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1.
Food Chem ; 335: 127633, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739813

RESUMO

The influence of different fatty acid carbon chains on the kinetic interactions of nanocomplexes between esterified astaxanthin (E-Asta) and ß-lactoglobulin (ß-Lg) were investigated by multi-spectroscopy and molecular modeling techniques. We synthesized ten different E-Asta bound to ß-Lg and formed nanocomplexes (< 300 nm). Fluorescence spectroscopy showed moderate affinities (binding constants Ka = 103-104 M-1). Docosahexaenoic acid astaxanthin monoester (Asta-C22:6) had the strongest binding affinity towards ß-Lg (Ka = 3.77 × 104 M-1). The fluorescence quenching of ß-Lg upon binding of E-Asta displayed a static mechanism, with binding sites (n) equal to 1. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy revealed that E-Asta might enter the ß-Lg hydrophobic cavity, leading to unfolding of the peptide chain skeleton. In summary, ß-Lg and E-Asta can form stable nanocomplex emulsions to achieve an effective delivery process for E-Asta.


Assuntos
Ésteres/química , Lactoglobulinas/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Sítios de Ligação , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Cinética , Xantofilas/química
2.
Food Chem ; : 128497, 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160771

RESUMO

The stability and bioavailability of fourteen astaxanthin esters (Asta-Es) with different molecular structures were investigated using in vitro and in vivo digestion models. The results demonstrated that Asta-E with long-chain and saturated fatty acids were more stable than other types of Asta-E. Astaxanthin diester (Asta-DE) was better than astaxanthin monoester (Asta-ME) and free astaxanthin (F-Asta), as determined based on the degradation rate constant at 60 °C. The absorbability of Asta-Es with different molecular structures was evaluated through the serum concentrations of astaxanthin (Asta). The results indicated that Asta-E with short-chain fatty acids had higher bioavailability than Asta-Es with long-chain fatty acids, whereas Asta-E with high-unsaturation fatty acids had higher bioavailability than Asta-E with low-unsaturation fatty acids. Asta-ME had significantly increased bioavailability compared with Asta-DE. We concluded that the molecular structure of Asta-E could significantly affect their stability and bioavailability.

3.
Food Chem ; : 128575, 2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33191009

RESUMO

The effects of heat treatment on the proteome of Apostichopus japonicus have been evaluated using label-free quantitative proteomics by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time of flight (UHPLC-Q/TOF) mass spectrometry with sequential window acquisition of all the theoretical fragment ion (SWATH) acquisition mode. Chemometric tools are integrated to reveal proteomic changes by mining the protein quantitation data from fresh and differently heat-treated samples. SWATH allows the quantitation of 548 proteins, of which 24 proteins are significantly sensitive to heat treatment and 13 proteins vary significantly responding to different heat procedures (boiling, steaming, and microwave heating), and 5 of them are sharing proteins. Gene ontology (GO) annotation of the differentiating proteins highlights most of them are relevant to molecular functions. The results can be favorable to evaluate the effects of heat treatment on the nutrition and function of processed sea cucumbers and facilitate the selection of an optimal thermal treatment.

4.
Molecules ; 25(21)2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33139648

RESUMO

The consumption of vegetable oil is an important way for the body to obtain tocols. However, the impact of oil types and grades on the tocopherol and tocotrienol contents in vegetable oils is unclear. In this study, nine types of traditional edible oils and ten types of self-produced new types of vegetable oil were used to analyze eight kinds of tocols. The results showed that the oil types exerted a great impact on the tocol content of traditional edible oils. Soybean oils, corn oils, and rapeseed oils all could be well distinguished from sunflower oils. Both sunflower oils and cotton seed oils showed major differences from camellia oils as well as sesame oils. Among them, rice bran oils contained the most abundant types of tocols. New types of oil, especially sacha inchi oil, have provided a new approach to obtaining oils with a high tocol content. Oil refinement leads to the loss of tocols in vegetable oil, and the degree of oil refinement determines the oil grade. However, the oil grade could not imply the final tocol content in oil from market. This study could be beneficial for the oil industry and dietary nutrition.

