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1.
Genome Biol ; 22(1): 4, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397441

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal cancers due to its high metastasis rate in the liver. However, little is known about the molecular features of hepatic metastases due to difficulty in obtaining fresh tissues and low tumor cellularity. RESULTS: We conduct exome sequencing and RNA sequencing for synchronous surgically resected primary tumors and the paired hepatic metastases from 17 hepatic oligometastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and validate our findings in specimens from 35 of such cases. The comprehensive analysis of somatic mutations, copy number alterations, and gene expressions show high similarity between primary tumors and hepatic metastases. However, hepatic metastases also show unique characteristics, such as a higher degree of 3p21.1 loss, stronger abilities of proliferation, downregulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition activity, and metabolic rewiring. More interesting, altered tumor microenvironments are observed in hepatic metastases, especially a higher proportion of tumor infiltrating M2 macrophage and upregulation of complement cascade. Further experiments demonstrate that expression of C1q increases in primary tumors and hepatic metastases, C1q is mainly produced by M2 macrophage, and C1q promotes migration and invasion of PDAC cells. CONCLUSION: Taken together, we find potential factors that contribute to different stages of PDAC metastasis. Our study broadens the understanding of molecular mechanisms driving PDAC metastasis.

2.
Virol J ; 18(1): 22, 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress is an important pathogenic factor in influenza A virus infection. It has been found that reactive oxygen species induced by the H9N2 influenza virus is associated with viral replication. However, the mechanisms involved remain to be elucidated. METHODS: In this study, the role of autophagy was investigated in H9N2 influenza virus-induced oxidative stress and viral replication in A549 cells. Autophagy induced by H9N2 was inhibited by an autophagy inhibitor or RNA interference, the autophagy level, viral replication and the presence of oxidative stress were detected by western blot, TCID50 assay, and Real-time PCR. Then autophagy and oxidative stress were regulated, and viral replication was determined. At last, the Akt/TSC2/mTOR signaling pathways was detected by western blot. RESULTS: Autophagy was induced by the H9N2 influenza virus and the inhibition of autophagy reduced the viral titer and the expression of nucleoprotein and matrix protein. The blockage of autophagy suppressed the H9N2 virus-induced increase in the presence of oxidative stress, as evidenced by decreased reactive oxygen species production and malonaldehyde generation, and increased superoxide dismutase 1 levels. The changes in the viral titer and NP mRNA level caused by the antioxidant, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), and the oxidizing agent, H2O2, confirmed the involvement of oxidative stress in the control of viral replication. NAC plus transfection with Atg5 siRNA significantly reduced the viral titer and oxidative stress compared with NAC treatment alone, which confirmed that autophagy was involved in the replication of H9N2 influenza virus by regulating oxidative stress. Our data also revealed that autophagy was induced by the H9N2 influenza virus through the Akt/TSC2/mTOR pathway. The activation of Akt or the inhibition of TSC2 suppressed the H9N2 virus-induced increase in the level of LC3-II, restored the decrease in the expression of phospho-pAkt, phospho-mTOR and phospho-pS6 caused by H9N2 infection, suppressed the H9N2-induced increase in the presence of oxidative stress, and resulted in a decrease in the viral titer. CONCLUSION: Autophagy is involved in H9N2 virus replication by regulating oxidative stress via the Akt/TSC2/mTOR signaling pathway. Thus, autophagy maybe a target which may be used to improve antiviral therapeutics.

3.
Nat Med ; 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462448

RESUMO

Animal studies implicate meningeal lymphatic dysfunction in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease (PD). However, there is no direct evidence in humans to support this role1-5. In this study, we used dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging to assess meningeal lymphatic flow in cognitively normal controls and patients with idiopathic PD (iPD) or atypical Parkinsonian (AP) disorders. We found that patients with iPD exhibited significantly reduced flow through the meningeal lymphatic vessels (mLVs) along the superior sagittal sinus and sigmoid sinus, as well as a notable delay in deep cervical lymph node perfusion, compared to patients with AP. There was no significant difference in the size (cross-sectional area) of mLVs in patients with iPD or AP versus controls. In mice injected with α-synuclein (α-syn) preformed fibrils, we showed that the emergence of α-syn pathology was followed by delayed meningeal lymphatic drainage, loss of tight junctions among meningeal lymphatic endothelial cells and increased inflammation of the meninges. Finally, blocking flow through the mLVs in mice treated with α-syn preformed fibrils increased α-syn pathology and exacerbated motor and memory deficits. These results suggest that meningeal lymphatic drainage dysfunction aggravates α-syn pathology and contributes to the progression of PD.

