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1.
Food Chem ; 304: 125425, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476549

RESUMO

Ceramide 2-aminoethylphosphonate (CAEP) is a type of phosphonosphingolipids with potential trophic activity. In this work, complicated CAEP species from different aquatic products were comprehensively identified and semi-quantified by utilizing normal phase liquid chromatography/Q-Exactive mass spectrometry (NPLC/Q-Exactive-MS). We elucidated the fragment schemes of CAEP molecules and found the presence of methylated CAEP (Me-CAEP) species. Remarkably, quantitative results revealed that Loligo chinensis had the highest CAEP content of 4.9 ±â€¯0.4 mg/g dry weight and the most complex molecular species composition, whereas Asterias amurenis had the lowest CAEP content of 1.9 ±â€¯0.6 mg/g dry weight. The most common molecule was CAEP (d19:3-16:0). Additionally, statistical analysis revealed that five aquatic products can be effectively distinguished from their CAEP species; thus, CAEP molecules can play an important role in identifying processed products from aquatic products.

2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686506

RESUMO

Phospholipids have been widely used in food, medicine, cosmetics, and other fields because of their unique chemical structure and healthcare functions. Phospholipase D (PLD) is a key biocatalyst for the biotransformation of phospholipids. Here, an autodisplay expression system was constructed for rapid screening of mutants, and PLD variants were recombined using DNA shuffling technology and three beneficial mutations were obtained. The results of enzymatic performance and sequence information comparison indicated that C-terminal amino acids exerted a greater impact on the correct folding of PLDs, and N-terminal amino acids are more important for catalytic reaction. The best-performing recombinant enzyme in transphosphatidylation reactions was Recom-34, with a phosphatidylserine content accounting for 80.3% of total phospholipids and a 3.24-fold increased conversion rate compared to the parent enzyme. This study demonstrates great significance for screening ideal biocatalysts, facilitating soluble expression of inclusion body proteins, and identifying key amino acids.

3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722531

RESUMO

Recent studies have shown that neuroinflammation plays an important role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, as a vital component of innate immune system, is associated with a wide range of human central nervous system (CNS) disorders, including AD. Abundant studies have highlighted the protective effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in AD, but eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has rarely been implicated. In the present study, we compared the effects of EPA in the forms of phosphatidylcholine (EPA-PC) and ethyl esters (EPA-EE) on Aß1-42 induced neurotoxicity in AD rats. The spatial memory ability and the biochemical changes in the hippocampus were measured, including glial cells activation, TNFα production, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and autophagic flux. Present results showed that the AD rats were significantly protected from spatial memory loss by the supplementation (EPA+DHA= 60 mg/kg•d, i.g., 20 days) of EPA-PC while EPA-EE showed no significant benefit. Further mechanism studies suggested that EPA-PC could inhibit Aß-induced neurotoxicity by alleviating NLRP3 inflammasome activation and enhancing autophagy. These findings indicate that EPA could improve cognitive deficiency in Aß1-42 induced AD rats via autophagic-inflammasomal pathway and the bioactivity differs in its molecular forms.

4.
Future Med Chem ; 11(19): 2573-2593, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633396

RESUMO

Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a vital issue in cancer treatment. Drug resistance can be developed through a variety of mechanisms, including increased drug efflux, activation of detoxifying systems and DNA repair mechanisms, and escape of drug-induced apoptosis. Identifying the exact mechanism related in a particular case is a difficult task. Proteomics is the large-scale study of proteins, particularly their expression, structures and functions. In recent years, comparative proteomic methods have been performed to analyze MDR mechanisms in drug-selected model cancer cell lines. In this paper, we review the recent developments and progresses by comparative proteomic approaches to identify potential MDR mechanisms in drug-selected model cancer cell lines, which may help understand and design chemical sensitizers.

