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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(24)2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33302393

RESUMO

Satellite altimeters can be used to derive long-term and large-scale sea ice thickness changes. Sea ice thickness retrieval is based on measurements of freeboard, and the conversion of freeboard to thickness requires knowledge of the snow depth and snow, sea ice, and sea water densities. However, these parameters are difficult to be observed concurrently with altimeter measurements. The uncertainties in these parameters inevitably cause uncertainties in sea ice thickness estimations. This paper introduces a new method based on least squares adjustment (LSA) to estimate Arctic sea ice thickness with CryoSat-2 measurements. A model between the sea ice freeboard and thickness is established within a 5 km × 5 km grid, and the model coefficients and sea ice thickness are calculated using the LSA method. Based on the newly developed method, we are able to derive estimates of the Arctic sea ice thickness for 2010 through 2019 using CryoSat-2 altimetry data. Spatial and temporal variations of the Arctic sea ice thickness are analyzed, and comparisons between sea ice thickness estimates using the LSA method and three CryoSat-2 sea ice thickness products (Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI), Centre for Polar Observation and Modelling (CPOM), and NASA Goddard Space Flight Centre (GSFC)) are performed for the 2018-2019 Arctic sea ice growth season. The overall differences of sea ice thickness estimated in this study between AWI, CPOM, and GSFC are 0.025 ± 0.640 m, 0.143 ± 0.640 m, and -0.274 ± 0.628 m, respectively. Large differences between the LSA and three products tend to appear in areas covered with thin ice due to the limited accuracy of CryoSat-2 over thin ice. Spatiotemporally coincident Operation IceBridge (OIB) thickness values are also used for validation. Good agreement with a difference of 0.065 ± 0.187 m is found between our estimates and the OIB results.

2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5248, 2020 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067419

RESUMO

Cancer has no borders: Generation and analysis of molecular data across multiple centers worldwide is necessary to gain statistically significant clinical insights for the benefit of patients. Here we conceived and standardized a proteotype data generation and analysis workflow enabling distributed data generation and evaluated the quantitative data generated across laboratories of the international Cancer Moonshot consortium. Using harmonized mass spectrometry (MS) instrument platforms and standardized data acquisition procedures, we demonstrate robust, sensitive, and reproducible data generation across eleven international sites on seven consecutive days in a 24/7 operation mode. The data presented from the high-resolution MS1-based quantitative data-independent acquisition (HRMS1-DIA) workflow shows that coordinated proteotype data acquisition is feasible from clinical specimens using such standardized strategies. This work paves the way for the distributed multi-omic digitization of large clinical specimen cohorts across multiple sites as a prerequisite for turning molecular precision medicine into reality.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massas/normas , Medicina de Precisão/normas , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/química , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Proteoma/química , Proteoma/genética , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Proteômica/normas , Padrões de Referência , Fluxo de Trabalho
3.
Animals (Basel) ; 10(8)2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823578

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of broiler breeder dietary vitamin E and egg storage time on the egg characteristics, hatchability, and antioxidant status of the egg yolks and newly hatched chicks. A total of 512 71-week-old Ross 308 breeder hens were fed the same basic diets containing 6 or 100 mg/kg vitamin E for 12 weeks. During this time, a total of 1532, 1464, and 1316 eggs were independently collected at weeks 8, 10, and 12, respectively, and subsequently stored for 0 or 14 d before hatching. The outcomes from three trials showed that prolonged egg storage time (14 vs. 0 d) negatively affected (p < 0.05) the egg characteristics, hatchability traits, and the yolk total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) (p < 0.05). Chicks derived from the stored eggs exhibited higher malonaldehyde (MDA) and T-AOC in the serum and yolk sac (p < 0.05). Broiler breeder dietary vitamin E (100 vs. 6 mg/kg) increased (p < 0.05) the hatchability and the antioxidant status of the yolks as indicated by a higher α-tocopherol content and T-AOC and lower MDA level (p < 0.05). The supplementation of vitamin E also remarkably increased (p < 0.05) the total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity (yolk sac, weeks 8 and 12) and T-AOC (serum, weeks 8, 10, and 12; yolk sac, weeks 8 and 12) and decreased (p < 0.05) the MDA content of chicks (yolk sac, week 10; serum, week 12). Interactions (p < 0.05) were found between the broiler breeder dietary vitamin E and egg storage time on the hatchability and antioxidant status of chick tissues. Broiler breeder dietary vitamin E (100 vs. 6 mg/kg) increased (p < 0.05) the hatchability and the T-AOC in the serum and liver of chicks, and decreased (p < 0.05) the early embryonic mortality and the MDA content in the yolk sacs of chicks derived from eggs stored for 14 d but not for 0 d. In conclusion, prolonged egg storage time (14 vs. 0 d) increased the embryonic mortality, decreased the hatchability, and impaired the antioxidant status of egg yolks and newly hatched chicks, while the addition of broiler breeder dietary vitamin E (100 vs. 6 mg/kg) could partly relieve these adverse impacts induced by long-term egg storage.

