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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445339

RESUMO

Both agonist studies and loss-of-function models indicate that PPARγ plays an important role in cutaneous biology. Since PPARγ has a high level of basal activity, we hypothesized that epidermal PPARγ would regulate normal homeostatic processes within the epidermis. In this current study, we performed mRNA sequencing and differential expression analysis of epidermal scrapings from knockout mice and wildtype littermates. Pparg-/-epi mice exhibited a 1.5-fold or greater change in the expression of 11.8% of 14,482 identified transcripts. Up-regulated transcripts included those for a large number of cytokines/chemokines and their receptors, as well as genes associated with inflammasome activation and keratinization. Several of the most dramatically up-regulated pro-inflammatory genes in Pparg-/-epi mouse skin included Igfl3, 2610528A11Rik, and Il1f6. RT-PCR was performed from RNA obtained from non-lesional full-thickness skin and verified a marked increase in these transcripts, as well as transcripts for Igflr1, which encodes the receptor for Igfl3, and the 2610528A11Rik receptor (Gpr15). Transcripts for Il4 were detected in Pparg-/-epi mouse skin, but transcripts for Il17 and Il22 were not detected. Down-regulated transcripts included sebaceous gland markers and a number of genes associated with lipid barrier formation. The change in these transcripts correlates with an asebia phenotype, increased transepidermal water loss, alopecia, dandruff, and the appearance of spontaneous inflammatory skin lesions. Histologically, non-lesional skin showed hyperkeratosis, while inflammatory lesions were characterized by dermal inflammation and epidermal acanthosis, spongiosis, and parakeratosis. In conclusion, loss of epidermal Pparg alters a substantial set of genes that are associated with cutaneous inflammation, keratinization, and sebaceous gland function. The data indicate that epidermal PPARγ plays an important role in homeostatic epidermal function, particularly epidermal differentiation, barrier function, sebaceous gland development and function, and inflammatory signaling.


Assuntos
Dermatite/genética , Epiderme/metabolismo , PPAR gama/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele/genética , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Dermatite/metabolismo , Dermatite/patologia , Dermatite/fisiopatologia , Epiderme/fisiologia , Homeostase/genética , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos da Linhagem 129 , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo
2.
Cancer Lett ; 520: 255-266, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329741

RESUMO

Pharmacological approaches to breast cancer risk-reduction for BRCA1 mutation carriers would provide an alternative to mastectomy. BRCA1-deficiency dysregulates progesterone signaling, promoting tumorigenesis. Selective progesterone receptor (PR) modulators (SPRMs) are therefore candidate prevention agents. However, their efficacy varies in different BRCA1-deficient mouse models. We examined chemopreventive efficacy of telapristone acetate (TPA), ulipristal acetate (UPA) and mifepristone (MFP) in mice with a conditional knockout of the Brca1 C-terminal domain. The SPRMs displayed a spectrum of efficacy: UPA was most effective, TPA less, and MFP ineffective. Compared to no-treatment controls, UPA reduced tumorigenesis (p = 0.04), and increased tumor latency (p = 0.03). In benign mammary glands, UPA decreased Ki67 (p < 0.001) and increased PR expression (p < 0.0001). RNA sequencing analysis revealed distinct gene expression in response to UPA and MFP. UPA downregulated glycolysis and extracellular matrix-inflammation genes (Fn1, Ptgs2, Tgfb2, Tgfb3) whereas MFP downregulated claudin genes and upregulated amino acid metabolism and inflammation genes. The anti-glucocorticoid effects of MFP appeared not to be tumor-protective, while altering estrogen receptor signaling and NF-kB activation. Our study points to an important role of epithelial PR and its paracrine action on the microenvironment in BRCA1-deficient mammary tumorigenesis, and prevention.