5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657926

RESUMO

EPA-enriched phosphoethanolamine plasmalogens (EPA-pPE), widely present in marine creatures, is a unique glycerophospholipid with EPA at the sn-2 position of the glycerol backbone. EPA-pPE has been reported to exhibit numerous distinctive bioactivities. However, the digestion, absorption, and metabolism characteristics of EPA-pPE in vivo are not clear, which restrict the molecular mechanism analysis related to its distinctive activities. The aim of the present study was to illustrate the digestion, absorption, and metabolism characteristics of EPA-pPE by lipid analysis in serum, intestinal wall, and content after oral administration of EPA-pPE emulsion. Results showed the EPA percentage of total fatty acids in serum was increasing over time, with two peaks at 5 and 10 h by 1.89 ± 0.2 and 2.58 ± 0.27, respectively, and then fell from 1.89 ± 0.17 at 10 h to 1.35 ± 0.16 at 16 h. In small intestinal content, EPA-pPE was hydrolyzed to lyso-phospholipids and EPA by phospholipases A2 and the vinyl ether bond was retained at the sn-1 position. The released EPA could be quickly taken up into the enterocytes and enter circulation. The comparison of simulated digestion in vitro showed that the distinct digestion and absorption process of EPA-pPE was a unique phenomenon. EPA could be retained in serum at a high level for a substantial period of time, which suggested that EPA-pPE was not just a short-lived circulating molecule.

6.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; : 1-13, 2019 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608790

RESUMO

Plasmenylethonoamine (pPE) and plasmanylcholine (aPC) are important phospholipid subclasses. Herein we explored optimum conditions for enzymatic purification and preparation of pPE and aPC from the mussel Mytilus edulis and bovine brain. Among them, pPE in Mytilus edulis PE was mainly p18:0-20:5 and p18:0-22:6, and its purity was 92.7%; aPC in PC was primarily a16:0-22:6 and a16:0-20:5, and aPC accounted for 90.2% of PC. We thereafter evaluated neurotrophic effects of Mytilus edulis pPE, aPC, and bovine brain pPE in a NGF-induced PC12 cell model. Morphologically, pPE and aPC could both promote differentiation, manifested in a significant increase in neurite length and number, due to increased expression of synaptophysin and growth protein GAP-43 in a dose-independent and structure-selective manner. Importantly, the effect on neuronal nutrition of pPE was better than aPC, and marine pPE was better than terrestrial pPE, which might be ascribed to vinyl-ether bond and differences in fatty acid composition. Abbreviations: AA: arachidonic acid; DHA: docosahexaenoic acid; EIC: extracted ion chromatogram; EPA: eicosapentanoic acid; GAP: growth-associated protein; HPLC: high-performance liquid chromatography; LC-MS/MS: liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; LPC: lyso-PC; LPE: lyso-PE; MS: mass spectrometry; NGF: nerve growth factor; PC: phosphatidylcholine; aPC: plasmanylcholine; PE: phosphatidylethanolamine; pPE: plasmenylethonoamine; PG: phosphoglycerols; PLs: phospholipids; PS: phosphoserines; TIC: total ion chromatogram.

7.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 63(21): e1900455, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444937

RESUMO

SCOPE: This study aims to elucidate the mechanisms of the anthocyanin malvidin 3-glucoside (MV) in alleviating gut dysbiosis using a murine colitis model induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). METHODS AND RESULTS: The effect of MV on the structure and function of the colon microbiome and microbial metabolism is evaluated using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, global metabolomics, and a network algorithm based on the random-matrix theory. MV ingestion improved histopathological scores and increased IL10 expression in the colon mucosa of colitis mice. While DSS has a profound effect on the gut microbiome and significantly decreases both microbial richness and evenness, MV further reduces evenness but promotes microbial interactions and restores the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio repressed by DSS. Moreover, MV reduces the abundance of pathogenic bacteria, such as Ruminococcus gnavus, in colitis mice and has a strong modulatory effect on microbial co-occurrence patterns and gut metabolites. In addition, MV reverses several key inflammatory mediators, including sphingolipid metabolites, from elevated levels in DSS colitis mice. As a bioactive ingredient, MV exerts its effect on the gut microbiome in a mechanism that differs from the whole blueberry. CONCLUSION: MV ingestion ameliorates intestinal inflammation by modulating colon epithelium integrity, gut microbiome, and key inflammatory mediators.