4.
Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics ; 18(2): 104-119, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795611

RESUMO

To address the increasing need for detecting and validating protein biomarkers in clinical specimens, mass spectrometry (MS)-based targeted proteomic techniques, including the selected reaction monitoring (SRM), parallel reaction monitoring (PRM), and massively parallel data-independent acquisition (DIA), have been developed. For optimal performance, they require the fragment ion spectra of targeted peptides as prior knowledge. In this report, we describe a MS pipeline and spectral resource to support targeted proteomics studies for human tissue samples. To build the spectral resource, we integrated common open-source MS computational tools to assemble a freely accessible computational workflow based on Docker. We then applied the workflow to generate DPHL, a comprehensive DIA pan-human library, from 1096 data-dependent acquisition (DDA) MS raw files for 16 types of cancer samples. This extensive spectral resource was then applied to a proteomic study of 17 prostate cancer (PCa) patients. Thereafter, PRM validation was applied to a larger study of 57 PCa patients and the differential expression of three proteins in prostate tumor was validated. As a second application, the DPHL spectral resource was applied to a study consisting of plasma samples from 19 diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients and 18 healthy control subjects. Differentially expressed proteins between DLBCL patients and healthy control subjects were detected by DIA-MS and confirmed by PRM. These data demonstrate that the DPHL supports DIA and PRM MS pipelines for robust protein biomarker discovery. DPHL is freely accessible at https://www.iprox.org/page/project.html?id=IPX0001400000.

5.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 2685310, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32831991

RESUMO

The storage and preparation of corn for animal feed inevitably lead to lipid and protein peroxidation. Granulosa cells play an important role in follicular development in the ovaries, and hen laying productivity is likely to be dependent on follicle health and number. We hypothesized that oxidized oil and protein induce apoptosis via oxidative stress in laying hen granulosa cells. A sample of 360 38-week-old Lohmann commercial laying hens was used in a 2 × 2 factorial design for 8 weeks. Dietary treatments included dietary oil (fresh corn oil (FO) or oxidized corn oil (OO)) and corn gluten meal (fresh corn gluten meal (FP) or oxidized corn gluten meal (OP)). Productivity, ovarian histology, granulosa cell apoptosis, and indicators of oxidative stress were evaluated in all groups. Both dietary OO and OP decreased egg production and the average daily feed intake (ADFI) of laying hens. Flow cytometry, TUNEL, and real-time PCR revealed that both dietary OO and OP induced granulosa cell apoptosis in prehierarchical and hierarchical follicles. Furthermore, dietary OO and OP caused oxidative stress in prehierarchical and hierarchical follicles, as indicated by the downregulation of antioxidant-related-gene expression. Moreover, forkhead box O1 (FoxO1), extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK), and c-Jun NH2 kinase (JNK) are involved in potential apoptosis regulation pathways in the granulosa cells of laying hens fed OO and OP, as indicated by the upregulation of FoxO1 expression and downregulation of ERK/JNK expression. These results indicate that OO and OP induce granulosa cell apoptosis via oxidative stress, and the combined use of OO and OP aggravates the adverse effects of oxidative stress in laying hens.

6.
Microorganisms ; 8(5)2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443502

RESUMO

Growing concern for public health and food safety has prompted a special interest in developing nutritional strategies for removing waterborne and foodborne pathogens, including Salmonella. Strong links between manganese (Mn) and intestinal barrier or immune function hint that dietary Mn supplementation is likely to be a promising approach to limit the loads of pathogens in broilers. Here, we provide evidence that Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium, 4 × 108 CFUs) challenge-induced intestinal injury along with systemic Mn redistribution in broilers. Further examining of the effect of dietary Mn treatments (a basal diet plus additional 0, 40, or 100 mg Mn/kg for corresponding to Mn-deficient, control, or Mn-surfeit diet, respectively) on intestinal barrier and inflammation status of broilers infected with S. Typhimurium revealed that birds fed the control and Mn-surfeit diets exhibited improved intestinal tight junctions and microbiota composition. Even without Salmonella infection, dietary Mn deficiency alone increased intestinal permeability by impairing intestinal tight junctions. In addition, when fed the control and Mn-surfeit diets, birds showed decreased Salmonella burdens in cecal content and spleen, with a concomitant increase in inflammatory cytokine levels in spleen. Furthermore, the dietary Mn-supplementation-mediated induction of cytokine production was probably associated with the nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB)/hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) pathway, as judged by the enhanced manganese superoxide dismutase activity and the increased H2O2 level in mitochondria, together with the increased mRNA level of NF-κB in spleen. Ingenuity-pathway analysis indicated that acute-phase response pathways, T helper type 1 pathway, and dendritic cell maturation were significantly activated by the dietary Mn supplementation. Our data suggest that dietary Mn supplementation could enhance intestinal barrier and splenic inflammatory response to fight against Salmonella infection in broilers.