4.
Inorg Chem ; 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33449682

RESUMO

Photocatalytic hydrogen evolution is desired to effectively alleviate the serious crisis of energy and the environment, and the utilization of low-cost photocatalysts, especially cobalt-based MOF catalysts, is meaningful, but rarely investigated. Herein, through a self-assembly strategy, we synthesized a Co clusters-based MOF (Co3-XL) by the ligand N,N'-bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-7-ene-2,3,5,6-tetracarboxdiimide bi(1,2,4-triazole), containing abundant carbonyl O atoms in the channels of the 3D skeleton, and a large porosity of 50.7%. The as-synthesized MOF can be stable in the pH range of 3-10 and shows a narrow band gap of 1.82 eV. Furthermore, its maximum amount of water absorption can reach 192 cm3/g. Under irradiation of simulated solar light, the rate of hydrogen evolution is 23.05 µmol·h-1·g-1 among 12 h with the presence of co-catalyst Pt and photosensitizer RhB. The reaction mechanism has been probed by the transient photocurrent response and steady-state photoluminescence spectra. Therefore, as a narrow band gap photocatalyst, the cobalt clusters-based MOF (Co3-XL) has potential applications for hydrogen evolution from water.

5.
J Hum Genet ; 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402699

RESUMO

Dysosteosclerosis (DOS) is a rare sclerosing bone dysplasia characterized by osteosclerosis and platyspondyly. DOS is genetically heterogeneous and causally associated with mutations in three genes, SLC29A3, CSF1R, and TNFRSF11A. TNFRSF11A has been known as the causal gene for osteopetrosis, autosomal recessive 7, and is recently reported to cause DOS in three cases, which show a complex genotype-phenotype relationship. The phenotypic spectrum of TNFRSF11A-associated sclerosing bone dysplasia remains unclear and needs to be characterized further in more cases with molecular genetic diagnosis. Here, we report another TNFRSF11A-associated DOS case with a homozygous missense mutation (p.R129C). The mutation effect is different from the previous three cases, in which truncated or elongated RANK proteins were generated in isoform specific manner, thus enriching our understanding of the genotype-phenotype association in TNFRSF11A-associated sclerosing bone dysplasia. Besides DOS, our case presented with intracranial extramedullary hematopoiesis, which is an extremely rare condition and has not been identified in any other sclerosing bone dysplasias with molecular genetic diagnosis. Our findings provide the fourth case of TNFRSF11A-associated DOS and further expand its phenotypic spectrum.

6.
Food Chem ; 344: 128585, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33223290

RESUMO

Phospholipids enriched krill is a functional food beneficial in cardiovascular diseases. Herein, monodisperse microsphere-based immobilized metal affinity chromatographic material (MM-IMAC) was synthesized with Ti4+ incorporated to enrich phospholipids from krill by coordination with phosphate group. The extract was profiled by hydrophilic interaction chromatography-mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS) with 154 phospholipid molecular species detected. The parameters were loading solvent n-hexane/isopropanol (2:8, v/v), flow rate 0.8 mL·min-1, and eluting volume 1 mL. Besides, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids structured phospholipids were located, such as phosphatidylcholine (PC) 20:5/22:6, phosphatidylinositol (PI) 18:0/20:5, etc. Finally, this method was validated in linearity (R2 ≥ 0.9953), sensitivity (LOD ≤ 0.53 µg·mL-1 and LOQ ≤ 1.66 µg·mL-1), precision (RSDintraday ≤ 4.86% and RSDinterday ≤ 6.25%), and recovery (58-83%). It indicated that the MM-Ti4+-IMAC-HILIC-MS was reliable and efficient in specific study of phospholipids in food matrix.