5.
J Sci Food Agric ; 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Astaxanthin (Asta) is widely used in the nutraceutical and food industry because of its strong antioxidant properties. However, natural Asta mainly exists in the esterified form with various fatty acid chains, making it difficult to understand the particular molecular structure of astaxanthin esters (Asta-Es) that have better antioxidant capacity. In this study, Asta-Es with different molecular structures was systematically prepared, and identified by using thin-layer chromatography (TLC), ultraviolet-visible (UV-visible), high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1 H-NMR). In addition, their antioxidant properties were evaluated by 2,2'-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ABTS scavenging activity. RESULTS: Fourteen Asta-Es with different molecular structures were systematically synthesized. This study used a simple and efficient method for the separation and purification of astaxanthin monoester (Asta-ME) and astaxanthin diester (Asta-DE) with high purity (86%-94%) by silica gel column chromatography. 13-cis-Asta-E and 9-cis-Asta-E were firstly identified from Asta-E. The DPPH clearance rates and ABTS scavenging rates of Asta-C4:0, Asta-C8:0, Asta-C12:0, and Asta-C18:0 were relatively close, but the DPPH and ABTS scavenging rates of Asta-C18:0, Asta-C18:1, Asta-C18:2, and Asta-C22:6 increased gradually. Among all Asta-Es, Asta-C22:6/C22:6 showed the highest antioxidant capacity, with the DPPH and ABTS scavenging rates of 77.22 ± 3.29% and 51.84 ± 1.65%, respectively. CONCLUSION: In this study, it was concluded that chemically synthesized Asta-Es contained cis-astaxanthin ester and polyunsaturated fatty acid chain increased the antioxidant activity of Asta, showing less effect of the length of fatty acid chain. These results provide useful information for the production and use of highly efficient Asta-E as functional food and pharmaceutical ingredients. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.

6.
Food Funct ; 11(11): 9912-9923, 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33094781

RESUMO

Neurodevelopment of fetal and infant brains is an essential process not just during infancy but throughout the whole life. Previous studies have verified the neurotrophic effects of GM1 and milk gangliosides (GLSs) on brain development. However, it remains unclear whether the maternal GLS diet during the perinatal period can program the brain development of young offspring. Sea urchin, as a popular sea food, is a good resource of marine-derived GLSs. This study evaluated the effects of maternal diet with sea urchin gangliosides (SU-GLSs) on the utero and neonatal neurodevelopment and compared their efficacy with common GM1 and sialic acid (SA). Herein, SU-GLSs, as well as GM1 and SA, were orally administered to pregnant mice from pregnancy to lactation. The morphological and functional development of the brain was evaluated in postnatal 15-day (P15) mice. SU-GLSs were superior to GM1 and SA in enhancing neuritogenesis, spinous dendrite growth and synapse function in the hippocampus and cortex of P15 mice. Mechanistic studies found that SU-GLSs upregulated the expressions of NGF and BDNF more effectively than GM1 and SA. Furthermore, different glycosylated SU-GLSs promoted the neural differentiation of Neuro2a cells in a structure-selective manner. Sulfate-type and disialo-type GLSs were more effective than GM1. These findings suggested that maternal SU-GLS diet could promote the neurodevelopment of young offspring and would be a potential nutrition enriching substance for the early developing brain.

7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18744, 2020 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33127976

RESUMO

Structural proteins play critical roles in the food quality, especially texture properties, of sea cucumbers and their products. Most of the previous studies on sea cucumbers focused on few individual proteins, which limited our understanding of how structural proteins influenced the quality of sea cucumbers. Inspired by the clarification of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) genome, we established an integrated data of structural proteins in the sea cucumber body wall. A portfolio of 2018 structural proteins was screened out from the sea cucumber annotated proteome by bioinformatics analysis. The portfolio was divided into three divisions, including extracellular matrix proteins, muscle proteins, and proteases, and further classified into 18 categories. The presence of 472 proteins in the sea cucumber body wall was confirmed by using a proteomics approach. Moreover, comparative proteomics analysis revealed the spatial distribution heterogeneity of structural proteins in the sea cucumber body wall at a molecular scale. This study suggested that future researches on sea cucumbers could be performed from an integrated perspective, which would reshape the component map of sea cucumber and provide novel insights into the understanding of how the food quality of sea cucumber was determined on a molecular level.