7.
Poult Sci ; 99(1): 430-440, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416828

RESUMO

The tea polyphenol (TP) can improve the egg albumen quality in laying hens; however, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms and proteomic changes in the egg albumen remains limited. A total of 720 layers (35-wk-old) were allocated into 5 treatments with TP and were added at 0 (control), 200 (TP200), 400 (TP400), 600 (TP600), and 800 (TP800) mg/kg. It showed that 400 mg/kg TP increases albumen height and Haugh unit (quadratic effect, P < 0.01), while 400 mg/kg TP decreases gel strength, hardness, gumminess, and chewiness value in a quadratic manner (P = 0.01). Eggs from TP400-fed layers had highest reducing power and oxygen radical absorbance capacity, and lowest albumen malondialdehyde content (quadratic effect, P < 0.05). Through Tandem Mass Tag-based quantitative proteomics analysis, 258 proteins were identified and 31 differentially accumulated proteins in egg white affected by 400 mg/kg TP compared to control group, with 19 proteins upregulated and 12 proteins downregulated. A total of 11 binding proteins (A0A1D5PZE3, F1NTQ2, Q7SX63, F1NRV5, P24802, A0A1L1RM02, E1BTX1, A0A1L1RMF4, A0A1D5P1N3, A0A1L1RML6, A0A1L1RQF3), 9 immune response proteins (P10184, R4GI90, P01875, Q6IV20, Q64EU6, P02701, P08110, P0CB50, A0A1D5PQ63), and 3 cell redox homeostasis proteins (P0CB50, P20136, Q8JG64) were changed in albumen of laying hens fed TP400. The differentially expressed proteins mainly involved in pyruvate metabolism, cysteine and methionine metabolism, glutathione metabolism, glycolysis, and protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum pathway. The result gathered in this study suggested that the improving mechanism of TP on albumen quality may act through regulating binding mediation, immune function, and antioxidant activity-related proteins.

8.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 104(5): 1384-1391, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32342530

RESUMO

This research aims to evaluate the effects of maternal vitamin E (VE) dietary supplementation on the egg characteristics, hatchability and antioxidant status of the embryo and newly hatched chicks of prolonged storage eggs. A total of 576 75-week-old Ross 308 breeder hens were randomly allocated into three dietary VE treatments (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) with 6 replicates of 32 hens, for a 12-week feeding trial. At week 12, a total of 710 eggs were collected over a 5-day period, and eggs per treatment were attributed into 5 replicates and stored for 14 days until incubation. The egg yolk, trunk and head of 7-day-old embryo and the serum, liver, brain and yolk sac of newly hatched chicks were sampled for the evaluation of antioxidant status. Results showed that as maternal dietary VE levels increased, yolk α-tocopherol concentration increased (p < .05). Compared with 100 mg/kg VE, the use of 200 and 400 mg/kg VE increased the hatchability of set/fertile eggs and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) of liver and serum in chicks (p < .05), and decreased both the early embryonic mortality and the malondialdehyde (MDA) content of trunk and head in 7-day-old embryos (p < .05); moreover, 400 mg/kg VE increased the yolk T-AOC (p < .05) and decreased yolk and brain MDA content of chicks (p < .05). Brain T-AOC of chicks in 200 mg/kg VE group was improved compared to that of chicks in 100 mg/kg VE group (p < .05). In conclusion, maternal dietary VE at 200 or 400 mg/kg could increase hatchability by decreasing early embryonic mortality and increasing the antioxidant status of egg yolk, embryo and newly hatched chicks as breeder egg storage was prolonged to 14-18 days. The suitable VE level for the broiler breeder diet was 200 mg/kg as breeder egg storage was prolonged.