8.
Prog Lipid Res ; 75: 100997, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442526

RESUMO

A typical feature of marine foods is that they are rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), which have formed a large-scale global industry. DHA/EPA phospholipids (PLs) are ubiquitous in marine foods and are the main DHA/EPA molecular forms in fish roe, shrimp and shellfish. Much attention has been focused on the bioavailability and health benefits that are influenced by the type and esterified form of dietary fatty acids. Recently, numerous findings have suggested that dietary DHA/EPA-PLs are superior to the triacylglycerol (TAG) or ethyl ester forms in exerting their functional properties through specific mechanisms of action. However, there is no comprehensive review covering the health benefits of dietary marine DHA/EPA-enriched PLs. In this paper, we review publications on the nutritional functions of DHA/EPA-enriched glycerophospholipids, including the effects on brain function, antitumor activity, lipid metabolism, and glucose metabolism. The current research status regarding the active ingredients, sources, models, treatment, duration, and mechanisms are presented. In addition, the way in which the structure-activity relationship of DHA/EPA-PLs is affected by ester-bond structure at the sn-1 position, fatty acid at the sn-2 position and polar head group at the sn-3 position is also reviewed. DHA/EPA-PLs are one of the major n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid dietary forms in our diet, and we should maximize the ability to fully exploit the nutritional properties of DHA/EPA.

9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(33): 9423-9431, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329442

RESUMO

A high-throughput lipid analysis method was established to comprehensively investigate the lipid profiles of three marine (Scomberomorus niphonius, Scophthalmus maximus, and Oncorhynchus keta) and one freshwater (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) fish species using ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Over 700 molecular species from 12 major lipid subclasses were identified. Glycerolipids (73.7-85.6%) and phospholipids (PLs, 13.7-25.6%) were dominant components in total lipids. Polyunsaturated fatty acid PLs, such as phosphatidylethanolamine (PE, 16:0-22:6), PE (18:1-22:6), and phosphatidylcholine (16:0-22:6), were the major molecular species in PLs. The lipid composition of three marine fish (mainly C22:5) was significantly different from that in C. idellus (mainly C20:4 and C20:5). A unique long-chain base of sphingolipids was found in fish (mainly d19:3). These bioactive lipids were proposed to be potential biomarkers for distinguishing different fish species and evaluating nutritional values.


Assuntos
Lipídeos/química , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cyprinidae , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Linguados , Espectrometria de Massas , Oncorhynchus keta , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , Atum
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(33): 9307-9313, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352784

RESUMO

Porphyra is one of the most consumed types of red algae. Porphyran is the major polysaccharide extracted from Porphyra, and it is composed of alternating 4-linked α-l-galactopyranose-6-sulfate (L6S) and 3-linked ß-d-galactopyranose (G) residues. ß-Porphyranases are promising tools for degrading porphyran; however, few enzymes have been reported, and the biochemical properties of porphyranases are still unclear. Here, a novel GH16 ß-porphyranase, designated as Por16A_Wf, was cloned from Wenyingzhuangia fucanilytica and expressed in Escherichia coli. Its biochemical properties and hydrolysis pattern were characterized. Por16A_Wf exhibited stable activity on a wide pH scale from 3.5 to 11.0. Glycomics analysis using LC-MS revealed that Por16A_Wf specifically hydrolyzed the glycosidic linkage of G-L6S, whereas it tolerated 3,6-anhydro-α-l-galactopyranose and methyl-d-galactose in -2 and +2 subsites, respectively. Por16A_Wf could be applied as a biotechnological tool for tailoring porphyran, which would serve in directional preparation of its disaccharide, producing products with various molecular weights and facilitating investigation of the structural heterogeneity of Porphyra polysaccharides.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Flavobacteriaceae/enzimologia , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/genética , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Sefarose/análogos & derivados , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Biocatálise , Biotecnologia , Clonagem Molecular , Estabilidade Enzimática , Flavobacteriaceae/classificação , Flavobacteriaceae/genética , Flavobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise , Peso Molecular , Filogenia , Porphyra/química , Porphyra/metabolismo , Sefarose/química , Sefarose/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência
11.
J Texture Stud ; 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335981

RESUMO

Fish hydrolysates are an attractive option for preparing composite gel foods. However, not much is known regarding their gel properties. Here, we investigated the effect of the autoclaving treatment (121°C, 10 min) on the microstructure and properties of the giant squid hydrolysate-konjac glucomannan-κ-carrageenan-locust bean gum gel (GSH-P gel). The nuclear magnetic resonance proton spin-spin relaxation time (T2 ) measurements indicated that autoclaving led to stronger water-binding ability of the GSH-P gel. The rheological measurements indicated that autoclaving led to significantly higher viscoelastic modulus and gel strength. The results of confocal laser scanning microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering indicated that the phase separation of polysaccharides and proteins/peptides was enhanced by autoclaving, and the polysaccharides swelled better, resulting in less, but ordered, network structures. Autoclaving had a similar, but insignificant, positive effect on the polysaccharide (P) gel. Thus, GSH seems to play an important role in the process of polysaccharide gelation. This study shows that autoclaving can alter the structure and improve the properties of the GSH-P gel.

