some modifications.


Assuntos
Interleucina-11/imunologia , Interleucina-11/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Humanos , Fenômenos Imunogenéticos/genética , Fenômenos Imunogenéticos/fisiologia , Interleucina-11/metabolismo , Macaca fascicularis/imunologia , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Polietilenoglicóis/farmacologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Toxicocinética
16.
IEEE Trans Med Imaging ; 39(8): 2653-2663, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730215

RESUMO

Segmentation of pneumonia lesions from CT scans of COVID-19 patients is important for accurate diagnosis and follow-up. Deep learning has a potential to automate this task but requires a large set of high-quality annotations that are difficult to collect. Learning from noisy training labels that are easier to obtain has a potential to alleviate this problem. To this end, we propose a novel noise-robust framework to learn from noisy labels for the segmentation task. We first introduce a noise-robust Dice loss that is a generalization of Dice loss for segmentation and Mean Absolute Error (MAE) loss for robustness against noise, then propose a novel COVID-19 Pneumonia Lesion segmentation network (COPLE-Net) to better deal with the lesions with various scales and appearances. The noise-robust Dice loss and COPLE-Net are combined with an adaptive self-ensembling framework for training, where an Exponential Moving Average (EMA) of a student model is used as a teacher model that is adaptively updated by suppressing the contribution of the student to EMA when the student has a large training loss. The student model is also adaptive by learning from the teacher only when the teacher outperforms the student. Experimental results showed that: (1) our noise-robust Dice loss outperforms existing noise-robust loss functions, (2) the proposed COPLE-Net achieves higher performance than state-of-the-art image segmentation networks, and (3) our framework with adaptive self-ensembling significantly outperforms a standard training process and surpasses other noise-robust training approaches in the scenario of learning from noisy labels for COVID-19 pneumonia lesion segmentation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Aprendizado Profundo , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Algoritmos , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pandemias
17.
J Appl Clin Med Phys ; 21(9): 134-142, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700823

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The number of dose-limiting shells in the optimization process is one of the key factors determining the quality of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) auto-planning in the Pinnacle treatment planning system (TPS). This study attempted to derive the optimal number of shells by evaluating the auto-plans designed with different number of shells for peripheral lung cancer patients treated with SBRT. METHODS: Identical treatment technique, optimization process, constraints, and dose calculation algorithm in the Pinnacle TPS were retrospectively applied to 50 peripheral lung cancer patients who underwent SBRT in our center. For each of the patients, auto-plans were optimized based on two shells, three shells, four shells, five shells, six shells, seven shells, eight shells, respectively. The optimal number of shells for the SBRT auto-planning was derived through the evaluations and comparisons of various dosimetric parameters of planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OARs), monitor units (MU), and optimization time of the plans. RESULTS: The conformity index (CI) and the gradient index (GI) of PTV, the maximum dose outside the 2 cm of PTV (D2cm ), Dmax of spinal cord (SCmax ), the percentage of volume of total lung excluding ITV receiving 20 Gy (V20) and 10 Gy (V10), and the mean lung dose (MLD) were improved when the number of shell increased, but the improvement became not significant as the number of shell reached six. The monitor units (MUs) varied little among different plans where no statistical differences were found. However, as the number of shell increased, the auto-plan optimization time increased significantly. CONCLUSIONS: It appears that for peripheral lung SBRT plan using six shells can yield satisfactory plan quality with acceptable beam MUs and optimization time in the Pinnacle TPS.

18.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 8: 278, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32509771

