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1.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 159: 80-88, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341082

RESUMO

The natural fluorescence of tree peony is short. Forcing culture, mainly by defoliation and gibberellin (GA) treatment, is frequently used for its industrial production. We previously found forcing culture to be coordinated by non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs). Herein, we further revealed the specific role of NSCs during this process. We observed that both defoliation and GA treatment increased the photosynthesis in the bracts, and defoliation had a greater effect on NSC assimilation. We further determined the NSC content and PsSWEETs expression in the bracts, and the results indicated that GA may contribute more to NSC allocation by inducing PsSWEET7. Furthermore, we determined the trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P) content and sugar signaling-related gene (PsTPS1, PsSnRK1, and PsHXK1) expression in both the petals and bracts and found that both defoliation and GA treatment induced T6P levels as well as PsTPS1 expression in both tissues. This indicated that the sugar signaling pathway may also be involved in NSC-coordinated tree peony flowering. In particular, PsSnRK1 was more rapidly induced in the bracts (as an energy shortage response) in the control plants and was completely prohibited by defoliation and GA treatment, indicating the key role of the bracts in sugar signaling. In conclusion, NSCs induced tree peony flowering both as an energy substrate and sugar signaling trigger, with the bracts playing an essential role. These results may provide further evidence on the mechanism of NSC-coordinated flower opening in tree peony under forcing culture conditions, which may also provide a foundation for improving this technology.


Assuntos
Carboidratos , Flores , Paeonia , Transdução de Sinais , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Paeonia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Paeonia/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Açúcares , Árvores
2.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 5271296, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33274214

RESUMO

Peony (Paeonia) has high ornamental, edible, and medicinal values. In order to distinguish seeds varieties, describe the proteomic profiles correlated with stress tolerance, and evaluate peony seed protein (PSP) as a functional food product, we characterized the seed protein profiles of these three species and their glucosidase inhibition activities. Results showed that the intensity of protein bands in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and specific protein ID (especially for specifically expressed proteins (SEPs)) was effective to distinguish these peony seed varieties. Proteomic analysis of the three species showed that P. ostii "Fengdan" has heat and pathogen tolerance-related proteins, while P. rockii has higher content of proteins related to cold resistance, which were all highly consistent with their adaptation of heat or cold habitat. Moreover, stress-related proteins were also accumulated in P. lactiflora Pall "Hangshao" seeds, showing its potential for stress resistance. Further protein analysis showed that the primary composition of PSP was albumin and globulin. And the solubility of PSP was good. Furthermore, PSP also showed high glucosidase inhibition activity, indicating that PSP might have some potential function for the remission of hyperglycemia. And P. ostii "Fengdan" seeds may be a better source for protein production than seeds of the other two species in terms of protein solubility and the content of total protein, albumin, and globulin. In addition, an optimal protocol of microwave-assisted alkali extraction was developed to produce PSP. In conclusion, the evaluated stress-related proteins in three peony seed species by proteomic analysis quite agreed with their adaptation of heat or cold stress; proteomics could also be a very useful tool for distinguishing species in the production; and peony seeds may be a good source for protein production.

3.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 155: 1-12, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092723

RESUMO

The colorful petals of tree peony (Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews) are widely used as a source of additives in food, fragrances, and cosmetics. However, the nutritional composition of peony petals is undetermined, thereby limiting utility and product development. In this work, fresh petals of 15 traditional Chinese tree peony cultivars were selected to analyze the composition of soluble sugars, starch, and soluble protein. Extracted fatty acids (FAs) and flavonoids from petals were characterized by GC-MS and UPLC-triple-TOF-MS, respectively. The oxidative stress resistance (generated by paraquat) effects of petal extracts of three cultivars were also investigated in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. Our results showed that the petals were highly enriched in soluble sugars. 11 FAs were found in tree peony petals, and their compositions were similar to that of tree peony seeds. A total of 56 flavonoids were detected in tree peony petals, 28 of which were reported for the first time in tree peony petals, indicating that UPLC-triple-TOF-MS can improve the identification efficiency of flavonoids. Further analysis of tree peony petal metabolites indicated that anthocyanidin and flavonol composition might be used as specific chemotaxonomic biomarkers for cultivar classification. Flavonoids, linoleic acid, and α-linolenic acid (ALA) in petals might provide antioxidant activity. 150 mg/L of petal extracts of all three tested cultivars increased the lifespan of C. elegans. It was suggested that the petal extracts possessed anti-aging effects and oxidative stress resistance. These results highlight that tree peony petals can serve as natural antioxidant food resources in the future.