3.
ASN Neuro ; 13: 17590914211019886, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098774

RESUMO

Increasing evidence associates indoor fungal exposure with deleterious central nervous system (CNS) health, such as cognitive and emotional deficits in children and adults, but the specific mechanisms by which it might impact the brain are poorly understood. Mice were exposed to filtered air, heat-inactivated Aspergillus versicolor (3 × 105 spores), or viable A. versicolor (3 × 105 spores) via nose-only inhalation exposure 2 times per week for 1, 2, or 4 weeks. Analysis of cortex, midbrain, olfactory bulb, and cerebellum tissue from mice exposed to viable A. versicolor spores for 1, 2, and 4 weeks revealed significantly elevated pro-inflammatory (Tnf and Il1b) and glial activity (Gdnf and Cxc3r1) gene expression in several brain regions when compared to filtered air control, with the most consistent and pronounced neuroimmune response 48H following the 4-week exposure in the midbrain and frontal lobe. Bulk RNA-seq analysis of the midbrain tissue confirmed that 4 weeks of A. versicolor exposure resulted in significant transcriptional enrichment of several biological pathways compared to the filtered air control, including neuroinflammation, glial cell activation, and regulation of postsynaptic organization. Upregulation of Drd1, Penk, and Pdyn mRNA expression was confirmed in the 4-week A. versicolor exposed midbrain tissue, highlighting that gene expression important for neurotransmission was affected by repeated A. versicolor inhalation exposure. Taken together, these findings indicate that the brain can detect and respond to A. versicolor inhalation exposure with changes in neuroimmune and neurotransmission gene expression, providing much needed insight into how inhaled fungal exposures can affect CNS responses and regulate neuroimmune homeostasis.

4.
Oncotarget ; 12(10): 967-981, 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34012510

RESUMO

CD4+ helper T (Th) cells play a critical role in shaping anti-tumor immunity by virtue of their ability to differentiate into multiple lineages in response to environmental cues. Various CD4+ lineages can orchestrate a broad range of effector activities during the initiation, expansion, and memory phase of endogenous anti-tumor immune response. In this clinical corelative study, we found that Glioblastoma (GBM) induces multi- and mixed-lineage immune response in the tumor microenvironment. Whole-genome bisulfite sequencing of tumor infiltrating and blood CD4+ T-cell from GBM patients showed 13571 differentially methylated regions and a distinct methylation pattern of methylation of tumor infiltrating CD4+ T-cells with significant inter-patient variability. The methylation changes also resulted in transcriptomic changes with 341 differentially expressed genes in CD4+ tumor infiltrating T-cells compared to blood. Analysis of specific genes involved in CD4+ differentiation and function revealed differential methylation status of TBX21, GATA3, RORC, FOXP3, IL10 and IFNG in tumor CD4+ T-cells. Analysis of lineage specific genes revealed differential methylation and gene expression in tumor CD4+ T-cells. Interestingly, we observed dysregulation of several ligands of T cell function genes in GBM tissue corresponding to the T-cell receptors that were dysregulated in tumor infiltrating CD4+ T-cells. Our results suggest that GBM might induce epigenetic alterations in tumor infiltrating CD4+ T-cells there by influencing anti-tumor immune response by manipulating differentiation and function of tumor infiltrating CD4+ T-cells. Thus, further research is warranted to understand the role of tumor induced epigenetic modification of tumor infiltrating T-cells to develop effective anti-GBM immunotherapy.

5.
Front Genet ; 12: 663487, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33968139

RESUMO

Single-cell RNA sequencing reveals gene expression differences between individual cells and also identifies different cell populations that are present in the bulk starting material. To obtain an accurate assessment of patient samples, single-cell suspensions need to be generated as soon as possible once the tissue or sample has been collected. However, this requirement poses logistical challenges for experimental designs involving multiple samples from the same subject since these samples would ideally be processed at the same time to minimize technical variation in data analysis. Although cryopreservation has been shown to largely preserve the transcriptome, it is unclear whether the freeze-thaw process might alter gene expression profiles in a cell-type specific manner or whether changes in cell-type proportions might also occur. To address these questions in the context of multiple myeloma clinical studies, we performed single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) to compare fresh and frozen cells isolated from bone marrow aspirates of six multiple myeloma patients, analyzing both myeloma cells (CD138+) and cells constituting the microenvironment (CD138-). We found that cryopreservation using 90% fetal calf serum and 10% dimethyl sulfoxide resulted in highly consistent gene expression profiles when comparing fresh and frozen samples from the same patient for both CD138+ myeloma cells (R ≥ 0.96) and for CD138- cells (R ≥ 0.9). We also demonstrate that CD138- cell-type proportions showed minimal alterations, which were mainly related to small differences in immune cell subtype sensitivity to the freeze-thaw procedures. Therefore, when processing fresh multiple myeloma samples is not feasible, cryopreservation is a useful option in single-cell profiling studies.