7.
IEEE Trans Image Process ; 30: 1318-1331, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315565

RESUMO

Few-shot learning for fine-grained image classification has gained recent attention in computer vision. Among the approaches for few-shot learning, due to the simplicity and effectiveness, metric-based methods are favorably state-of-the-art on many tasks. Most of the metric-based methods assume a single similarity measure and thus obtain a single feature space. However, if samples can simultaneously be well classified via two distinct similarity measures, the samples within a class can distribute more compactly in a smaller feature space, producing more discriminative feature maps. Motivated by this, we propose a so-called Bi-Similarity Network (BSNet) that consists of a single embedding module and a bi-similarity module of two similarity measures. After the support images and the query images pass through the convolution-based embedding module, the bi-similarity module learns feature maps according to two similarity measures of diverse characteristics. In this way, the model is enabled to learn more discriminative and less similarity-biased features from few shots of fine-grained images, such that the model generalization ability can be significantly improved. Through extensive experiments by slightly modifying established metric/similarity based networks, we show that the proposed approach produces a substantial improvement on several fine-grained image benchmark datasets. Codes are available at: https://github.com/PRIS-CV/BSNet.

8.
J Cardiol Cases ; 22(6): 283-285, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33304422

RESUMO

The purpose of this case report is to describe the multimodal cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging features of an invasive thymoma extending into the superior vena cava and right atrium. This unusual case indicates that multimodal CMR can not only reveal the morphological features of thymoma but also enable the identification of histological types, which provides a reasonable surgical plan in the perioperative management. .

10.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 3404168, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33376577

RESUMO

Silicosis is a chronic fibrotic lung disease caused by the accumulation of silica dust in the distal lung. Canonical Wnt signaling and NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) have been demonstrated to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis including silicosis. However, the underlying mechanisms of crosstalk between these two signalings are not fully understood. In the present study, we aimed to explore the interaction of Wnt/ß-catenin and NOX4 of human epithelial cells in response to an exposure of silica dust. Results demonstrated an elevated expression of key components of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling and NOX4 in the lungs of silicon dioxide- (SiO2-) induced silicosis mice. Furthermore, the activated Wnt/ß-catenin and NOX4 signaling are accompanied by an inhibition of cell proliferation, an increase of ROS production and cell apoptosis, and an upregulation of profibrogenic factors in BEAS-2B human lung epithelial cells exposed to SiO2. A mechanistic study further demonstrated that the Wnt3a-mediated activation of canonical Wnt signaling could augment the SiO2-induced NOX4 expression and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production but reduced glutathione (GSH), while Wnt inhibitor DKK1 exhibited an opposite effect to Wnt3a. Vice versa, an overexpression of NOX4 further activated SiO2-induced Wnt/ß-catenin signaling and NFE2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) antioxidant response along with a reduction of GSH, whereas the shRNA-mediated knockdown of NOX4 showed an opposite effect to NOX4 overexpression. These results imply a positive feed forward loop between Wnt/ß-catenin and NOX4 signaling that may promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of lung epithelial cells in response to an exposure of silica dust, which may thus provide an insight into the profibrogenic role of Wnt/ß-catenin and NOX4 crosstalk in lung epithelial cell injury and pathogenesis of silicosis.

11.
Org Biomol Chem ; 2020 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347527

RESUMO

Newly designed 3-((2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)amino)indolin-2-ones were used for the facile synthesis of chiral fluoroalkyl-containing 3,2'-spirooxindole γ-lactam products. The secondary amine-catalysed Michael/hemiaminalization cascade reaction of 3-((2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)amino)indolin-2-one with α,ß-unsaturated aldehydes followed by oxidation can easily produce the desired products in high yields (up to 86%) with excellent enantioselectivities (up to 99% ee) and diastereoselectivities (up to >95 : 5 dr).

