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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033952

RESUMO

Blakeslea trispora is an industrial strain for large-scale production of carotenoids. However, light-regulated physiological processes, such as carotenoids biosynthesis and phototropism in B. trispora, are not fully understood. In this study, we isolated and characterized three photoreceptor genes, btwc-1a, btwc-1b and btwc-1c in B. trispora Bioinformatics analyses of these genes and their protein sequences revealed that their functional domains (PAS/LOV domain and zinc finger structure) have significant homology to other fungal blue-light regulator proteins from Mucor circinelloides and Neurospora crassa The photoreceptor proteins were synthesized by heterologous expression in Escherichia coli The chromogenic groups FAD and FMN were detected to accompany BTWC-1 proteins by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and fluorescence spectrometry, demonstrating that the proteins may be photosensitive. The absorbance change of the purified BTWC-1 proteins in dark and light indicated that they were light responsive and underwent a characteristic photocycle by light induction. Site-directed mutagenesis of the cysteine residual (Cys) in BTWC-1 did not affect the normal expression of the protein in E. coli, but led to the loss of photocycle response, indicating that Cys is flavin-binding domain for photon detection. We then analyzed the functions of BTWC-1 proteins by complementing btwc-1a, btwc-1b and btwc-1c into their counterpart knockout strains of M. circinelloides for each mcwc-1 gene. Transformation of the btwc-1a-complement into mcwc-1a knockout strains restored the positive phototropism, while the addition of btwc-1c-complement remedied the deficiency of carotene biosynthesis in the mcwc-1c knockout strains under illumination. These results indicate that btwc-1a and btwc-1c is involved in phototropism and light-inducible carotenogenesis. Thus, btwc-1 genes share a conserved flavin-binding domain and act as photoreceptor for control different light transduction pathways in B. trispora. IMPORTANCE Studies have confirmed that light-regulated carotenogenesis is prevalent in filamentous fungi, especially in mucorales. However, few investigations have been done to understand photoinduced synthesis of carotenoids and mechanism in B. trispora, a well-known industrial microbial strains. In the present study, three photoreceptor genes in B. trispora were cloned, expressed, and characterized by bioinformatics and photoreception analyses, then functional analyses of these genes in vivo were constructed in M. circinelloides The results of this study will lead to a better understanding of photoreception and light-regulated carotenoid synthesis and other physiological response in B. trispora.

2.
Occup Environ Med ; 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019846

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In a 24/7 society, the negative metabolic effects of rotating night shift work have been increasingly explored. This study aimed to examine the association between rotating night shift work and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in steelworkers. METHODS: A total of 6881 subjects was included in this study. Different exposure metrics of night shift work including current shift status, duration of night shifts (years), cumulative number of night shifts (nights), cumulative length of night shifts (hours), average frequency of night shifts (nights/month) and average length of night shifts (hours/night) were used to examine the relationship between night shift work and NAFLD. RESULTS: Current night shift workers had elevated odds of NAFLD (OR, 1.23, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.48) compared with those who never worked night shifts after adjustment for potential confounders. Duration of night shifts, cumulative number of night shifts and cumulative length of night shifts were positively associated with NAFLD. Both the average frequency of night shifts (>7 nights/month vs ≤7 nights/month: OR, 1.24, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.45) and average length of night shifts (>8 hours/night vs ≤8 hours/night: OR, 1.27, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.51) were independently associated with overall NAFLD after mutually adjusting for the duration of night shifts and other potential confounders among night shift workers. No significant association was found in female workers between different exposure metrics of night shift work and NAFLD. CONCLUSIONS: Rotating night shift work is associated with elevated odds of NAFLD in male steelworkers.

3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(4)2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059556

RESUMO

Capacitive transducers are widely used in fundamental physics experiments, seismology, Earth or planetary observations, and space scientific and technical applications because of their high precision, simple structure, and compatibility with various measurements. However, in real applications, there is a trade-off between their resolution and dynamic range. Therefore, this paper is aimed at enlarging the dynamic range while ensuring high resolution. In this paper, a noise analysis of a capacitive transducer is presented, which shows that the amplitude noise of the carrier wave is the main limiting factor. Hence, a new method of generating a carrier wave with lower-amplitude noise is proposed in the paper. Based on the experimental verification, it is found that the carrier wave produced through the new method performed significantly better than the typical digital carrier wave when they were compared in the same sensing circuit. With the carrier wave produced through the new method, the dynamic range of the capacitive transducer can reach 120.7 dB, which is 18.3 dB greater than for the typical direct digital synthesis (DDS) method. In addition, the resolution of the carrier wave is mainly limited by the voltage reference components.