6.
JCI Insight ; 6(12)2021 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34003797

RESUMO

Single-cell sequencing studies have characterized the transcriptomic signature of cell types within the kidney. However, the spatial distribution of acute kidney injury (AKI) is regional and affects cells heterogeneously. We first optimized coordination of spatial transcriptomics and single-nuclear sequencing data sets, mapping 30 dominant cell types to a human nephrectomy. The predicted cell-type spots corresponded with the underlying histopathology. To study the implications of AKI on transcript expression, we then characterized the spatial transcriptomic signature of 2 murine AKI models: ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) and cecal ligation puncture (CLP). Localized regions of reduced overall expression were associated with injury pathways. Using single-cell sequencing, we deconvoluted the signature of each spatial transcriptomic spot, identifying patterns of colocalization between immune and epithelial cells. Neutrophils infiltrated the renal medulla in the ischemia model. Atf3 was identified as a chemotactic factor in S3 proximal tubules. In the CLP model, infiltrating macrophages dominated the outer cortical signature, and Mdk was identified as a corresponding chemotactic factor. The regional distribution of these immune cells was validated with multiplexed CO-Detection by indEXing (CODEX) immunofluorescence. Spatial transcriptomic sequencing complemented single-cell sequencing by uncovering mechanisms driving immune cell infiltration and detection of relevant cell subpopulations.

7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2405, 2021 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33893305

RESUMO

Kidney intercalated cells are involved in acid-base homeostasis via vacuolar ATPase expression. Here we report six human intercalated cell subtypes, including hybrid principal-intercalated cells identified from single cell transcriptomics. Phagosome maturation is a biological process that increases in biological pathway analysis rank following exposure to uropathogenic Escherichia coli in two of the intercalated cell subtypes. Real time confocal microscopy visualization of murine renal tubules perfused with green fluorescent protein expressing Escherichia coli or pHrodo Green E. coli BioParticles demonstrates that intercalated cells actively phagocytose bacteria then acidify phagolysosomes. Additionally, intercalated cells have increased vacuolar ATPase expression following in vivo experimental UTI. Taken together, intercalated cells exhibit a transcriptional response conducive to the kidney's defense, engulf bacteria and acidify the internalized bacteria. Intercalated cells represent an epithelial cell with characteristics of professional phagocytes like macrophages.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Rim/imunologia , Fagócitos/imunologia , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica/imunologia , Ácidos/química , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Humanos , Rim/citologia , Rim/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais Coletores/citologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Microscopia Confocal , Fagócitos/citologia , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , ATPases Vacuolares Próton-Translocadoras/metabolismo
8.
Cell Rep Med ; 2(3): 100219, 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33763657

RESUMO

Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) is an evolving technology used to elucidate the cellular architecture of adult organs. Previous scRNA-seq on breast tissue utilized reduction mammoplasty samples, which are often histologically abnormal. We report a rapid tissue collection/processing protocol to perform scRNA-seq of breast biopsies of healthy women and identify 23 breast epithelial cell clusters. Putative cell-of-origin signatures derived from these clusters are applied to analyze transcriptomes of ~3,000 breast cancers. Gene signatures derived from mature luminal cell clusters are enriched in ~68% of breast cancers, whereas a signature from a luminal progenitor cluster is enriched in ~20% of breast cancers. Overexpression of luminal progenitor cluster-derived signatures in HER2+, but not in other subtypes, is associated with unfavorable outcome. We identify TBX3 and PDK4 as genes co-expressed with estrogen receptor (ER) in the normal breasts, and their expression analyses in >550 breast cancers enable prognostically relevant subclassification of ER+ breast cancers.

9.
Elife ; 102021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33448928

RESUMO

Sepsis is a dynamic state that progresses at variable rates and has life-threatening consequences. Staging patients along the sepsis timeline requires a thorough knowledge of the evolution of cellular and molecular events at the tissue level. Here, we investigated the kidney, an organ central to the pathophysiology of sepsis. Single-cell RNA-sequencing in a murine endotoxemia model revealed the involvement of various cell populations to be temporally organized and highly orchestrated. Endothelial and stromal cells were the first responders. At later time points, epithelial cells upregulated immune-related pathways while concomitantly downregulating physiological functions such as solute homeostasis. Sixteen hours after endotoxin, there was global cell-cell communication failure and organ shutdown. Despite this apparent organ paralysis, upstream regulatory analysis showed significant activity in pathways involved in healing and recovery. This rigorous spatial and temporal definition of murine endotoxemia will uncover precise biomarkers and targets that can help stage and treat human sepsis.