12.
Sci Adv ; 5(7): eaaw7935, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355338

RESUMO

The transient receptor potential canonical subfamily member 5 (TRPC5), one of seven mammalian TRPC members, is a nonselective calcium-permeant cation channel. TRPC5 is of considerable interest as a drug target in the treatment of progressive kidney disease, depression, and anxiety. Here, we present the 2.8-Å resolution cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of the mouse TRPC5 (mTRPC5) homotetramer. Comparison of the TRPC5 structure to previously determined structures of other TRPC and TRP channels reveals differences in the extracellular pore domain and in the length of the S3 helix. The disulfide bond at the extracellular side of the pore and a preceding small loop are essential elements for its proper function. This high-resolution structure of mTRPC5, combined with electrophysiology and mutagenesis, provides insight into the lipid modulation and gating mechanisms of the TRPC family of ion channels.

13.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 141: 111447, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238279

RESUMO

With increasing economic globalization, food safety is becoming the most serious concern in the food production and distribution system. Food safety hazard factors (FSHFs) can be categorized into chemical hazards, biological hazards and physical hazards, with the detection of the former two having fascinated interdisciplinary research areas spanning chemistry, material science and biological science. Molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) -based sensors overcome many limitations of traditional detection methods and provide opportunities for efficient, sensitive and low-cost detection using smart miniaturized equipment. With highly specific molecular recognition capacity and high stability in harsh chemical and physical conditions, MIPs have been used in sensing platforms such as electrochemical, optical and mass-sensitive sensors as promising alternatives to bio-receptors for food analysis. In this systemic review, we summarize recent advances of MIPs and MIP-based sensors, such as popular monomers, usual polymerization strategies, fresh modification materials and advanced sensing mechanisms. The applications of MIP-based sensors in FSHF detection are discussed according to sensing mechanisms, including electrochemistry, optics and mass-sensitivity. Finally, future perspectives and challenges are discussed.

14.
Food Funct ; 10(7): 4177-4188, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246210

RESUMO

Dietary eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a main component of fish oil, has been proved to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the anti-atherosclerosis effect of fish oil enriched with EPA partially relied on its chemical groups at the sn-3 position. Male ApoE-/- mice were divided into three groups and were fed a high-fat diet (Model) or a high-fat diet containing EPA incorporated into phospholipids (EPA-PL) or triglycerides (EPA-TG), respectively. Compared with the model group, a decrease in the area of atherosclerosis lesions at the aorta was observed in both EPA-treated groups, in which EPA-PL was superior to EPA-TG. Notably, EPA-PL exhibited lower serum and hepatic lipid levels than the model group, whereas EPA-TG only reduced the hepatic triglyceride level. Interestingly, only EPA-PL treatment regulated the expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism. In addition, EPA-PL and EPA-TG suppressed the inflammation markers in the aorta and circulation. In conclusion, EPA-PL was superior to EPA-TG in reducing lesion progression by modulating the hepatic lipid metabolism, as well as decreasing the inflammation in the artery wall and circulatory system, which might be attributed to their structural differences at the sn-3 position.