4.
Laryngoscope ; 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971264

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Straw phonation has been investigated for its vocal warm-up effects on healthy populations and therapeutic effects on voice patients. The purpose of this article was to determine whether it is beneficial for vocal fatigue. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study METHODS: Twenty-five healthy participants were recruited into 1-hour vocal loading tasks followed by 10-minute vocal rest or straw phonation on 2 different days. Various parameters including phonation threshold pressure (PTP), mean airflow, closed quotient (CQ), current speaking effort level (EFFT), and laryngeal discomfort (DISC) were acquired at baseline, after vocal load, and after the intervention. RESULTS: Increased PTP, EFFT, and DISC were observed after vocal load. Decreased PTP, EFFT, and DISC were then acquired after both vocal rest or straw phonation. More significant improvements were obtained in straw phonation when compared with vocal rest. Additionally, significantly increased mean flow and decreased CQ were obtained after straw phonation when compared to vocal rest. CONCLUSIONS: Straw phonation has the potential to adjust aerodynamics within the vocal tract leading to improved vocal efficiency, optimized vibration mode, and attenuated vocal fatigue. This study provided a promising treatment for vocal fatigue that could have wide clinical relevance to voice users with high voice demands. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 2020.

5.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers ; 24(2): 67-72, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999493

RESUMO

Background: Osteosarcoma (OS) is a malignant tumor disease with high morbidity and mortality in children and adolescents. Recently, attention has been focused on the effects of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) on tumor biology. In this study, we identified the role of lnc-SERTAD2-3 in the development of OS. Materials and Methods: Sixty OS samples and adjacent tissues were collected to determine the relationship between lnc-SERTAD2-3 levels and clinicopathological characteristics. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was used to measure gene expression levels. A transwell invasion assay, a Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, and flow cytometry were used to measure cell migration, growth, and apoptosis, respectively. The binding site between the lnc-SERTAD2-3 and miR-29c RNAs was evaluated using a luciferase reporter assay. Results: The expression of the lnc-SERTAD2-3 was significantly downregulated in OS samples and three OS cell lines (MG-63, U2OS, and Saos-2) compared to normal tissue. Patients with lower levels of lnc-SERTAD2-3 expression had a more unfavorable prognosis (larger OS size, distant metastasis, and recurrence). Overexpression of lnc-SERTAD2-3 inhibited proliferation and migration, and promoted apoptosis in OS cells. Moreover, we found that lnc-SERTAD2-3 could suppress miR-29c by direct binding. Moreover, reexpression of miR-29c reversed the effect of lnc-SERTAD2-3 on OS cells. Conclusion: Overall, lnc-SERTAD2-3, an OS suppressor, is involved in the inhibition of OS proliferation and migration by targeting miR-29c.

6.
Chemistry ; 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916323

RESUMO

The increased demand for more efficient, safe and green production in fine chemical and pharmaceutical industry calls for the development of continuous-flow manufacturing, and for chiral chemicals in particular, enantioselective catalytic processes. In recent years, this emerging direction has received considerable attention and gained rapid progress. In most cases, catalytic enantioselective flow processes using homogeneous, heterogeneous or enzymatic catalysts have shown significant advantages over the conventional batch mode, such as shortened reaction times, lower catalysts loadings, higher selectivities other than common merits in non-enantioselective flow operations. In this review, the advancements, key strategies, methods and technologies in the last six years as well as remaining challenges are summarized.

7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 190: 109143, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865203

RESUMO

Phthalate esters (PAEs) are one of the most frequently detected organic pollutants in soils. In this work, the adsorption behaviors of di-ethyl phthalate (DEP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) on soils, humins (HM) and Clay organo-mineral complexes (Clay-OM) from four regions in China, Changchun (CC), Cangzhou (CZ), Yinchuan (YC), and Changsha (CS) were studied. The surface and structural properties of these sorbents were characterized using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance methods. The results showed that the CC soil has the largest pore volume (PV) and specific surface area (SSA). PV, SSA, and aliphatic carbon content of the samples ranked as Clay-OM > HM > soil. Adsorption experiments indicated that the Clay-OM exhibited the strongest adsorption affinity for both DBP and DEP, followed by HM, and then the soil samples. Furthermore, DEP and DBP adsorption amounts on the samples declined as follows: CC > CS > CZ > YC. To illustrate the dominant mechanisms for PAEs adsorption onto soil, the soil organic carbon content normalized adsorption coefficient (LogKoc) was correlated with several possible parameters using multiple parameter linear regression and significance testing. The R2 values of the DBP and DEP in multi-regression equations were 0.825 and 0.741 respectively, and the significance test suggested that pore structure and specific surface area had crucial influences on the adsorption progress.