4.
Plant Cell Rep ; 39(11): 1425-1441, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737566

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: A total of 16 PsSPL genes were identified in tree peony. PsSPLs potentially regulated flowering time, lateral bud and seed development, and the juvenile-to-adult phase transition. SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) transcription factors are important for plant growth and development. Here, we report the identification of 16 full-length PsSPLs in tree peony (Peaonia suffruticosa Andr.) and 9 PsSPLs that have miR156 target sites. Phylogenetic analysis of the relationship of SPLs in P. suffruticosa and Arabidopsis suggested that they can be classified into six groups, and PsSPLs were highly correlated with Arabidopsis SPLs counterparts in the same group. Cis-element of promoter region analysis suggested that PsSPL genes play roles in physiological processes and developmental events. Expression analysis indicated that most PsSPL genes exhibited high expression levels in the tissues and organs examined here. The increasing expression levels of PsSPL1, PsSPL2, PsSPL8, PsSPL9, PsSPL12, and PsSPL16, and decreasing expression levels of PsSPL1A and PsSPL1B in buds over time suggested that they were probably regulated by the juvenile-to-adult phase transition. In addition, the expression profiles of PsSPL genes in different developmental buds and seeds suggested that PsSPL2, PsSPL3, PsSPL9, PsSPL10, PsSPL13, and PsSPL13A were important genes for regulating the flowering time of the tree peony; PsSPL2 and PsSPL8 might play a role in suppressing lateral bud development, and PsSPL2, PsSPL13, and PsSPL14 positively controlled grain size and number, and pod branching. These results provide a foundation for future functional analysis of PsSPL genes in tree peony growth and development.

5.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 151: 545-555, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32305821

RESUMO

Short and concentrated natural fluorescence hinders tree peony (Paeonia suffruticosa) annual production, and defoliation and gibberellin (GA) application is used to induce its reflowering in autumn. Here, the individual roles of defoliation and GA treatment were determined by monitoring morphological and soluble sugar changes in buds and leaves, and by investigating carbon allocation- and metabolism-related gene expression. Both defoliation and GA treatment induced early bud development, but induction was faster using the GA treatment. Only defoliation, not GA treatment, induced the final reflowering, although their combination accelerated it. Furthermore, defoliation decreased the sucrose content in buds much faster than the GA treatment. This sucrose reduction may play a key role in tree peony reflowering, and the higher carbon metabolism activity in young leaves after defoliation may further help the reflowering process. Defoliation enhanced the expression of sucrose transporters PsSUT4 and PsSWEET12 in buds, and their expression in young leaves was greater than after GA treatment. This indicated that PsSUT4 and PsSWEET12 may help transport carbon into buds after defoliation. In addition, the invertases, PsCIN2 and PsCWIN1 in young leaves were more highly expressed after defoliation, indicating that they may contribute to reflowering after defoliation by accelerating sucrose hydrolysis in young leaves. In addition, the expression levels of PsVIN1 and PsVIN2 in leaves, and PsVIN2 in buds were more highly induced by GA treatment than by defoliation, indicating that PsVINs may mainly respond to GA treatment. These results may help improve the tree peony forcing culture technology and related industrial production.


Assuntos
Carbono , Flores , Paeonia , Folhas de Planta , Carbono/metabolismo , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Giberelinas/farmacologia , Paeonia/efeitos dos fármacos , Paeonia/genética , Paeonia/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
6.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 149: 36-49, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035251