10.
Mol Psychiatry ; 26(4): 1142-1151, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477794

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of complex traits, such as alcohol use disorders (AUD), usually identify variants in non-coding regions and cannot by themselves distinguish whether the associated variants are functional or in linkage disequilibrium with the functional variants. Transcriptome studies can identify genes whose expression differs between alcoholics and controls. To test which variants associated with AUD may cause expression differences, we integrated data from deep RNA-seq and GWAS of four postmortem brain regions from 30 subjects with AUD and 30 controls to analyze allele-specific expression (ASE). We identified 88 genes with differential ASE in subjects with AUD compared to controls. Next, to test one potential mechanism contributing to the differential ASE, we analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 3' untranslated regions (3'UTR) of these genes. Of the 88 genes with differential ASE, 61 genes contained 437 SNPs in the 3'UTR with at least one heterozygote among the subjects studied. Using a modified PASSPORT-seq (parallel assessment of polymorphisms in miRNA target-sites by sequencing) assay, we identified 25 SNPs that affected RNA levels in a consistent manner in two neuroblastoma cell lines, SH-SY5Y and SK-N-BE(2). Many of these SNPs are in binding sites of miRNAs and RNA-binding proteins, indicating that these SNPs are likely causal variants of AUD-associated differential ASE. In sum, we demonstrate that a combination of computational and experimental approaches provides a powerful strategy to uncover functionally relevant variants associated with the risk for AUD.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas/genética , Alcoolismo/genética , Alelos , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
11.
Cell ; 183(5): 1234-1248.e25, 2020 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113353

RESUMO

Brain metastasis (br-met) develops in an immunologically unique br-met niche. Central nervous system-native myeloid cells (CNS-myeloids) and bone-marrow-derived myeloid cells (BMDMs) cooperatively regulate brain immunity. The phenotypic heterogeneity and specific roles of these myeloid subsets in shaping the br-met niche to regulate br-met outgrowth have not been fully revealed. Applying multimodal single-cell analyses, we elucidated a heterogeneous but spatially defined CNS-myeloid response during br-met outgrowth. We found Ccr2+ BMDMs minimally influenced br-met while CNS-myeloid promoted br-met outgrowth. Additionally, br-met-associated CNS-myeloid exhibited downregulation of Cx3cr1. Cx3cr1 knockout in CNS-myeloid increased br-met incidence, leading to an enriched interferon response signature and Cxcl10 upregulation. Significantly, neutralization of Cxcl10 reduced br-met, while rCxcl10 increased br-met and recruited VISTAHi PD-L1+ CNS-myeloid to br-met lesions. Inhibiting VISTA- and PD-L1-signaling relieved immune suppression and reduced br-met burden. Our results demonstrate that loss of Cx3cr1 in CNS-myeloid triggers a Cxcl10-mediated vicious cycle, cultivating a br-met-promoting, immune-suppressive niche.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/imunologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Quimiocina CXCL10/metabolismo , Imunossupressão , Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Receptor 1 de Quimiocina CX3C/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Interferons/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Testes de Neutralização , Fenótipo , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Transcriptoma/genética
12.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 44(12): 2494-2518, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of alcohol dependence (AD) and related phenotypes have identified multiple loci, but the functional variants underlying the loci have in most cases not been identified. Noncoding variants can influence phenotype by affecting gene expression; for example, variants in the 3' untranslated regions (3'UTR) can affect gene expression posttranscriptionally. METHODS: We adapted a high-throughput assay known as PASSPORT-seq (parallel assessment of polymorphisms in miRNA target sites by sequencing) to identify among variants associated with AD and related phenotypes those that cause differential expression in neuronal cell lines. Based upon meta-analyses of alcohol-related traits in African American and European Americans in the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism, we tested 296 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs with meta-analysis p values ≤ 0.001) that were located in 3'UTRs. RESULTS: We identified 60 SNPs that affected gene expression (false discovery rate [FDR] < 0.05) in SH-SY5Y cells and 92 that affected expression in SK-N-BE(2) cells. Among these, 30 SNPs altered RNA levels in the same direction in both cell lines. Many of these SNPs reside in the binding sites of miRNAs and RNA-binding proteins and are expression quantitative trait loci of genes including KIF6,FRMD4A,CADM2,ADD2,PLK2, and GAS7. CONCLUSION: The SNPs identified in the PASSPORT-seq assay are functional variants that might affect the risk for AD and related phenotypes. Our study provides insights into gene regulation in AD and demonstrates the value of PASSPORT-seq as a tool to screen genetic variants in GWAS loci for one potential mechanism of action.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas/genética , Linhagem Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos
13.
J Biomol Tech ; 31(3): 88-93, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32831655