8.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 61: 104813, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670251

RESUMO

In this paper, in order to investigate the effects of ultrasound irradiation on the higher alcohols of wines, the parameters including ultrasound time, temperature and power were optimized by the response surface methodology, and the model wine solution was employed to explore the mechanism of ultrasonically decreasing the higher alcohols. The results indicate that the maximum decreasing of higher alcohols could be obtained under the ultrasound conditions of 30 min, 30 °C and 150 W, and the final content was 306.75 mg/L with the reduction rate of 40.44%, suggesting a modification of wine quality due to the negative effects of excessive contents on wine. Regarding the results of model wine, it indicates that the decrease could be definitely affected by factors, such as tartaric acid and ions in wine, which might be attributed to the free radicals generated from ultrasound cavitation and its subsequent reactions. In summary, all the results may help to understand the effects of ultrasound irradiation on improving the sensory properties of wine by decreasing the higher alcohols.

9.
ACS Omega ; 4(22): 19756-19764, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31788607

RESUMO

Robustness of superhydrophobic materials has been gradually taken into consideration for practical applications; however, little attention has been paid to the impact resistance of the superhydrophobicity of the materials. The present study demonstrated a new route for improving the mechanical durability, especially the impact resistance, of the superhydrophobic materials. First, poly(styrene-co-butadiene)/poly(ethylene-vinyl acetate) (SBR/EVA) composite monoliths with microscale cellular structures were manufactured by vulcanization-foaming processes. Then the composite monoliths were treated with sandpaper to create nanostructures above the revealed micropores after removing the uppermost skin, forming micro/nanotextured surfaces and giving improvements in superhydrophobicity. Due to the elastomeric nature of SBR and EVA, the superhydrophobicity of the monoliths can be maintained even while the material is mechanically impacted or compressed, and wearing helps improvement or recovery of the superhydrophobicity because of the self-similarity of the cellular structure inside the monoliths. Additionally, the obtained superhydrophobic materials are resistant to acidic, alkali, and salt liquors as well as organic solvents and have easy healing capacity of superhydrophobicity with a simple sanding treatment when destroyed by exposure to oxygen plasma.

10.
Life Sci ; : 117236, 2019 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887297

RESUMO

This article has been withdrawn at the request of the authors. The Publisher apologizes for any inconvenience this may cause. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at https://www.elsevier.com/about/our-business/policies/article-withdrawal.

11.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(9): 3973-3981, 2019 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854859

RESUMO

Nitrous acid (HONO) is easily photolyzed with the production of·OH, which plays an important role in the formation of regional secondary pollution. In China, research of HONO observation is concentrated mainly in urban areas and is rarely reported in rural areas. In our study, a one-month HONO field observation was conducted at the Station of Rural Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Dongbaituo Village, Wangdu County, Hebei Province) in November 2017 using the long path absorption photo meter (LOPAP). The concentration, variety characteristics, and budget of HONO was studied. During the observation period, HONO exhibited pronounced diurnal variation with low concentrations in the day and high concentration in the evening. The highest concentration at night was about 3.70×10-9, and the lowest concentration at noon was about 0.10×10-9, indicating the presence of a strong source of HONO in rural areas. The CO concentration increased significantly before and after heating, whereas the HONO concentration did not change significantly, indicating that heating combustion contributed less to HONO, Direct emission of motor vehicles at night contributed 23.20% and 31.20% to HONO in polluted and clean weather conditions, respectively, indicating the presence of strong sources of HONO in polluted weather conditions. The average formation rate of HONO at night from homogeneous reaction of·OH and NO could reach 0.40×10-9 h-1, which is 0.67 times higher than that of heterogeneous reaction of NO2 (0.24×10-9 h-1), indicating that the homogeneous reaction of·OH and NO is the main source of HONO at night. HONO has a strong unknown source in the daytime with an intensity reaching 1.37×10-9 h-1, which contributes about 50% to HONO.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31868662

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: At present, the treatment for acute myocardial infarction has achieved great progress. Reperfusion therapy in the short term can effectively reduce recurrence rates and mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction. According to a report of a large national registry, the mortality of patients with acute coronary syndrome combined with acute heart failure is 10 times of that of patients without heart failure, and the mortality in nearly 10 years has no significant change. Therefore, people are constantly exploring indicators for acute heart failure prognosis to improve a patient's prognosis. With the constant understanding and exploration of acute myocardial infarction, more and more researches have focused in determining how to predict the occurrence of acute heart failure. The present study focuses on presenting the latest progress of Carbohydrate Antigen-125 (CA125) and Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in serum of patients with acute myocardial infarction in predicting acute heart failure.