RESUMO

Tree peony (Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews) has ornamental, oil, and medicinal values, and demand in the markets for uniform tree peony seedlings is increasing. Micropropagation could quickly propagate uniform seedlings. However, the heavy browning phenomenon hinders large-scale development of uniform tree peony seedlings. In this paper, we measured the total phenolic compounds content, and sequenced the transcriptomes of tree peony 'Kao' petiole calluses cultured on media with three browning antagonist treatments and fresh petioles to identify the key genes involved in callus browning. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) treatment can reduce production of phenolic compounds and promote callus regeneration. A total of 218,957 unigenes were obtained from fresh petiole and three kinds of browning petiole calluses by transcriptome sequencing. The average sequence length of unigenes was 446 bp with an N50 of 493 bp. Functional annotation analysis revealed that 43,428, 45,357, 31,194, 30,019, and 21,357 unigenes were annotated using the NCBI-NR database, Swiss-Prot, KOG, GO, and KEGG, respectively. In total, 33 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified as potentially associated with callus browning. Among these DEGs, 12 genes were predicted to participate in phenolic compounds biosynthesis, three genes were predicted to be involved in phenolic compounds oxidation, and six genes were predicted to participate in callus regeneration. Moreover, six transcription factors were observed to be differentially expressed in the fresh petiole and three treated petioles in tree peony. This study comprehensively identifies browning-related gene resources and will possibly help in deciphering the molecular mechanisms of callus browning of tree peony in the future.


Assuntos
Paeonia , Transcriptoma , Células Cultivadas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Paeonia/genética
7.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 148: 63-69, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945668

RESUMO

Proper storage prolongs peony market supply. Here, we determined the changes in fresh weight and expression of four aquaporin genes under dry storage (DS) and wet storage (WS). It has showed that after harvesting, the fresh weight change was accompanied with flower opening. After both short- and long-term of storage, the water uptake efficiency in DS group was greater during the first few vase days, providing a direct material basis of DS improved vase quality. The gene expression results showed that PlPIP1;3 and PlTIP2;1 were mainly expressed in petals, whereas PlNIP1;2-like and PlSIP2;1 were mainly expressed in the green tissues. In addition, the expression of PlTIP2;1 in the petals was consistent with the flower opening process, indicating that it may play a major role in facilitating water uptake. During cold storage, the expression of PlPIP1;3 and PlTIP2;1 was higher or more rapidly induced in the DS group, and thus we deduced that they play important roles in improving the vase quality of DS. Furthermore, the expression of PlNIP1;2-like in the early stage of the DS group was more stable than in WS, which may also be partially responsible for the vase quality improvement. In contrast, PlSIP2;1 may not be involved, since no significant change was observed between the DS and WS group. In short, the expression of PlPIP1;3 and PlTIP2;1 in the DS group during storage may improve water uptake efficiency during the vase period and then improving the vase quality of cut peony.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Aquaporinas , Flores , Paeonia , Água , Aquaporinas/genética , Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Paeonia/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo
8.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 572, 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tree peony (Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews) is a globally famous ornamental flower, with large and colorful flowers and abundant flower types. However, a relatively short and uniform flowering period hinders the applications and production of ornamental tree peony. Unfortunately, the molecular mechanism of regulating flowering time and floral organ development in tree peony has yet to be elucidated. Because of the absence of genomic information, 454-based transcriptome sequence technology for de novo transcriptomics was used to identify the critical flowering genes using re-blooming, non-re-blooming, and wild species of tree peonies. RESULTS: A total of 29,275 unigenes were obtained from the bud transcriptome, with an N50 of 776 bp. The average length of unigenes was 677.18 bp, and the longest sequence was 5815 bp. Functional annotation showed that 22,823, 17,321, 13,312, 20,041, and 9940 unigenes were annotated by NCBI-NR, Swiss-Prot, COG, GO, and KEGG, respectively. Within the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) 64 flowering-related genes were identified and some important flowering genes were also characterized by bioinformatics methods, reverse transcript polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Then, the putative genetic network of flowering induction pathways and a floral organ development model were put forward, according to the comparisons of DEGs in any two samples and expression levels of the important flowering genes in differentiated buds, buds from different developmental stages, and with GA or vernalization treated. In tree peony, five pathways (long day, vernalization, autonomous, age, and gibberellin) regulated flowering, and the floral organ development followed an ABCE model. Moreover, it was also found that the genes PsAP1, PsCOL1, PsCRY1, PsCRY2, PsFT, PsLFY, PsLHY, PsGI, PsSOC1, and PsVIN3 probably regulated re-blooming of tree peony. CONCLUSION: This study provides a comprehensive report on the flowering-related genes in tree peony for the first time and investigated the expression levels of the critical flowering related genes in buds of different cultivars, developmental stages, differentiated primordium, and flower parts. These results could provide valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms of flowering time regulation and floral organ development.