9.
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg ; 30(6): 879-886, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248231

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is established therapy for severe aortic stenosis patients with intermediate-, high- and prohibitive-risk for surgery. A significant challenge when expanding TAVR to low-risk and younger patients is the unknown long-term durability. High leaflet stresses have been associated with surgical bioprosthetic valve degeneration. In this study, we examined the impact of changes in valve design across 3 generations of same-sized TAVR devices on stent and leaflet stresses. METHODS: The 26-mm Edwards SAPIEN, 23, 26 and 29 mm SAPIEN XT (XT) and 26 mm SAPIEN 3 (S3) (n = 1 each) underwent micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scanning. Dynamic finite element computational simulations of 23-26 mm SAPIEN, 23-29 mm XT and 23-29 mm S3 were performed with physiological loading and micro-CT or scaled geometries. RESULTS: Peak stresses were concentrated in the commissure area and along the bottom of the suture, representing areas most likely to develop structural valve degeneration across TAVR generations. Latest-generation S3 showed greatest 99th percentile principal stress on commissural leaflets for 26 and 29 mm, and increased stresses over XT for 23 mm. Percentage of higher stress areas within the leaflets steadily increased across generations, 3.8%, 3.9% and 5.7%, respectively, for 26 mm SAPIEN, XT and S3 with similar trend for 29-mm valves. CONCLUSIONS: Using computational simulations based on high-fidelity modelling of balloon-expandable TAVRs, our study demonstrated that maximum stress areas existed in similar leaflet locations across SAPIEN generations, while the latest model S3 had the highest magnitude for both 26- and 29-mm valves. S3 also had the largest area of higher stresses than other generations, which would be prone to degeneration. Our study coupled with future long-term clinical outcomes >10 years will provide insight on biomechanics of TAVR degeneration.

10.
Poult Sci ; 99(3): 1705-1716, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115038

RESUMO

Vanadium (V) is an ultratrace metal with the insulin-tropic properties and is often researched as the diabetes drug. However, in animals, V has been reported to have toxic effects on the development, immunity, oxidation-reduction equilibrium, gastrointestinal function, and so forth. Especially in poultry, supplementation of more than 10 mg of V/kg in the layer diets has been shown to adversely affect the egg production and egg quality. In this study, we supplemented 0 mg of V/kg, 5 mg of V/kg, and 10 mg of V/kg in the layer diets for 35 D and examined the quantitative proteomics of albumen for finding the possible target signaling pathway and mechanism of V action and made the preliminary verification. In contrast to the control group, V resulted in a significant drop in the albumen height, and in oviduct ampulla, the activity of total antioxidant capacity and glutathione peroxidase significantly decreased (P = 0.01, P = 0.02), the content of malonic dialdehyde significantly increased (P = 0.01), and the apoptosis rate significantly increased in the 5-mg V/kg and 10-mg V/kg treatment groups (P < 0.01). V affected 36 differentially accumulated proteins in albumen, with 23 proteins upregulated and 13 proteins downregulated. The expressions of innate protein albumen lysozyme (Q6LEL2), vitellogenin-2 (P02845), and the F1NWD0 protein in albumen belonged to the P53 family were significantly reduced, in contrast to the control (P < 0.05), and the expression of riboflavin-binding protein (P02752) was significantly improved (P < 0.05). The Hippo signaling pathway-fly, which is suitable for the key protein P53 as the most significantly affected network, might be important for discriminating V.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Clara de Ovo/análise , Proteoma , Vanádio/efeitos adversos , Animais , Galinhas , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas do Ovo/química , Feminino , Oviductos , Transdução de Sinais
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32178922

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Current guidelines for elective surgery of ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms (aTAAs) use aneurysm size as primary determinant for risk stratification of adverse events. Biomechanically, dissection may occur when wall stress exceeds wall strength. Determining patient-specific aTAA wall stresses by finite element analysis can potentially predict patient-specific risk of dissection. This study compared peak wall stresses in patients with ≥5.0 cm versus <5.0 cm aTAAs to determine correlation between diameter and wall stress. METHODS: Patients with aTAA ≥5.0 cm (n = 47) and <5.0 cm (n = 53) were studied. Patient-specific aneurysm geometries obtained from echocardiogram-gated computed tomography were meshed and prestress geometries determined. Peak wall stresses and stress distributions were determined using LS-DYNA finite element analysis software (LSTC Inc, Livermore, Calif), with user-defined fiber-embedded material models under systolic pressure. RESULTS: Peak circumferential stresses at systolic pressure were 530 ± 83 kPa for aTAA ≥5.0 cm versus 486 ± 87 kPa for aTAA <5.0 cm (P = .07), whereas peak longitudinal stresses were 331 ± 57 kPa versus 310 ± 54 kPa (P = .08), respectively. For aTAA ≥5.0 cm, correlation between peak circumferential stresses and size was 0.41, whereas correlation between peak longitudinal wall stresses and size was 0.33. However, for aTAA <5.0 cm, correlation between peak circumferential stresses and size was 0.23, whereas correlation between peak longitudinal stresses and size was 0.14. CONCLUSIONS: Peak patient-specific aTAA wall stresses overall were larger for ≥5.0 cm than aTAA <5.0 cm. Although some correlation between size and peak wall stresses was found in aTAA ≥5.0 cm, poor correlation existed between size and peak wall stresses in aTAA <5.0 cm. Patient-specific wall stresses are particularly important in determining patient-specific risk of dissection for aTAA <5.0 cm.