8.
J Food Sci ; 85(11): 3797-3805, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067851

RESUMO

Antarctic krill oil (AKO) is usually encapsulated by the protein materials, enhancing its oxidative stability. Proteins exhibit immense effect on lipid oxidation and induce protein-lipid co-oxidation. This study aimed at elucidating the co-oxidation mechanism of AKO and whey protein (WP) or myofibrillar protein (MP) in oil-in-water emulsions. The estimations of malondialdehyde (MDA) content, phospholipid molecular species, and pyrrole content resulted in increased and decreased oxidation rate of AKO (especially phosphatidylethanolamine) by WP and MP, respectively. Meanwhile, protein concentration, sulfhydryl content, the loss of tryptophan fluorescence intensity, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis results demonstrated that AKO promoted WP oxidation but inhibited MP oxidation. Further, the antioxidative abilities of seven common antioxidants were evaluated. Ascorbyl palmitate showed the most substantial antioxidative effect for both AKO and proteins (about 70% decrease of MDA content and 30% decrease of the decrease ratio of tryptophan fluorescence intensity). This finding supported that different proteins could exhibit different pro/anti-oxidative effects on lipid oxidation, especially for marine lipids abundant in phospholipids and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Besides, MP could also act as antioxidant in MP AKO emulsions, further extending its application from traditional surfactants. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: AKO is usually encapsulated by the protein materials, enhancing its oxidative stability. The results demonstrated MP could inhibit AKO oxidation, and vice versa, especially when ascorbyl palmitate was added at the same time. As a result, this finding explored a new potential wall material with antioxidative ability for the encapsulated products of AKO.

9.
Food Funct ; 11(9): 8248-8258, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966473

RESUMO

Nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) play an important role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism. Here, in a protein-lipid overlay assay, we show that EPA-enriched phosphatidylcholine (EPA-PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (EPA-PE), isolated from sea cucumber, bind to PPARα/PPARγ. An established dual-luciferase reporter gene assay system in NIH3T3 cells showed the exert agonistic activity of EPA-PC and EPA-PE with respect to the transcription of PPARα and PPARγ. The treatments of EPA-PC and EPA-PE induced PPARα-mediated fatty acid oxidation in mouse hepatocytes and liver. In a preadipocytes differentiation assay, EPA-PC and EPA-PE promoted the differentiation of preadipocytes to differentiated adipocytes and upregulated the expression of lipid metabolic target genes of the PPARγ and inhibited the phosphorylation of PPARγ at Ser273. We further examined the effects of EPA-PC and EPA-PE on high-fat high-sucrose diet (HFSD) induced insulin resistance and found that insulin resistance as well as abnormal lipid accumulation was ameliorated by EPA-PC and EPA-PE.

10.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 164: 4532-4546, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941908

RESUMO

Many by-products that are harmful to the environment and human health are generated during food processing. However, these wastes are often potential resources with high-added value. For example, crustacean waste contains large amounts of chitin. Chitin is one of the most abundant polysaccharides in natural macromolecules, and is a typical component of crustaceans, mollusks, insect exoskeleton and fungal cell walls. Chitosan is prepared by deacetylation of chitin and a copolymer of D-glucosamine and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine through ß-(1 â†’ 4)-glycosidic bonds. Chitosan has better solubility, biocompatibility and degradability compared with chitin. This review introduces the preparation, physicochemical properties, chemical and physical modification methods of chitosan, which could help us understand its biological activities and applications. According to the latest reports, the antibacterial activity, antioxidant, immune and antitumor activities of chitosan and its derivatives are summarized. Simultaneously, the various applications of chitosan and its derivatives are reviewed, including food, chemical, textile, medical and health, and functional materials. Finally, some insights into its future potential are provided, including novel modification methods, directional modification according to structure-activity relationship, activity and application development direction, etc.