12.
J Vasc Surg ; 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340700

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is the preferred access for hemodialysis. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty(PTA) has become a choice for AVF stenosis and ultrasound has been used in PTA more frequently. METHODS: This single-center retrospective cohort study analyzed 129 patients who underwent PTA in the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from January 2016 to December 2016. Angioplasty was performed using a non-compliant high-pressure balloon. The process was visualized by duplex scan. Our inclusion criteria were as follows: (1)stenoses or occlusions were located at the juxta-anastomosis site:the first 5cm of the vein distal to the anastomosis;(2) stenosis was confirmed with the following conditions:(a)flow ratesare <500ml/min in the brachial artery and<200ml/min in the fistula during dialysis, and(b)the stenosis diameter is<1.7mm.We used Kaplan-Meier curve to show the postintervention primary and secondary patency rates of patients with stenosis and occlusion. RESULTS: Altogether,129 patients with 76 males were analyzed. Moreover,104 have AVFs on left arm,and only one had ulna-basilic AVF, while others had radial-cephalic AVF.The postintervention primary patency rates are better in occlusion cases(P<0.05),while secondary patency rates have no difference.The postintervention primary patency rates are better in patients without diabetes mellitus(P<0.05),while the secondary patency rates had no difference. CONCLUSION: For juxta-anastomosis site stenosis or occlusion,PTA can be used to obtain satisfactory results.

13.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 3496328, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33299866

RESUMO

Background: The burden of chronic kidney disease is increasing substantially worldwide. Neck circumference (NC), an anthropometric index for upper-body adiposity, has been recognized as an indicator of cardiometabolic diseases. However, the association between NC and renal dysfunction has not been fully disclosed. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between NC and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in the general population in China. Methods: A total of 8805 participants (3322 men and 5483 women) were enrolled in this study. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the association between NC and eGFR. The male and female subjects were divided into four groups according to the NC quartiles. The primary outcome was defined as an eGFR ≤ 90 mL/min/1.73 m2. Results: Logistic regression analysis revealed that in both sexes, higher NC was significantly associated with a higher risk of decreased eGFR even after fully adjusting for age, other anthropometric indexes, traditional risk factors for chronic kidney diseases, and sociologic risk factors (quartile 1 as a reference; the odds ratios [95% confidence intervals] were as follows: quartile 2, 1.26 [0.99-1.59]; quartile 3, 1.40 [1.07-1.83]; and quartile 4, 1.71 [1.22-2.38], in men; quartile 2, 1.14 [0.95-1.37]; quartile 3, 1.31 [1.03-1.66]; and quartile 4, 1.32 [1.04-1.68], in women). Stratified analyses suggested that the association was significant among subjects with prediabetes or normal serum uric acid levels and those without cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Among subjects with CVD, the association persisted only in males. When the subjects were stratified according to blood pressure or BMI, the association persisted among male subjects with abnormal blood pressure and was strengthened among male subjects who were overweight/obese, while the association disappeared among female subjects. Conclusions: NC is independently associated with the risk of decreased eGFR in the general population in China, indicating that NC could contribute to renal dysfunction risk assessment.

14.
Ann Pharmacother ; : 1060028020979773, 2020 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33345552

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To review medical management of inoperable malignant bowel obstruction. DATA SOURCES: A literature review using PubMed and MEDLINE databases searching malignant bowel obstruction, etiology, types, pathophysiology, medical, antisecretory, anti-inflammatory, antiemetic drugs, analgesics, promotion of emptying, prevention of infection, anticholinergics, somatostatin analogs, gastric antisecretory drugs, prokinetic agents, glucocorticoid, opioid analgesics, antibiotics, enema, and adverse effects. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: Randomized or observational studies, cohorts, case reports, or reviews written in English between 1983 and November 2020 were evaluated. DATA SYNTHESIS: Malignant bowel obstruction (MBO) commonly occurs in patients with advanced or recurrent malignancies and severely affects the quality of life and survival of patients. Its management remains complex and variable. Medical management is the cornerstone of MBO treatment, with the goal of reducing distressing symptoms and optimizing quality of life. Until now, there has been neither a standard clinical approach nor registered medications to treat patients with inoperable MBO. RELEVANCE TO PATIENT CARE AND CLINICAL PRACTICE: This review provides information on the etiology, type and pathophysiology, and medical treatment of MBO and related adverse reactions of the drugs commonly used, which can greatly assist clinicians in making clinical decisions when treating MBO. CONCLUSIONS: Published research shows that medical management of MBO mainly consists of antisecretory, anti-inflammatory strategies, controlling vomiting and pain, promoting emptying, preventing infection, and combination therapy. Being knowledgeable about the most current treatment options, the related adverse effects, and the evidence supporting different practices is critical for clinicians to provide individualized medical therapy for MBO patients.