12.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 110(3): 807-814, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bicuspid aortic valve-associated ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms (BAV-aTAAs) carry a risk of acute type A dissection. Biomechanically, dissection may occur when wall stress exceeds wall strength. Our aim was to develop patient-specific computational models of BAV-aTAAs to determine magnitudes of wall stress by anatomic regions. METHODS: Patients with BAV-aTAA diameter greater than 4.5 cm (n = 41) underwent electrocardiogram-gated computed tomography angiography. Three-dimensional aneurysm geometries were reconstructed after accounting for prestress and loaded to systemic pressure. Finite element analyses were performed with fiber-embedded hyperelastic material model using LS-DYNA software (LSTC Inc, Livermore, CA) to obtain wall stress distributions. The 99th percentile longitudinal and circumferential stresses were determined at systole. RESULTS: The 99th percentile longitudinal wall stresses for BAV-aTAAs at sinuses of Valsalva, sinotubular junction (STJ), and ascending aorta were 361 ± 59.8 kPa, 295 ± 67.2 kPa, and 224 ± 37.6 kPa, respectively, with significant differences in ascending aorta vs sinuses (P< 1 × 10-13) and STJ (P < 1 × 10-6). The 99th percentile circumferential wall stresses were 474 ± 88.2 kPa, 634 ± 181.9 kPa, and 381 ± 54.0 kPa for sinuses, the STJ, and the ascending aorta, respectively, with significant differences in the ascending aorta vs sinuses (P = .002) and STJ (P < 1 × 10-13). CONCLUSIONS: Wall stresses, both circumferential and longitudinal, were greater in the aortic root, sinuses, and STJ than in the ascending aorta on BAV-aTAAs. These results fill a fundamental knowledge gap regarding biomechanical stress distribution in BAV-aTAA patients, which when related to wall strength may provide prognostication of aTAA dissection risk by patient-specific modeling.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/fisiopatologia , Valva Aórtica/anormalidades , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/etiologia , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Modelagem Computacional Específica para o Paciente , Resistência ao Cisalhamento/fisiologia , Resistência à Tração/fisiologia
13.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 198(1): 231-242, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31933278

RESUMO

Dietary iron (Fe) influences manganese (Mn) utilization in chickens fed with inorganic Mn-supplemented diet. This study aimed to determine if dietary Fe levels affect Mn utilization in broilers fed with organic Mn-supplemented diet. Nine hundred 8-day-old broilers were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 treatments in a 3 (Fe level) × 2 (Mn source) factorial arrangement after feeding Mn- and Fe-unsupplemented diets for 7 days. The broilers were fed the basal diets (approximately 28 mg Mn/kg and 60 mg Fe/kg) supplemented with 0, 80, or 160 mg/kg Fe (L-Fe, M-Fe, or H-Fe), and 100 mg/kg Mn from Mn sulfate (MnSO4) or manganese-lysine chelate (MnLys) for 35 days. The H-Fe diet decreased (P < 0.05) body weight gain and feed intake as compared with L-Fe and M-Fe diets regardless of dietary Mn sources. Dietary Fe levels did not influence (P > 0.10) serum Mn concentration in MnLys-treated broilers, but serum Mn concentration decreased (P < 0.05) with dietary Fe increasing in MnSO4-treated broilers. The Mn concentration in the duodenum and tibia decreased (P < 0.05) with increasing dietary Fe levels regardless of dietary Mn sources, and MnLys increased (P < 0.04) these indices as compared with MnSO4. Dietary Fe levels did not significantly influence (P > 0.11) Mn concentration and activity and mRNA abundance of manganese-containing superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in the heart of MnLys-treaded broilers, but the H-Fe diet decreased (P < 0.05) these indices in MnSO4-treated broilers as compared with M-Fe and L-Fe diets. The L-Fe diet increased (P < 0.001) duodenal divalent metal transporter 1 mRNA abundance when compared with the M-Fe and H-Fe diets on day 42, regardless of dietary Mn sources. The M-Fe and H-Fe diets decreased (P < 0.001) duodenal ferroportin 1 (FPN1) mRNA level when compared with the L-Fe diet in MnSO4-treated broilers, while dietary Fe levels did not significantly influence (P > 0.40) duodenal FPN1 mRNA abundance in MnLys-treated broilers. These results indicated dietary Fe levels decreased Mn utilization in MnSO4-treated broilers, but did not influence Mn utilization in MnLys-treated broilers evaluated by Mn concentrations in the serum and heart, and the activity and mRNA expression of heart MnSOD.