13.
New Phytol ; 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778576

RESUMO

In the processes controlling ecosystem fertility, fungi are increasingly acknowledged as key drivers. However, our understanding of the rules behind fungal community assembly regarding the effect of soil fertility level remains limited. Using soil samples from typical tea plantations spanning c. 2167 km north-east to south-west across China, we investigated the assemblage complexity and assembly processes of 140 fungal communities along a soil fertility gradient. The community dissimilarities of total fungi and fungal functional guilds increased with increasing soil fertility index dissimilarity. The symbiotrophs were more sensitive to variations in soil fertility compared with pathotrophs and saprotrophs. Fungal networks were larger and showed higher connectivity as well as greater potential for inter-module connection in more fertile soils. Environmental factors had a slightly greater influence on fungal community composition than spatial factors. Species abundance fitted the Zipf-Mandelbrot distribution (niche-based mechanisms), which provided evidence for deterministic-based processes. Overall, the soil fungal communities in tea plantations responded in a deterministic manner to soil fertility, with high fertility correlated with complex fungal community assemblages. This study provides new insights that might contribute to predictions of fungal community complexity.

14.
Biol Direct ; 14(1): 23, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients diagnosed as diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with CD5 positive normally have a worse outcome and poorly respond to the regulatory treatment strategy. RESULTS: We recently reported differently expressed tRFs and their potential target-genes of tRFs in patients with CD5+ R/R DLBCL. Differently expressed tRFs were detected by Illumina NextSeq instrument and the results were verified by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR. tRF2Cancer database was searched to compared with the results. Further research was performed through bio-informatic analysis including gene ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analyses, etc. A total of 308 tRFs were identified. Two sequences (AS-tDR-008946, AS-tDR-013492) were chosen for further investigated. CONCLUSIONS: The results of Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the target genes including NEDD4L and UBA52 and several associated pathways including PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK might be involved in the development of CD5+ R/R DLBCL. Our preliminary study on the associated tRFs might provide a valuable measure to explore the pathogenesis and progression of CD5+ R/R DLBCL. REVIEWERS: This article was reviewed by Zhen Qing Ye, Nagarajan Raju and Jin Zhuang Dou.

15.
Rice (N Y) ; 12(1): 86, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Histone modifications play important roles in growth and development of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Lysine butyrylation (Kbu) with a four-carbon chain is a newly-discovered histone acylation modification in rice. MAIN BODY: In this study, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) analyses, the result showed that major enrichment of histone Kbu located in genebody regions of rice genome, especially in exons. The enrichment level of Kbu histone modification is positively correlated with gene expression. Furthermore, we compared Kbu with DNase-seq and other histone modifications in rice. We found that 60.06% Kub enriched region co-located with DHSs in intergenic regions. The similar profiles were detected among Kbu and several acetylation modifications such as H3K4ac, H3K9ac, and H3K23ac, indicating that Kbu modification is an active signal of transcription. Genes with both histone Kbu and one other acetylation also had significantly increased expression compared with genes with only one acetylation. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis revealed that these genes with histone Kbu can regulate multiple metabolic process in different rice varieties. CONCLUSION: Our study showed that the lysine butyrylation modificaiton may promote gene expression as histone acetylation and will provide resources for futher studies on histone Kbu and other epigenetic modifications in plants.

17.
Genome Biol ; 20(1): 233, 2019 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694669

RESUMO

The driver tissues or cell types in which susceptibility genes initiate diseases remain elusive. We develop a unified framework to detect the causal tissues of complex diseases or traits according to selective expression of disease-associated genes in genome-wide association studies (GWASs). This framework consists of three components which run iteratively to produce a converged prioritization list of driver tissues. Additionally, this framework also outputs a list of prioritized genes as a byproduct. We apply the framework to six representative complex diseases or traits with GWAS summary statistics, which leads to the estimation of the lung as an associated tissue of rheumatoid arthritis.