RESUMO

Sanger sequencing remains an essential tool utilized by researchers. Despite competition from commercial sequencing providers, many academic sequencing core facilities continue to offer these services based on a model of competitive pricing, knowledgeable technical support, and rapid turnaround time. In-house Sanger sequencing remains a viable core service and, until recently, Applied Biosystems BigDye Terminator chemistry was the only commercially available solution for Sanger DNA sequencing on Applied Biosystems (ABI) instruments; however, several new products employing novel dye chemistries and reaction configurations have entered the market. As a result, there is a need to benchmark the performance of these new chemistries on various DNA templates, including difficult-to-sequence templates, and their amenability to commonly employed cost-saving measures, such as dye dilution and reaction miniaturization. To evaluate these new reagents, a study was designed to compare the quality of Sanger sequencing data produced by ABI BigDye and commercially available kits from 2 other vendors using both control and difficult-to-sequence DNA templates under various reaction conditions. This study will serve as a valuable resource to core facilities conducting Sanger sequencing that wish to evaluate the use of an alternative chemistry in their sequencing core.


Assuntos
Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Corantes/química , DNA/genética , Moldes Genéticos
14.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 6: 24, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32566745

RESUMO

It is largely unknown how the development of breast cancer (BC) is transduced by somatic genetic alterations in the benign breast. Since benign breast disease is an established risk factor for BC, we established a case-control study of women with a history of benign breast biopsy (BBB). Cases developed BC at least one year after BBB and controls did not develop BC over an average of 17 years following BBB. 135 cases were matched to 69 controls by age and type of benign change: non-proliferative or proliferation without atypia (PDWA). Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed for the BBB. Germline DNA (available from n = 26 participants) was utilized to develop a mutation-calling pipeline, to allow differentiation of somatic from germline variants. Among the 204 subjects, two known mutational signatures were identified, along with a currently uncatalogued signature that was significantly associated with triple negative BC (TNBC) (p = 0.007). The uncatalogued mutational signature was validated in 109 TNBCs from TCGA (p = 0.001). Compared to non-proliferative samples, PDWA harbors more abundant mutations at PIK3CA pH1047R (p < 0.001). Among the 26 BBB whose somatic copy number variation could be assessed, deletion of MLH3 is significantly associated with the mismatch repair mutational signature (p < 0.001). Matched BBB-cancer pairs were available for ten cases; several mutations were shared between BBB and cancers. This initial study of WES of BBB shows its potential for the identification of genetic alterations that portend breast oncogenesis. In future larger studies, robust personalized breast cancer risk indicators leading to novel interception paradigms can be assessed.

15.
J Biomol Tech ; 31(2): 47-56, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31966025

RESUMO

Small RNAs (smRNAs) are important regulators of many biologic processes and are now most frequently characterized using Illumina sequencing. However, although standard RNA sequencing library preparation has become routine in most sequencing facilities, smRNA sequencing library preparation has historically been challenging because of high input requirements, laborious protocols involving gel purifications, inability to automate, and a lack of benchmarking standards. Additionally, studies have suggested that many of these methods are nonlinear and do not accurately reflect the amounts of smRNAs in vivo. Recently, a number of new kits have become available that permit lower input amounts and less laborious, gel-free protocol options. Several of these new kits claim to reduce RNA ligase-dependent sequence bias through novel adapter modifications and to lessen adapter-dimer contamination in the resulting libraries. With the increasing number of smRNA kits available, understanding the relative strengths of each method is crucial for appropriate experimental design. In this study, we systematically compared 9 commercially available smRNA library preparation kits as well as NanoString probe hybridization across multiple study sites. Although several of the new methodologies do reduce the amount of artificially over- and underrepresented microRNAs (miRNAs), we observed that none of the methods was able to remove all of the bias in the library preparation. Identical samples prepared with different methods show highly varied levels of different miRNAs. Even so, many methods excelled in ease of use, lower input requirement, fraction of usable reads, and reproducibility across sites. These differences may help users select the most appropriate methods for their specific question of interest.