11.
J Sci Food Agric ; 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32875593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Astaxanthin ester (Asta-E) is used as functional nutraceuticals in many food products. Unfortunately, Asta-E utilization is currently limited owing to its chemical instability and low bioavailability. The purpose of this study is to investigate the promotion effect of oil matrixes on the stability, antioxidant activity, bioaccessibility and bioavailability of Asta-E. RESULTS: The results showed that the stability of Asta-E in six oil matrixes was improved. Based on the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity experiment, the antioxidant activity of Asta-E was positively correlated with the degree of unsaturation of the oil matrixes, but not with the side chain length. The in vitro gastrointestinal tract (GIT) simulation model and in vivo experiment using mice were also employed to investigate the digestion and absorption characteristics of Asta-E in various oil matrixes. The results demonstrated that the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of Asta-E increased with the increase of fatty acid chain length of oil matrixes (triglyceride oleate > triglyceride caprylate > triglyceride butyrate), as well as with the decrease of unsaturation degree (olive oil > corn oil > fish oil). CONCLUSION: Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and long-chain triglyceride (LCT) in an oil matrix were the factors that could efficiently improve the bioavailability of Asta-E. Moreover, the size of the mixed micelles of Asta-E during digestion was the main factor influencing the bioaccessibility of Asta-E. This study provides references for the design of suitable oil matrixes for Asta-E. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.

12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(40): 11161-11169, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914625

RESUMO

Astaxanthin has been favored as a health food supplement by obese consumers. However, no detailed descriptions are available concerning the absorption of astaxanthin in obese individuals. In this study, we conducted acute and chronic feeding experiments in C57BL/6J mice to study the differences in astaxanthin absorption in normal and obese bodies. The obesity condition greatly decreased astaxanthin concentration in the blood and liver, its accumulation in tissues and organs, and the bioaccessibility. This may be related to the excessive intake of sucrose, fatty acids, and cholesterol, the increased gastrointestinal motility, and the disorder of gut microbiota in the obese body. Overall, our study showed that the obese body had a far less oral absorbability of astaxanthin than a normal body, and we suggest that the recommended or approved doses of astaxanthin can be properly increased for the obese body in the hope that astaxanthin will play a more active role in obese individuals.

13.
Pharmacol Res ; 160: 105191, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911073

RESUMO

Sea cucumbers are widely consumed in traditional medicine and food. Sea cucumbers-derived sulfated sterol exhibits a sulfate group at C-3 position, which is different from phytosterol with a hydroxyl group. However, the effect of sterol sulfate on metabolic syndrome remains unknown. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the alleviation of sterol sulfate on high-fat-high-fructose diet (HFFD)-induced insulin resistance and inflammation. After 2 weeks feeding with HFFD, male C57BL/6J mice were continuously fed with HFFD plus 0.4 % (w/w) sterol sulfate or phytosterol for 6 weeks. The OGTT was carried out at 7 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, the changes of glycogen, circulating glucose, insulin, pro-inflammatory cytokine and adiponectin were measured. H&E staining was used to observe the morphological changes in adipose tissue. Furthermore, the underlying molecular mechanisms were investigated. Dietary sterol sulfate was superior to phytosterol in reducing body weight gain, adipocyte hypertrophy, and levels of circulating glucose and insulin, as well as increasing the glycogen content of tissues. Furthermore, sterol sulfate ameliorated insulin resistance mainly due to the inhibition of gluconeogenesis, the promotion of glycogen synthesis and GLUT4 translocation by activating PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Additionally, sterol sulfate effectively attenuated inflammation by increasing serum adiponectin and reducing pro-inflammatory cytokine release. Sterol sulfate exhibited a more significant effect than phytosterol in alleviating HFFD -induced insulin resistance and inflammation, which might be closely related to the sulfate group. The results might provide insights into the prevention and alleviation of metabolic syndrome.

14.
Carbohydr Polym ; 246: 116645, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747278

RESUMO

Alginate is a commercially important polysaccharide widely applied in various industries. Carbohydrate-binding proteins could be utilized as desirable tools in the investigation and further applications of polysaccharides. Few alginate-binding proteins have hitherto been characterized and reported. In the present study, a novel alginate-binding protein ABP_Wf, consisting of two "orphan" carbohydrate-binding modules, was cloned from a predicted alginate utilization locus of marine bacterium Wenyingzhuangia funcanilytica, and expressed in Escherichia coli. ABP_Wf exhibited a specific binding capacity to alginate, and the association constant (Ka) and affinity (KD) were 1.94 × 103 M-1s-1 and 1.16 × 10-6 M. It was confirmed that the binding capacity of ABP_Wf to alginate is attributed to its constituent CBM16 domain rather than the CBM44 domain. The potentials of ABP_Wf in the semi-quantitative detection and the in situ visualization of alginate were evaluated, which implied that ABP_Wf could be served as a promising tool for investigating alginate.