15.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 6(10): 5866-5873, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320575

RESUMO

Preeclampsia has impacted 3-5% pregnancies among the world and its complications lead to both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. However, management of preeclampsia is limited. Nanoparticles targeting chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) can deliver drugs to placenta. Inactivation of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase (sFlt-1) and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-like 2 (Nrf2) has been proved to alleviate preeclampsia and improve maternal and fetal outcomes. Carboxyl-polyethylene glycol-poly (d,l-lactide) (COOH-PEG5K-PLA8K), cationic lipid DOTAP, and siNrf2 and sisFlt-1 were used to construct the nanoparticles and conjugating peptides targeting CSA was fabricated to it. The expression levels of proteins and RNAs were estimated by qRT-PCR and Western blot assays. ELISA assays were performed to evaluate levels of circulating sFlt-1. The nanoparticles containing siNrf2 and sisFlt-1 are targeted to the placenta trophoblasts and downregulated the expression levels of Nrf2 and sFlt-1 as well as their downstream genes in the placental cells of model mice. Treatment of nanoparticles induced the expression of angiogenic factors in placenta. Knocking down Nrf2 and sFlt-1 synchronously alleviated the preeclampsia and increased the maternal and fetal outcomes in preeclampsia model mice. Nanoparticle-mediated simultaneous downregulation of placental Nrf2 and sFlt1 improved maternal and fetal outcomes in a preeclampsia mouse model.

16.
Front Neurosci ; 14: 586149, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33132835

RESUMO

Metric learning is a class of efficient algorithms for EEG signal classification problem. Usually, metric learning method deals with EEG signals in the single view space. To exploit the diversity and complementariness of different feature representations, a new auto-weighted multi-view discriminative metric learning method with Fisher discriminative and global structure constraints for epilepsy EEG signal classification called AMDML is proposed to promote the performance of EEG signal classification. On the one hand, AMDML exploits the multiple features of different views in the scheme of the multi-view feature representation. On the other hand, considering both the Fisher discriminative constraint and global structure constraint, AMDML learns the discriminative metric space, in which the intraclass EEG signals are compact and the interclass EEG signals are separable as much as possible. For better adjusting the weights of constraints and views, instead of manually adjusting, a closed form solution is proposed, which obtain the best values when achieving the optimal model. Experimental results on Bonn EEG dataset show AMDML achieves the satisfactory results.

17.
Mar Drugs ; 18(11)2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143376

RESUMO

Tannase plays a crucial role in many fields, such as the pharmaceutical industry, beverage processing, and brewing. Although many tannases derived from bacteria and fungi have been thoroughly studied, those with good pH stabilities are still less reported. In this work, a mangrove-derived yeast strain Rhodosporidium diobovatum Q95, capable of efficiently degrading tannin, was screened to induce tannase, which exhibited an activity of up to 26.4 U/mL after 48 h cultivation in the presence of 15 g/L tannic acid. The tannase coding gene TANRD was cloned and expressed in Yarrowia lipolytica. The activity of recombinant tannase (named TanRd) was as high as 27.3 U/mL. TanRd was purified by chromatography and analysed by SDS-PAGE, showing a molecular weight of 75.1 kDa. The specific activity of TanRd towards tannic acid was 676.4 U/mg. Its highest activity was obtained at 40 °C, with more than 70% of the activity observed at 25-60 °C. Furthermore, it possessed at least 60% of the activity in a broad pH range of 2.5-6.5. Notably, TanRd was excellently stable at a pH range from 3.0 to 8.0; over 65% of its maximum activity remained after incubation. Besides, the broad substrate specificity of TanRd to esters of gallic acid has attracted wide attention. In view of the above, tannase resources were developed from mangrove-derived yeasts for the first time in this study. This tannase can become a promising material in tannin biodegradation and gallic acid production.