Assuntos
Biblioteca Gênica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/normas , MicroRNAs/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA/normas , MicroRNAs/isolamento & purificação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Software
16.
Alcohol ; 85: 119-126, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923563

RESUMO

Cycles of heavy drinking and abstinence can lead to alcohol use disorder. We studied the effects of chronic intermittent ethanol exposure (CIE) over 3 weeks on neuroblastoma cells, using an ethanol concentration frequently attained in binge drinking (40 mM, 184 mg/dL). There were many changes in gene expression but most were small. CIE affected pathways instrumental in the development or plasticity of neurons, including axonal guidance, reelin signaling, and synaptogenesis. Genes involved in dopamine and serotonin signaling were also affected. Changes in transporters and receptors could dampen both NMDA and norepinephrine transmissions. Decreased expression of the GABA transporter SLC6A11 could increase GABA transmission and has been associated with a switch from sweet drinking to ethanol consumption in rats. Ethanol increased stress responses such as the unfolded protein response. TGF-ß and NFκB signaling were increased. Most of the genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis were decreased in expression. Withdrawal for 24 h after CIE caused most of the CIE-induced expression changes to move back toward unexposed levels.


Assuntos
Linhagem Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neuroblastoma , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Alcoolismo/metabolismo , Etanol/farmacologia , Humanos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo
17.
Alcohol ; 79: 81-91, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639126

RESUMO

The short-term effects of alcohol on gene expression in brain tissue cannot directly be studied in humans. Because neuroimmune signaling is altered by alcohol, immune cells are a logical, accessible choice to study and may provide biomarkers. RNAseq was used to study the effects of 48-h exposure to ethanol on lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from 20 alcoholic subjects and 20 control subjects. Ethanol exposure resulted in differential expression of 4456 of the 12,503 genes detectably expressed in the LCLs (FDR [false discovery rate] ≤ 0.05); 52% of these showed increased expression. Cells from alcoholic subjects and control subjects responded similarly. The genes whose expression changed fell into many pathways: NFκB, neuroinflammation, IL6, IL2, IL8, and dendritic cell maturation pathways were activated, consistent with increased signaling by NFκB, TNF, IL1, IL4, IL18, TLR4, and LPS. Signaling by Interferons A and B decreased, as did EIF2 signaling, phospholipase C signaling, and glycolysis. Baseline gene expression patterns were similar in LCLs from alcoholic subjects and control subjects. At relaxed stringency (p < 0.05), 465 genes differed, 230 of which were also affected by ethanol. There was a suggestion of compensation because baseline differences (no ethanol) were in the opposite direction of differences due to ethanol exposure in 78% of these genes. Pathways with IL8, phospholipase C, and α-adrenergic signaling were significant. The pattern of expression was consistent with increased signaling by several cytokines, including interferons, TLR2, and TLR3 in alcoholics. Expression of genes in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, including the rate-limiting enzyme HMGCR, was lower in alcoholic subjects. LCLs show many effects of ethanol exposure, some of which might provide biomarkers for alcohol use disorders. Identifying genes and pathways altered by ethanol can aid in interpreting which genes within loci identified by GWAS might play functional roles.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/imunologia , Etanol/farmacologia , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem Celular , Colesterol/biossíntese , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Citocinas/imunologia , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroimunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA-Seq , Ratos
18.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 34(11): 1924-1931, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29982608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular mortality in patients receiving dialysis remains unacceptably high, with unexplained ancestry differences suggesting a genetic component. METHODS: We analyzed DNA samples from 37% of subjects enrolled in the EValuation Of Cinacalcet Hydrochloride (HCl) Therapy to Lower CardioVascular Events (EVOLVE) trial, a randomized trial conducted in patients receiving hemodialysis with secondary hyperparathyroidism, comparing cinacalcet to placebo on a background of usual care. DNA was analyzed for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes encoding the angiotensin-converting enzyme receptor type I (AGTR1) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Survival analyses were conducted separately in European Ancestry (EA) and African Ancestry (AfAn) due to known differences in cardiovascular events, minor alleles for the same variant and the frequency of minor alleles. Our primary determination was a meta-analysis across both races. RESULTS: Meta-analysis showed significant associations between rs5186 in AGTR1 and increased rates by 25-34% for the primary endpoint (composite of death or nonfatal myocardial infarction, hospitalization for unstable angina, heart failure or peripheral vascular event), all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality and heart failure; all P < 0.001. Three correlated SNPs in ACE were associated with lower rates of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in EA samples. One ACE SNP, rs4318, only found in the AfAn samples, was associated with a lower rate of SCD in the AfAn samples. CONCLUSIONS: The C allele in rs5186 in AGTR1 was associated with higher rates of death and major cardiovascular events in a meta-analysis of EA and AfAn patients with end-stage kidney disease. SNPs in ACE were associated with SCD.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina/genética , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Angiotensinas/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Cinacalcete/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperparatireoidismo Secundário/terapia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
19.
J Endocrinol ; 240(2): 309-323, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30508415