15.
Food Funct ; 11(8): 7048-7060, 2020 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813003

RESUMO

Osteoporosis, a chronic disease that affects over 200 million people worldwide, presents a substantial medical and socioeconomic burden on the modern society. However, long-term intake of diets supplemented with different polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) can affect bone metabolism; thus, this study investigated the comparative effects of Antarctic krill oil (AKO, containing n-3 PUFAs) and arachidonic acid-rich oil (AAO, containing n-6 PUFAs) on bone resorption in a mice model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Mice were orally administered with AKO (200 mg kg-1) or AAO (220 mg kg-1) once daily for 30 days, ovariectomized, followed by the continued administration of the respective samples for 90 days. Biomechanical and histomorphometric analyses revealed that AKO increased the bone mineral density (BMD) to enhance the biomechanical properties by increasing the mineral apposition rate and repairing the microstructure of the trabecular bone, whereas AAO had the opposite effect. The fatty acid analysis of the vertebra showed that AKO increased the n-3 PUFA (especially for DHA) content, thereby decreasing the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs, which was negatively correlated with the BMD. However, AAO had the opposite effect due to high amounts of arachidonic acid. To explore the underlying mechanism responsible for these observations, we compared the classical bone resorption OPG/RANKL/NF-κB pathway mediated by PGE2/EP4. The ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs in the bone affected the production of PGE2, a factor regulating the OPG/RANKL pathway, thereby regulating osteoclastogenesis by stimulating the NF-κB pathway. The results of ELISA, qRT-PCR, and western blot demonstrated that AKO reduced the secretion of PGE2 and the expression of EP4, upregulating the ratio of OPG/RANKL in the bone, thereby decreasing TRAF6 expression to inhibit the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway, and finally inhibiting the expression of nuclear transcription factors (c-fos and NFATc1) to prevent excessive osteoclastogenesis (TRACP, MMP-9, and Cath-K). Arachidonic acid is a precursor of PGE2 synthesis. AAO showed the opposite trend through the same pathway. Thus, AKO could significantly improve osteoporosis via the OPG/RANKL/NF-κB pathway mediated by PGE2/EP4 to inhibit osteoclastogenesis, whereas AAO aggravated osteoporosis via the same pathway. This is the first study to systematically compare the effects and mechanism of AKO and AAO in regulating bone resorption in osteoporotic mice to support recommendations on fatty acid types in dietary oils for an osteoporotic population.

16.
Food Funct ; 11(9): 8038-8050, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845953

RESUMO

Non-esterified astaxanthin (AST) has been reported to exhibit protective effects from Parkinson's disease (PD). Notably, DHA-acylated astaxanthin ester (DHA-AST) is widely distributed in the seafood. However, whether DHA-AST has an effect on PD, and the differences between DHA-AST, non-esterified AST and the combination of non-esterified AST (AST) with DHA (DHA + AST) is unclear. In the present study, mice with PD, induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), were employed to investigate the effects of DHA-AST, AST and DHA + AST on Parkinson's disease. The rotarod test results showed that DHA-AST significantly suppressed the PD development in MPTP-induced mice, and was better than the effects of AST and DHA + AST. Further mechanistic studies indicated that all three astaxanthin supplements could inhibit oxidative stress in the brain. It was noted that DHA-AST had the best ability to suppress the apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons via the mitochondria-mediated pathway and JNK and P38 MAPK pathway in the brain among the three treated groups. DHA-AST was superior to AST in preventing behavioral deficits coupled with apoptosis rather than oxidative stress, and might provide a valuable reference for the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(36): 9707-9717, 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32786870

RESUMO

The effect of marine-derived sea cucumber sterol (SS) with a special sulfate group on lipid accumulation remains unknown, although phytosterol has been proved to have many biological activities, including lowering blood cholesterol. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the alleviation of SS on lipid accumulation and the possible underlying mechanism using high-fat-fructose diet fed mice. Dietary administration with SS for 8 weeks reduced significantly the body weight gain and lipid levels in serum and liver. Especially, SS was superior to phytosterol in lowering lipid accumulation due to the great promotion of fatty acid ß-oxidation, the inhibition of cholesterol synthesis, and the acceleration of cholesterol efflux. The findings found that sea cucumber sterol exhibited a more significant effect than phytosterol on alleviating HFF-diet-induced lipid accumulation through regulating lipid and cholesterol metabolism, which might be attributed to the difference in the branch chain and sulfate group.