RESUMO

Background: Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a worldwide problem, and a major cause of perinatal morbidity. The precise molecular mechanisms involved in placental development and function during FGR remain poorly understood. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are important biological molecules associated with disease pathogenesis. However, the role of circRNAs in FGR has not been well studied. Methods: circRNA expression profiles in placental tissues with and without FGR were identified by circRNA microarray. circRNA expression was verified by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) assay. The effect of hsa_circ_0000848 and hsa-miR-6768-5p on HTR-8 cell apoptosis, migration, and invasion was evaluated. The association between hsa_circ_0000848 and hsa-miR-6768-5p was confirmed by dual luciferase activity and anti-AGO2 RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assays. Protein levels were examined via western blotting. Results: RT-qPCR results showed that hsa_circ_0000848 expression was significantly down-regulated in FGR placenta. Hsa_circ_0000848 overexpression and hsa-miR-6768-5p inhibitor suppressed apoptosis, and promoted cell migration and invasion. In addition, hsa_circ_0000848 overexpression and hsa-miR-6768-5p inhibitor increased the protein abundance of BCL2, MMP2 and MMP9, and decreased the protein abundance of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9, and BAX, whereas hsa_circ_0000848 knockdown caused the opposite effect. Moreover, a significant increase in hsa-miR-6768-5p expression and a negative correlation between hsa_circ_0000848 and hsa-miR-6768-5p were identified in the FGR tissues. Luciferase reporter and RIP assay results revealed binding of hsa-miR-6768-5p to hsa_circ_0000848. Furthermore, hsa-miR-6768-5p overexpression eliminated the effect of hsa_circ_0000848 overexpression in HTR-8 cells. Conclusions: hsa_circ_0000848 expression is significantly down-regulated in the FGR placenta. hsa_circ_0000848 promotes trophoblast cell migration and invasion, and inhibits cell apoptosis via the sponging of hsa-miR-6768-5p. Our study provided a novel insight into mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of FGR, as well as into new strategies for the treatment of FGR.

19.
Biomed Mater Eng ; 31(3): 143-155, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Snoring source analysis is essential for an appropriate surgical decision for both simple snorers and obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) patients. OBJECTIVE: As snoring sounds carry significant information about tissue vibrations within the upper airway, a new feature entitled compressed histogram of oriented gradients (CHOG) is proposed to recognize vibration patterns of the snoring source acoustically by compressing histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) descriptors via the multilinear principal component analysis (MPCA) algorithm. METHODS: Each vibration pattern corresponds to a sole or combinatorial vibration among the four upper airway soft tissues of soft palate, lateral pharyngeal wall, tongue base, and epiglottis. 1037 snoring events from noncontact sound recordings of 76 simple snorers or OSAHS patients during drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) were evaluated. RESULTS: With a support vector machine (SVM) as the classifier, the proposed CHOG achieved a recognition accuracy of 89.8% for the seven observable vibration patterns of the snoring source categorized in our most recent work. CONCLUSION: The CHOG outperforms other single features widely used for acoustic analysis of sole vibration site.

20.
Plant Sci ; 296: 110460, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539996

RESUMO

Drought is one of the most common abiotic stresses, and can limit wheat yield, crops and productivity. GAPCs play vital roles under drought stress conditions in multiple species. The aim of this experiment was to determine the regulatory mechanism of TaGAPC5 under drought stress. In this study, the genes and promoters of TaGAPC5 in diverse drought-tolerant cultivars were cloned. The amino acid sequences were conserved, while the promoter fragments were not identical. Under abiotic stress, the expression level of TaGAPC5 was substantially different among the diverse drought-tolerant cultivars and the promoter activities were significantly improved. The yeast one-hybrid system and Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) demonstrated that TaWRKYs bound to specific W-boxes: TaWRKY28, TaWRKY33, TaWRKY40 and TaWRKY47 bind to G/ATGACG/C/A, C/G/ATGACG, C/ATGACC and C/ATGACC/G, respectively. By analyzing different 5' deletion mutants of these promoters, it was determined that these W-boxes in CW-TaGAPC5 promoter (-1262, -1202, -904, -880 and -207) and ZY-TaGAPC5 promoter (-697 and -220) bound by these four TaWRKYs and were functional under drought stress. The deletion or addition of specific W-boxes in the promoter fragments significantly restrained or advanced the promoter activity under drought stress, and these results further confirmed that these W-boxes play vital roles in improving transcription levels under drought stress. The W-boxes in CW-TaGAPC5P (-1262, -1202, -904, -880 and -207) and ZY-TaGAPC5P (-697 and -220) were identified as the key cis-elements for responding to drought stress and were bound by the transcription factor TaWRKY.

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