15.
Food Funct ; 10(7): 3955-3964, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199413

RESUMO

Sea cucumber saponins (SCS) exhibit a significant effect on ameliorating glucose and lipid disorders by inhibiting fatty acid biosynthesis; however, high cytotoxicity and hemolytic activity limit their application. Eicosapentaenoic acid-enriched phospholipids (EPA-PL) significantly ameliorate insulin resistance and elevate the level of hepatic lipolysis, which may have a synergistic effect with SCS in alleviating obesity-related insulin resistance via multiple mechanisms. In the present study, high-fat diet-induced male C57BL/6J mice with obesity-related insulin resistance were used to evaluate the synergistic effect of SCS and EPA-PL on alleviating the insulin resistance. Results show that the combination of SCS and EPA-PL at a half dose exhibited a significant improvement on glucose intolerance and systematic insulin sensitivity than SCS or EPA-PL alone. Moreover, the half dose-combination remarkably inhibited the macrophage infiltration (F4/80) to white adipose tissue (WAT) and significantly down-regulated the level of MCP1, TNF-α and IL-6 compared with SCS and EPA-PL alone. Consequently, the combined administration not only decreased hepatic gluconeogenesis and increased hepatic glycogen synthesis (P < 0.05), but also stimulated the glucose uptake in WAT and muscle (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, neither SCS or EPA-PL alone exhibited any effect on the glucose uptake. The combination of SCS and EPA-PL contributed to a synergistic effect on alleviating the obesity-related insulin resistance due to the amelioration of an inflammation-centric peripheral insulin response.

16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(9)2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31052157

RESUMO

Detecting microbial interactions is essential to the understanding of the structure and function of the gut microbiome. In this study, microbial co-occurrence patterns were inferred using a random matrix theory based approach in the gut microbiome of mice in response to chondroitin sulfate disaccharide (CSD) under healthy and stressed conditions. The exercise stress disrupted the network composition and microbial co-occurrence patterns. Thirty-four Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU) were identified as module hubs and connectors, likely acting as generalists in the microbial community. Mucispirillum schaedleri acted as a connector in the stressed network in response to CSD supplement and may play a key role in bridging intimate interactions between the host and its microbiome. Several modules correlated with physiological parameters were detected. For example, Modules M02 (under stress) and S05 (stress + CSD) were strongly correlated with blood urea nitrogen levels (r = 0.90 and -0.75, respectively). A positive correlation between node connectivity of the OTUs assigned to Proteobacteria with superoxide dismutase activities under stress (r = 0.57, p < 0.05) provided further evidence that Proteobacteria can be developed as a potential pathological marker. Our findings provided novel insights into gut microbial interactions and may facilitate future endeavor in microbial community engineering.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Estresse Fisiológico , Actinobacteria/efeitos dos fármacos , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Bacteroidetes/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacteroidetes/isolamento & purificação , Sulfatos de Condroitina/efeitos adversos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Esforço Físico , Proteobactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteobactérias/isolamento & purificação
17.
BMC Biotechnol ; 19(1): 29, 2019 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several types of phospholipases have been described in phospholipids modification. The majority of phospholipase D (PLD) superfamily members can catalyze two separate reactions: the hydrolysis of phospholipids to produce phosphatidic acid (PA) and the transphosphatidylation of phosphatidyl groups into various phosphatidyl alcohols to produce modified phospholipids. Transphosphatidylation is a useful biocatalytic method for the synthesis of functional phospholipids from lecithin or phosphatidylcholine (PC), which are both easily accessible. Different PLD coding genes have been cloned from various sources from viral, prokaryotic, and eukaryotic organisms. Despite the catalytic potential of PLD, their low productivity has hampered their practical applications, probably because PLD, which is highly toxic to the host cells, when transformation of the PLD genes into the host cells, degrade PLs in the cell membrane. In this study, we designed a novel two-step expression system to produce and secrete recombinant PLD in extracellular medium, cellulose-binding domains as an affinity fused with PLD for immobilization and purification proteins. RESULTS: The engineered BL21 (DE3) host strain, which harbored the final expression vector pET28a-PLD-CBD-araC-ESN, was induced by IPTG and L-arabinose, the cell density decreased rapidly over a 2 h period and the enzymes released into the extracellular medium accounts owned 81.75% hydrolytic activity. Scanning electron microscopy results showed that there were obvious structural changes on the cell surface. The extracellularly secreted PLD-CBD powder was used to catalyze the transphosphatidylation reaction synthesis of phosphatidylserine, 2.3 U enzymes reacted for 12 h, during which the conversion rate reached 99% with very few by-products being produced. When the fused protein PLD-CBD immobilized on microcrystalline cellulose, the enzymes can be cycle used five times with 26% conversion rate was preserved. CONCLUSIONS: This study introduced an effective method for use in the expression of recombinant proteins and their extracellular secretion that simplifies the steps of sonication and purification and demonstrates great potential in the industrial application of enzymes. Cellulose as the most abundant renewable biomass resources in nature, and the cost is low, used for PLD immobilization make it more simple, effective and sustainable.