18.
Toxins (Basel) ; 12(9)2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32825493

RESUMO

With high fat and protein content, maize germ is easily infected with fungus and mycotoxins during its storage. The qualities and safety of germ and its processing products may be affected by the storage. However, studies on the effect of storage on quality and polluted mycotoxin level of maize germ are limited. In this study, maize germ was stored with different initial moisture contents (5.03, 9.07, 11.82 and 17.97%) or at different relative humidity (75, 85 and 95%) for 30 days. The quality indices of germ (moisture content and crude fat content) and their produced germ oils (color, acid value and peroxide value) as well as the zearalenone (ZEN) and deoxynivalenol (DON) levels of germ, oils and meals were analyzed. Results showed that maize germ with high initial moisture contents (11.82, 17.97%) or kept at high humidity (95%) became badly moldy at the end of storage. Meanwhile, the qualities of these germ and oils showed great changes. However, the ZEN and DON contents of this maize germ, oils and meals stayed at similar levels (p < 0.05). Therefore, the storage could produce influence on the qualities of germ and oils, but showed limited effect on the DON and ZEN levels of germ and their processing products. According to this study, the storage condition of germ with no more than 9% moisture content and no higher than 75% humidity was recommended. This study would be benefit for the control of germ qualities and safety during its storage.

19.
Mar Drugs ; 18(6)2020 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599714

RESUMO

Fucoidan has been reported to have a variety of biological activities. However, different algae species, extraction methods, harvesting seasons, and growth regions lead to the structural variation of fucoidan, which would affect the bioactivities of fucoidan. To date, the anti-inflammatory properties and the underlying mechanism of fucoidan from brown alga Saccharina japonica (S. japonica) remain limited. The aims of the present study were to investigate the structure, the anti-inflammatory properties, and the potential molecular mechanisms of fucoidan isolated from S. japonica (SF6) against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. SF6 was characterized using high performance liquid gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), and observed to be rich in fucose, galactose, and sulfate. Additionally, results showed that SF6 remarkably inhibited LPS-induced production of various inflammatory mediators and pro-inflammation cytokines, including nitric oxide (NO), NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-ß (IL-ß), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). A mechanism study showed that SF6 could effectively inhibit inflammatory responses through blocking LPS-induced inflammation pathways, including nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and Janus kinase (JAK)-2 and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-1/3 pathways. These results suggested that SF6 has the potential to be developed as an anti-inflammatory agent applied in functional food.

20.
Food Funct ; 11(7): 6542-6551, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638797

RESUMO

Dietary intake of sea cucumber phospholipids, a rich source of eicosapentaenoic acid in the form of phospholipids (EPA-PLs), has been shown to improve obesity and related disorders. However, whether dietary eicosapentaenoic acid in the form of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine (EPA-PC and EPA-PE, respectively) shows anti-inflammatory efficacy and its underlying mechanism has scarcely been investigated to date. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine if EPA-PC and EPA-PE improve chronic inflammation and alter the interaction between macrophages and adipocytes. We found that EPA-PC and EPA-PE reduced the elevated levels of serum TNF-α, IL-6 and MCP1 and attenuated macrophage infiltration in the liver and iWAT of an HFSD-induced inflammatory model. Importantly, EPA-PC and EPA-PE promoted macrophage polarization in white adipose tissue. Furthermore, this effect on macrophage polarization was also observed in a 3T3L1 and Raw 264.7 Transwell co-culture system, which suggests that EPA-PC and EPA-PE attenuate chronic inflammation by promoting the M2-dominant polarization of macrophages in vitro. Our experiments in vitro illustrated that EPA-PC and EPA-PE attenuated the phosphorylation of p65 NFκB in Raw264.7 macrophages and increased PPARγ expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes during the co-culture, which may contribute to the improvement in adipose inflammation. Thus, dietary eicosapentaenoic acid in the form of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine may be a therapeutic strategy for chronic inflammation in obese adipose tissue.

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