14.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 104(4): 1067-1074, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953905

RESUMO

A study was conducted to investigate the effects of oregano essential oil (EO) on growth performance, nutrients utilization, intestinal morphology, intestinal barrier-related gene expression and antioxidant capability in meat ducks. A total of 360 1-day-old ducks were divided into three groups (12 replicates pens per diet of 10 ducks in each pen): negative control (no essential oil or antibiotic), positive control (antibiotic: 500 mg/kg aureomycin of diet) and oregano EO (100 mg/kg of diet). The experiment was carried out for 35 days. Ducks were given feed and water ad libitum. Ducks fed EO supplement showed similar body weight and feed to gain ratio to antibiotic fed ducks. EO supplementation significantly increased (p < .05) feed intake (day 1-35), jejunal villus height (VH) to crypt depth (CD) ratio, serum superoxide dismutase activities (SOD) and jejunal total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) of ducks compared to controls. Ducks fed diets supplemented with oregano EO also had decreased (p < .05) jejunal CD, serum and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, and the mRNA expression of jejunal zonula occludens-3 (ZO-3) and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) genes in comparison to the control group. Compared to the antibiotic supplementation group, the mRNA expression of claudin1 (CLND1) and CLND2 significantly increased (p < .05), but the mRNA expression of ZO-3 and mucin 2 markedly decreased (p < .05) in the jejunum of ducks in oregano EO supplementation group. These results suggest that oregano EO improves the antioxidant capacity and intestinal defence and structural measures and may aide in helping to maintain enteric health in production without growth-promoting antibiotics.

15.
Mol Cell Proteomics ; 19(2): 421-430, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31888964

RESUMO

In bottom-up, label-free discovery proteomics, biological samples are acquired in a data-dependent (DDA) or data-independent (DIA) manner, with peptide signals recorded in an intact (MS1) and fragmented (MS2) form. While DDA has only the MS1 space for quantification, DIA contains both MS1 and MS2 at high quantitative quality. DIA profiles of complex biological matrices such as tissues or cells can contain quantitative interferences, and the interferences at the MS1 and the MS2 signals are often independent. When comparing biological conditions, the interferences can compromise the detection of differential peptide or protein abundance and lead to false positive or false negative conclusions.We hypothesized that the combined use of MS1 and MS2 quantitative signals could improve our ability to detect differentially abundant proteins. Therefore, we developed a statistical procedure incorporating both MS1 and MS2 quantitative information of DIA. We benchmarked the performance of the MS1-MS2-combined method to the individual use of MS1 or MS2 in DIA using four previously published controlled mixtures, as well as in two previously unpublished controlled mixtures. In the majority of the comparisons, the combined method outperformed the individual use of MS1 or MS2. This was particularly true for comparisons with low fold changes, few replicates, and situations where MS1 and MS2 were of similar quality. When applied to a previously unpublished investigation of lung cancer, the MS1-MS2-combined method increased the coverage of known activated pathways.Since recent technological developments continue to increase the quality of MS1 signals (e.g. using the BoxCar scan mode for Orbitrap instruments), the combination of the MS1 and MS2 information has a high potential for future statistical analysis of DIA data.