18.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 83(7): 1227-1238, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021705

RESUMO

Here we have explored the effect of neoagarotetraose (NAT) on liver injury caused by intense exercise. Our results showed that NAT treatment obviously decreased liver weight (p < 0.01), improved the liver morphological structure, decreased ALT level (p < 0.05) and endotoxin (LPS) (p < 0.01). In addition, NAT could regulate bile acid profiles in feces and serum of mice, which indicated the potential of liver function, suggesting that NAT was effective to relieve intense exercise-induced liver injury. NAT could regulate the expression of colon genes. NAT tended to alter the microbial composition of mice under intense exercise. We uncovered the network interactions between liver traits and microbial communities in NAT treatment mice. Interestingly, our data indicated that intense exercise-induced liver injury may be related to Clostridiales. In summary, these results demonstrated that NAT relieved liver injury induced by intense exercise may be related to gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Galactosídeos/farmacologia , Fígado/lesões , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Administração Oral , Animais , Colo/metabolismo , Galactosídeos/administração & dosagem , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Oligossacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Transcriptoma
19.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 26: 244-251, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30951866

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the bactericidal effect of curcumin (CUR)-mediated photodynamic inactivation (PDI) against Escherichia coli DH5α in vitro and in oysters, then further investigate the edible security of PDI-treated oysters based on cellular toxicological methods. First, DH5α cells were irradiated by a 470 nm LED light source with an energy density of 3.6 J/cm2. Colony forming units (CFU) were counted and the viability of DH5α cells was calculated after treatment with CUR-mediated PDI. Intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was studied by measuring the fluorescence of 2, 7-dichlorofluorescein (DCF) using a flow cytometry. Membrane permeability was measured using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) with propidium iodide (PI) staining. After that, the bactericidal effect of CUR-mediated PDI was evaluated in oysters which were pre-contaminated with DH5α cells. Finally, cellular toxicology of PDI-treated oysters was evaluated through morphological observation, 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, DNA ladder assay, and nuclear staining. Results showed that the viability of DH5α was significantly decreased in a CUR concentration-dependent manner and resulted in an approximately 3.5-log reduction at the concentration of 20 µM. After treatment with CUR-mediated PDI (20 µM, 3.6 J/cm2), the ROS level in DH5α cells and the membrane permeability markedly increased. Our data demonstrated that CUR-mediated PDI had a good decontamination effect against DH5α contaminated in oysters. After incubation with PDI-treated oysters, fibroblasts L929 cell morphology, MTT absorbance and cell apoptosis had no obvious changes. Our findings preliminarily demonstrated that CUR-mediated PDI-treated oysters had no cytotoxicity to fibroblasts.

20.
Food Funct ; 10(3): 1736-1746, 2019 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30855043

RESUMO

This study evaluated the possible prebiotic effects of dietary fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from Acaudina molpadioides (Am-CHS) on the modulation of the gut microbiota and the improvement in the risk factors for chronic inflammation in high fat diet-fed mice. The results showed that the Am-CHS treatment greatly modified the gut microbiota, including the decrease in Bacteroidetes, increase in Firmicutes, elevation in Lactobacillus (intestinal barrier protector) and short chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing bacteria (Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Lachnospiraceae NK4A136 group), and reduction in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) producer (Escherichia coli). This modulation inhibited inflammatory response, manifesting the decreases in circulating proinflammatory cytokines and their mRNA expression, and the increases in interleukin-10. Dietary Am-CHS caused reductions in serum and fecal LPS concentrations and inhibition of transcription of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and its downstream proteins. In addition, there were increases in the portal levels of fecal SCFAs, which probably contributed to an increase in the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) protein in Am-CHS-treated mice. These results suggest that modulation of gut microbiota by Am-CHS can improve chronic inflammation by reducing LPS levels and TLR4 signaling. Modulation also appears to increase the levels of fecal SCFAs, which activates AMPK and finally leads to inflammation resistance.


Assuntos
Sulfatos de Condroitina/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/induzido quimicamente , Pepinos-do-Mar/química , Animais , Sulfatos de Condroitina/química , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/classificação , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/química , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Lipopolissacarídeos/química , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/classificação , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Fosfotransferases/classificação , Fosfotransferases/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
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