18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(49): 14652-14659, 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33226801

RESUMO

Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids structured phospholipids (PLEPA/DHA) have multiple biochemical and pharmacological effects on human health. In this study, EPA and DHA chains were locked under precursor ion scan (PreIS) mode for untargeted screening PLEPA/DHA in krill oil using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS). The effect of collision energy and declustering potential on the fragmentation of EPA (m/z 301.2) and DHA (m/z 327.2) chains was studied. A total of 33 PLEPA/DHA were characterized (sn-1/sn-2) and quantified using regression models, including 16 PCEPA/DHA, 11 PEEPA/DHA, and 6 PIEPA/DHA. Afterward, this method was validated in terms of linearity (≥0.9978), sensitivity (LOD ≤ 4.02 µg·L-1), precision (RSDintraday ≤ 4.71%), and recovery (≥78.9%). Finally, the performance of HILIC-PreIS-MS/MS was compared with those of conventional methods, and the results indicated its superiority in selective screening PLEPA/DHA in krill oil.

19.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 158, 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213516

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria cases have declined significantly along the China-Myanmar border in the past 10 years and this region is going through a process from control to elimination. The aim of this study is to investigate the epidemiology of malaria along the border, will identify challenges in the progress from control to elimination. METHODS: National reported malaria cases from China and Myanmar, along with the data of 18 Chinese border counties and 23 townships in Myanmar were obtained from a web-based diseases information reporting system in China and the national malaria control program of Myanmar, respectively. Epidemiological data was analyzed, including the number of reported cases, annual parasite index and proportion of vivax infection. Spatial mapping of the annual parasite index (API) at county or township level in 2014 and 2018 was performed by ArcGIS. The relationship of malaria endemicity on both sides of the border was evaluated by regression analysis. RESULTS: The number of reported malaria cases and API declined in the border counties or townships. In 2014, 392 malaria cases were reported from 18 Chinese border counties, including 8.4% indigenous cases and 91.6% imported cases, while the highest API (0.11) was occurred in Yingjiang County. There have been no indigenous cases reported since 2017, but 164 imported cases were reported in 2018 and 97.6% were imported from Myanmar. The average API in 2014 in 23 Myanmar townships was significantly greater than that of 18 Chinese counties (P < 0.01). However, the API decreased significantly in Myanmar side from 2014 to 2018 (P < 0.01). The number of townships with an API between 0 and 1 increased to 15 in 2018, compared to only five in 2014, while still four townships had API > 10. Plasmodium vivax was the predominant species along the border. The number of reported malaria cases and the proportion of vivax infection in the 18 Chinese counties were strongly correlated with those of the 23 Myanmar townships (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Malaria elimination is approaching along the China-Myanmar border. However, in order to achieve the malaria elimination in this region and prevent the re-establishment of malaria in China after elimination, continued political, financial and scientific commitment is required.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170621

RESUMO

Aptamers have drawn great attention in the field of biological research and disease diagnosis for the remarkable advantages as recognition elements. They show unique superiority for facile selection, desirable thermal stability, flexible engineering, and low immunogenicity, complementing the use of conventional antibodies. Aptamer-functionalized microdevices offer promising properties for bioanalysis applications because of the compact sizes, minimal reaction volume, high throughput, operational feasibility, and controlled preciseness. In this review, we first introduce the innovative technologies in the selection of aptamers with microdevices and then highlight some advanced applications of aptamer-functionalized microdevices in bioanalysis field for diverse targets. Aptamer-functionalized microfluidic devices, microarrays, and paper-based and other interface-based microdevices are all bioanalysis platforms with huge potential in the near future. Finally, the major challenges of these microdevices applied in bioanalysis are discussed and future perspectives are also envisioned.

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