Assuntos
Proteômica/métodos , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans , Cerebelo/metabolismo , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Células HeLa , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas , Camundongos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae
16.
Br J Nutr ; 123(2): 172-181, 2020 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495347

RESUMO

Resistant starch (RS) was recently approved to exert a powerful influence on gut health, but the effect of RS on the caecal barrier function in meat ducks has not been well defined. Thus, the effect of raw potato starch (RPS), a widely adopted RS material, on microbial composition and barrier function of caecum for meat ducks was determined. A total of 360 Cherry Valley male ducks of 1-d-old were randomly divided and fed diets with 0 (control), 12, or 24 % RPS for 35 d. Diets supplemented with RPS significantly elevated villus height and villus height:crypt depth ratio in the caecum. The 16S rRNA sequence analysis indicated that the diet with 12 % RPS had a higher relative abundance of Firmicutes and the butyrate-producing bacteria Faecalibacterium, Subdoligranulum, and Erysipelatoclostridium were enriched in all diets. Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium were significantly increased in the 24 % RPS diet v. the control diet. When compared with the control diet, the diet with 12 % RPS was also found to notably increase acetate, propionate and butyrate contents and up-regulated barrier-related genes including claudin-1, zonula occludens-1, mucin-2 and proglucagon in the caecum. Furthermore, the addition of 12 % RPS significantly reduced plasma TNF-α, IL-1ß and endotoxin concentrations. These data revealed that diets supplemented with 12 % RPS partially improved caecal barrier function in meat ducks by enhancing intestinal morphology and barrier markers expression, modulating the microbiota composition and attenuating inflammatory markers.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Ceco/microbiologia , Patos/metabolismo , Patos/microbiologia , Amido/administração & dosagem , Animais , Ceco/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Masculino , Carne , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum
17.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 194(2): 514-524, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230207

RESUMO

To investigate the effects of dietary iron (Fe) levels on manganese (Mn) utilization, 900 8-day-old broilers were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 treatments in a 3 (Fe level) × 2 (Mn level) factorial arrangement after feeding Mn- and Fe-unsupplemented diet for 7 days. The broilers were then fed with basal corn-soybean meal diets (approximately 28 mg Mn/kg and 60 mg Fe/kg) added with 0, 80, or 160 mg/kg Fe (L-Fe, M-Fe, or H-Fe), and 0 or 100 mg/kg Mn for 35 days. Body weight gain was lower for H-Fe broilers than that for L-Fe and M-Fe broilers. On day 42, H-Fe broilers had lower serum Mn concentration as compared with L-Fe and M-Fe broilers, and tibia Mn concentration decreased as dietary Fe increased. In Mn-supplemented broilers, liver Mn was lower in L-Fe and H-Fe treatments than that in M-Fe treatment. H-Fe treatment decreased Mn concentration and manganese-containing superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity in the heart when compared with L-Fe and M-Fe treatments. Dietary Fe did not significantly influence Mn concentrations in the liver and heart, and heart MnSOD activity in Mn-unsupplemented broilers. In the duodenum, L-Fe treatment decreased divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) mRNA abundance when compared with M-Fe and H-Fe treatments, and ferroportin 1 (FPN1) mRNA level was higher in M-Fe treatment than that in L-Fe and H-Fe treatments. These results suggested H-Fe diet decreased Mn status in broilers evaluated by Mn concentrations in serum and heart, and heart MnSOD activity. Dietary Fe influenced Mn absorption possibly through effects on duodenal DMT1 and FPN1 expression.

18.
Animals (Basel) ; 9(8)2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443255

RESUMO

Organic manganese (Mn) sources can replace inorganic Mn as dietary Mn supplements in poultry. To compare the uptake of Mn from the Mn-lysine complex (MnLys) and MnSO4, we first established the primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) model and used it to determine Mn uptake. The MnLys increased the uptake of Mn compared to MnSO4. The uptake of Mn decreased in the IECs with Fe addition in the medium regardless of the Mn sources. The MnLys decreased the Mn2+ efflux transporter ferroportin 1 (FPN1) mRNA level but did not influence the Mn2+ influx transporter divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) mRNA expression when compared to MnSO4. The results above indicated that the increase of Mn accumulation for MnLys at least partly was due to the decrease of Mn efflux by reduced FPN1 expression. The addition of N-ethylmaleimide, an L-lysine transport system y+ inhibitor, decreased the uptake of Mn from MnLys but did not affect the uptake of Mn from MnSO4. The cycloheximide, as an L-lysine transport system b0,+ activator, increased the uptake of Mn from MnLys, whereas they did not influence the uptake of Mn from MnSO4. The MnLys increased the system y+ members cationic amino acid transporter (CAT) 1 and CAT2, and system b0,+ components rBAT and b0,+AT mRNA expression when compared to MnSO4. These results suggested that the uptake of MnLys complex might be transported by CAT1/2 and system b0,+, which was different from the ionized Mn2+ uptake pathway. In conclusion, the uptake of Mn from MnLys complex not only might be uptake through the ionized Mn2+ pathway, but also appeared to be transported through the CAT1/2 and system b0,+ in primary chicken IECs.