Assuntos
Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes de Plantas/genética , Paeonia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Paeonia/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento
9.
Front Plant Sci ; 10: 189, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30863418

RESUMO

Cabbage hybrids, which clearly present heterosis vigor, are widely used in agricultural production. We compared two S5 haplotype (Class II) cabbage inbred-lines 87-534 and 94-182: the former is highly SC while the latter is highly SI; sequence analysis of SI-related genes including SCR, SRK, ARC1, THL1, and MLPK indicates the some SNPs in ARC1 and SRK of 87-534; semi-quantitative analysis indicated that the SI-related genes were transcribed normally from DNA to mRNA. To unravel the genetic basis of SC, we performed whole-genome mapping of the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) governing self-compatibility using an F2 population derived from 87-534 × 96-100. Eight QTLs were detected, and high contribution rates (CRs) were observed for three QTLs: qSC7.2 (54.8%), qSC9.1 (14.1%) and qSC5.1 (11.2%). 06-88 (CB201 × 96-100) yielded an excellent hybrid. However, F1 seeds cannot be produced at the anthesis stage because the parents share the same S-haplotype (S57, class I). To overcome crossing incompatibility, we performed rapid introgression of the self-compatibility trait from 87-534 to 96-100 using two self-compatibility-QTL-specific markers, BoID0709 and BoID0992, as well as 36 genome-wide markers that were evenly distributed along nine chromosomes for background analysis in recurrent back-crossing (BC). The transfer process showed that the proportion of recurrent parent genome (PRPG) in BC4F1 was greater than 94%, and the ratio of individual SC plants in BC4F1 reached 100%. The newly created line, which was designated SC96-100 and exhibited both agronomic traits that were similar to those of 96-100 and a compatibility index (CI) greater than 5.0, was successfully used in the production of the commercial hybrid 06-88. The study herein provides new insight into the genetic basis of self-compatibility in cabbage and facilitates cabbage breeding using SC lines in the male-sterile (MS) system.

10.
J Plant Physiol ; 233: 31-41, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30580057

RESUMO

Although the natural florescence of the tree peony is short, it can be lengthened by forcing culture. In this study, both defoliation or gibberellic acid (GA3) treatment individually induced tree peony (Paeonia suffruticosa 'Luo Yang Hong') flowering under forcing culture, and their combination (D + G) accelerated flowering with a GA3-overdose-like phenomenon, indicating that synergism between defoliation and GA3 treatment may occur. Both defoliation and GA3 treatment induced a GA response, including (i) increased GA3 production, (ii) increased PsCPS and PsGA3ox expression, and (iii) decreased PsGA2ox, PsGID1c, and PsGID2 expression; both treatments also positively influenced non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) accumulation. According to the expression of five PsSWEETs, PsSWEET2 and PsSWEET17 may redundantly exercise the crosstalk of defoliation and GA3 treatment by NSC distribution, whereas PsSWEET12 may act by GA modulation; no synergism resulting from the D + G treatment was detected. Tissue-specific analysis indicated that, in sepals, PsSWEET2 and PsSWET7 are both induced by defoliation and GA3 treatment, whereas PsSWEET2 expression showed synergism with the D + G treatment. In summary, defoliation and GA3 treatment synergistically induce tree peony flowering under forcing culture, and NSCs are suggested as key intermedia. Moreover, sepals may play key roles in their synergism, although more direct evidence is still needed.