18.
J Voice ; 33(5): 809.e11-809.e18, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31543208

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to quantify the effects of vocal loading and vocal rest using aerodynamic, acoustic, and self-rating measurements. METHODS: Ten participants were recruited to perform vocal loading tasks lasting 60 minutes, followed by 30 minutes of vocal rest. Objective parameters (phonation threshold pressure, fundamental frequency, jitter, shimmer, and noise-to-harmonics ratio) and subjective parameters (current speaking effort level and laryngeal discomfort) were taken at different time intervals: before vocal loading (baseline), after 15 minutes (L15), 30 minutes (L30), 45 minutes (L45), and 60 minutes (L60) of vocal loading, as well as after 5 minutes (R5), 10 minutes (R10), 20 minutes (R20), and 30 minutes (R30) of vocal rest. RESULTS: Phonation threshold pressure was found to increase significantly within the first 15 minutes of the vocal loading task (P = 0.032), followed by a relatively gentle increase in the subsequent 45 minutes. Subjective self-ratings increased significantly after 30 minutes of loud reading (P < 0.05). Phonation threshold pressure recovered faster than subjective parameters after the vocal loading activity had finished. Fundamental frequency was found to consistently increase during vocal loading but return to baseline rapidly within 5 minutes of vocal rest. However, no significant changes in jitter, shimmer, and noise-to-harmonics ratio were observed after vocal loading. CONCLUSIONS: Phonation threshold pressure and self-ratings may have the potential to track vocal fatigue and recovery. Furthermore, a dynamic monitor of vocal fatigue was presented, which may further provide a guide for appropriate voice use.

19.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(33): 4970-4984, 2019 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31543687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obstructive colorectal cancer (OCC) is always accompanied by severe complications, and the optimal strategy for patients with OCC remains undetermined. Different from emergency surgery (ES), self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) as a bridge to surgery (BTS), could increase the likelihood of primary anastomosis. However, the stent failure and related complications might give rise to a high recurrence rate. Few studies have focused on the indications for either method, and the relationship between preoperative inflammation indexes and the prognosis of OCC is still underestimated. AIM: To explore the indications for ES and BTS in OCCs based on preoperative inflammation indexes. METHODS: One hundred and twenty-eight patients who underwent ES or BTS from 2008 to 2015 were enrolled. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to define the optimal preoperative inflammation index and its cutoff point. Kaplan-Meier analyses and Cox proportional hazards models were applied to assess the association between the preoperative inflammation indexes and the survival outcomes [overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS)]. Stratification analysis was performed to identify the subgroups that would benefit from ES or BTS. RESULTS: OS and DFS were comparable between the ES and BTS groups (P > 0.05). ROC curve analysis showed derived neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (dNLR) as the optimal biomarker for the prediction of DFS in ES (P < 0.05). Lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) was recommended for BTS with regard to OS and DFS (P < 0.05). dNLR was related to stoma construction (P = 0.001), pneumonia (P = 0.054), and DFS (P = 0.009) in ES. LMR was closely related to lymph node invasion (LVI) (P = 0.009), OS (P = 0.020), and DFS (P = 0.046) in the BTS group. dNLR was an independent risk factor for ES in both OS (P = 0.032) and DFS (P = 0.016). LMR affected OS (P = 0.053) and DFS (P = 0.052) in the BTS group. LMR could differentiate the OS between the ES and BTS groups (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Preoperative dNLR and LMR could predict OS and DFS in patients undergoing ES and BTS, respectively. For OCC, as the potential benefit group, patients with a low LMR might be preferred for BTS via SEMS insertion.

20.
Photobiomodul Photomed Laser Surg ; 37(9): 532-538, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31503536

RESUMO

Background: Photobiomodulation (PBM) is increasingly used in dermatology and dentistry due to its benefit of promoting wound healing and relieving pain; however, there is no corresponding research report on the application of PBM to vocal fold wound healing. Objective: To assess the potential wound-healing effects of PBM on the vocal folds via in vivo and in vitro experiments. Materials and methods: In in vitro study, vocal fold fibroblasts (VFFs) were irradiated under a diode laser with wavelength of 635 nm at energy density of 8 J/cm2. The Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was used to study the viability of VFFs, and the gene expressions of COL1A2, COL3A1, IL-6, HAS2, and COX-2 were investigated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In in vivo study, 15 rabbits were used. Lamina propria of the left vocal folds of 12 rabbits was unilaterally stripped, and 6 of them were treated with PBM. The remaining three rabbits served as normal controls. After 3 months, all animals were sacrificed to obtain histological results. We used laryngoscope to record images of the healing phase. Results: Irradiation with energy density of 8 J/cm2 resulted in a 2.8% increase in cell proliferation (p < 0.05). However, the difference between the experimental and the control group became larger after 48 and 72 h of subsequent irradiation. RT-PCR results showed that the expression of COL1A2, COL3A1, and HAS2 was higher, and the expression of IL-6 and COX-2 was lower. Histological examination showed that, compared with the injury group, hyaluronic acid (HA) increased significantly, collagen deposition decreased, and the configuration of collagen was more organized after PBM treatment. Conclusions: PBM can inhibit inflammatory reaction and promote the secretion of HA to decrease the deposition of collagen and regenerate vocal fold tissue without scar.

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