RESUMO

Offspring of diabetic mothers are susceptible to developing type 2 diabetes due to pancreatic islet dysfunction. However, the initiating molecular pathways leading to offspring pancreatic islet dysfunction are unknown. We hypothesized that maternal hyperglycemia alters offspring pancreatic islet transcriptome and negatively impacts offspring islet function. We employed an infusion model capable of inducing localized hyperglycemia in fetal rats residing in the left uterine horn, thus avoiding other factors involved in programming offspring pancreatic islet health. While maintaining euglycemia in maternal dams and right uterine horn control fetuses, hyperglycemic fetuses in the left uterine horn had higher serum insulin and pancreatic beta cell area. Upon completing infusion from GD20 to 22, RNA sequencing was performed on GD22 islets to identify the hyperglycemia-induced altered gene expression. Ingenuity pathway analysis of the altered transcriptome found that diabetes mellitus and inflammation/cell death pathways were enriched. Interestingly, the downregulated genes modulate more diverse biological processes, which includes responses to stimuli and developmental processes. Next, we performed ex and in vivo studies to evaluate islet cell viability and insulin secretory function in weanling and adult offspring. Pancreatic islets of weanlings exposed to late gestation hyperglycemia had decreased cell viability in basal state and glucose-induced insulin secretion. Lastly, adult offspring exposed to in utero hyperglycemia also exhibited glucose intolerance and insulin secretory dysfunction. Together, our results demonstrate that late gestational hyperglycemia alters the fetal pancreatic islet transcriptome and increases offspring susceptibility to developing pancreatic islet dysfunction.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Gestacional/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Animais , Diabetes Gestacional/genética , Diabetes Gestacional/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Feto/efeitos dos fármacos , Feto/metabolismo , Feto/fisiopatologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Ontologia Genética , Glucose/farmacologia , Hiperglicemia/genética , Hiperglicemia/fisiopatologia , Secreção de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Secreção de Insulina/genética , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/embriologia , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Ratos
20.
Alcohol ; 68: 37-47, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29448234

RESUMO

Binge drinking of alcohol during adolescence is a serious public health concern with long-term consequences, including decreased hippocampal and prefrontal cortex volume and deficits in memory. We used RNA sequencing to assess the effects of adolescent binge drinking on gene expression in these regions. Male adolescent alcohol-preferring (P) rats were exposed to repeated binge drinking (three 1-h sessions/day during the dark/cycle, 5 days/week for 3 weeks starting at 28 days of age; ethanol intakes of 2.5-3 g/kg/session). Ethanol significantly altered the expression of 416 of 11,727 genes expressed in the ventral hippocampus. Genes and pathways involved in neurogenesis, long-term potentiation, and axonal guidance were decreased, which could relate to the impaired memory function found in subjects with adolescent alcohol binge-like exposure. The decreased expression of myelin and cholesterol genes and apparent decrease in oligodendrocytes in P rats could result in decreased myelination. In the medial prefrontal cortex, 638 of 11,579 genes were altered; genes in cellular stress and inflammatory pathways were increased, as were genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation. Overall, the results of this study suggest that adolescent binge-like alcohol drinking may alter the development of the ventral hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex and produce long-term consequences on learning and memory, and on control of impulsive behaviors.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Consumo Excessivo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Consumo Excessivo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Animais , Axônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Neurogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurogênese/genética , Fosforilação Oxidativa/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética
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