Assuntos
Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Giberelinas/farmacologia , Paeonia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Carboidratos/fisiologia , Flores/fisiologia , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Paeonia/efeitos dos fármacos , Paeonia/metabolismo , Paeonia/fisiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
11.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 132: 571-578, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30326436

RESUMO

In this study, the reflowering mechanism of tree peony (Paeonia suffruticosa 'Zi Luo Lan') after defoliation and gibberellic acid (GA) application (autumn-flowering treatment) was investigated by monitoring the morphological changes, measuring the endogenous GA3 and abscisic acid (ABA) contents, and determining the expression patterns of six GA- and two ABA-related genes. The results show that autumn-flowering treatment induced tree peony reflowering in autumn, which was accompanied by nutrient absorption in buds. The application of exogenous GA3 induced a simultaneous increase in GA3 and decrease in ABA levels, suggesting that the high ratios of GA3/ABA may play a key role in inducing tree peony reflowering. RT-qPCR analysis shows that PsCPS and PsGA2ox were significantly induced and inhibited by GA3 application, respectively, which supports the hypothesis that GA3 treatment induces endogenous GA3 production. In addition, GA3 treatment inhibited the expression of the PsGID1c, but its effect on PsGAI1 was limited, whereas the expression of PsGAMYB could be GA- or ABA-related. Furthermore, autumn-flowering treatment significantly inhibited the expression of PsNCED and PsbZIP, which coincides with the observed changes in ABA levels. Therefore, we postulate that autumn-flowering treatment induces tree peony reflowering by inhibiting the function of ABA accumulation and signaling.


Assuntos
Flores/fisiologia , Giberelinas/farmacologia , Paeonia/fisiologia , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Flores/genética , Flores/ultraestrutura , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes de Plantas , Paeonia/anatomia & histologia , Paeonia/genética , Paeonia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estações do Ano , Amido/metabolismo , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
12.
J Plant Physiol ; 224-225: 56-67, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29597068

RESUMO

Seed germination is a critical process that is influenced by various factors. In the present study, the effect of low temperature (4 °C) on tree peony seed germination was investigated. Compared to seeds maintained at 25 °C, germination was inhibited when seeds were kept at 4 °C. Furthermore, low-temperature exposure of seeds resulted in a delay in water uptake, starch degradation, and soluble sugar consumption and a subsequent increase in soluble protein levels. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) proteomic analysis identified 100 protein spots. Comparative analysis indicated that low-temperature exposure apparently mainly affected glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, while also significantly affecting proteometabolism-related factors. Moreover, low-temperature exposure led to the induction of abscisic acid, whereas the gibberellin pathway was not affected. Further comparison of the two temperature conditions showed that low-temperature exposure delays carbohydrate metabolism, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, respiration, and proteolysis and increases defense response factors. To further examine the obtained proteomic findings, four genes were evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The obtained transcriptional results for the GAPC gene coincided with the translational results, thus further suggesting that the delay in glycolysis may play a key role in low-temperature-induced inhibition of seed germination. However, the other three genes examined, which included FPP synthase, PCNT115, and endochitinase, showed non-correlative transcriptional and translational profiles. Our results suggest that the exposure of tree peony seeds to low temperature results in a delay in the degradation of starch and other metabolites, which in turn affects glycolysis and some other processes, thereby ultimately inhibiting seed germination.


Assuntos
Germinação , Paeonia/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteoma , Transcriptoma , Temperatura Baixa , Germinação/genética , Paeonia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
Genes (Basel) ; 8(6)2017 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28587228

RESUMO

Hybrid lethality is a deleterious phenotype that is vital to species evolution. We previously reported hybrid lethality in cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and performed preliminary mapping of related genes. In the present study, the fine mapping of hybrid lethal genes revealed that BoHL1 was located on chromosome C1 between BoHLTO124 and BoHLTO130, with an interval of 101 kb. BoHL2 was confirmed to be between insertion-deletion (InDels) markers HL234 and HL235 on C4, with a marker interval of 70 kb. Twenty-eight and nine annotated genes were found within the two intervals of BoHL1 and BoHL2, respectively. We also applied RNA-Seq to analyze hybrid lethality in cabbage. In the region of BoHL1, seven differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and five resistance (R)-related genes (two in common, i.e., Bo1g153320 and Bo1g153380) were found, whereas in the region of BoHL2, two DEGs and four R-related genes (two in common, i.e., Bo4g173780 and Bo4g173810) were found. Along with studies in which R genes were frequently involved in hybrid lethality in other plants, these interesting R-DEGs may be good candidates associated with hybrid lethality. We also used SNP/InDel analyses and quantitative real-time PCR to confirm the results. This work provides new insight into the mechanisms of hybrid lethality in cabbage.

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