19.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 128: 212-222, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991129

RESUMO

Perchlorate, as an oxidizer, has many applications such as explosives and pyrotechnics, especially in rocket propellants and missile motors. Because it was found in water including wells and drinking water in the US, its effect on human health was being noted. However, the reproductive toxic effect on perchlorate is still unclear. In present study, the effects of repeated exposure to perchlorate on reproductive toxicity were evaluated in Wistar rats. The rats were treated orally with perchlorate at doses of 0.05, 1.00 or 10.00 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) daily for 8 weeks. The levels of T3 and T4 hormones in the rat serum were detected by radioimmunoassay kit. The indexes of reproduction, percentage of organ in body weight (%) and frequency of abnormal sperm cells were also analyzed in this study. DNA damage in testicular cells was evaluated by Comet assay. The levels of MDA, GSH and SOD were examined in testicle tissues of rats by ELISA. The expression of c-fos and fas protein was examined in testicle tissues by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that perchlorate did not affect the body weight of rats. Perchlorate also significantly decreased indexes of live birth and weaning in the groups of 1.00 and 10.00 mg/kg, and viability index only in the 10.00 mg/kg group (P < 0.05). Perchlorate also significantly decreased the serum level of T3 in male rats of 1.00 and 10.00 mg/kg groups, increased the rate of sperm abnormality (10.00 mg/kg), potentially caused DNA damage in testicular cells and altered the status of oxidative stress in male rats. In addition, because of the increase in the expression of fas and c-fos protein in testicle tissues, perchlorate could induce apoptosis in spermatogenesis. Thus, these findings indicate that perchlorate could cause DNA damage in testicular tissues and reduce testicular spermatogenic ability, resulting in reproductive toxicity.


Assuntos
Percloratos/toxicidade , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/toxicidade , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Ensaio Cometa , Dano ao DNA , Feminino , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Percloratos/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Espermatogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/metabolismo , Tiroxina/sangue , Tri-Iodotironina/sangue , Receptor fas/metabolismo
20.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 96: 165-171, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035067

RESUMO

Adverse remodeling of the left ventricle (LV) after myocardial infarction (MI) results in abnormal tissue biomechanics and impaired cardiac function, often leading to heart failure. We hypothesized that intramyocardial delivery of engineered stromal cell-derived factor 1α analog (ESA), our previously-developed supra-efficient pro-angiogenic chemokine, preserves biaxial LV mechanical properties after MI. Male Wistar rats (n = 45) underwent sham surgery (n = 15) or permanent left anterior descending coronary artery ligation. Rats sustaining MI were randomized for intramyocardial injections of either saline (100 µL, n = 15) or ESA (6 µg/kg, n = 15), delivered at four standardized borderzone sites. After 4 weeks, echocardiography was performed, and the hearts were explanted. Tensile testing of the anterolateral LV wall was performed using a displacement-controlled biaxial load frame, and modulus was determined after constitutive modeling. At 4 weeks post-MI, compared to saline controls, ESA-treated hearts had greater wall thickness (1.68 ±â€¯0.05 mm vs 1.42 ±â€¯0.08 mm, p = 0.008), smaller end-diastolic LV internal dimension (6.88 ±â€¯0.29 mm vs 7.69 ±â€¯0.22 mm, p = 0.044), and improved ejection fraction (62.8 ±â€¯3.0% vs 49.4 ±â€¯4.5%, p = 0.014). Histologic analysis revealed significantly reduced infarct size for ESA-treated hearts compared to saline controls (29.4 ±â€¯2.9% vs 41.6 ±â€¯3.1%, p = 0.021). Infarcted hearts treated with ESA exhibited decreased modulus compared to those treated with saline in both the circumferential (211.5 ±â€¯6.9 kPa vs 264.3 ±â€¯12.5 kPa, p = 0.001) and longitudinal axes (194.5 ±â€¯6.5 kPa vs 258.1 ±â€¯14.4 kPa, p < 0.001). In both principal directions, ESA-treated infarcted hearts possessed similar tissue compliance as sham non-infarcted hearts. Overall, intramyocardial ESA therapy improves post-MI ventricular remodeling and function, reduces infarct size, and preserves native LV biaxial mechanical properties.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CXCL12/genética , Quimiocina CXCL12/farmacologia , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Coração/fisiopatologia , Fenômenos Mecânicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Engenharia de Proteínas , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Remodelação Ventricular/efeitos dos fármacos
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