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1.
ChemSusChem ; 7(10): 2853-8, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25139044

RESUMO

Thin films of copper are widely used as current collectors for the negative electrodes in lithium-ion batteries. However, a major cause of battery failure is delamination between the current collector and the graphite anode. When silicon or tin is used as active material, delamination becomes a key issue owing to the large volume changes of these materials during lithation and delithation processes. Learning from Nature, we developed a new biomimetic approach based on the adhesion properties of the feet of geckos. The biomimetic approach improves adhesion between the laminate and the copper surface by introducing an array of Cu(OH)2 nanorods, which increases the surface area of the current collector. When graphite anode laminate is casted onto regular and a modified copper surfaces, the modified current collector displays superior adhesion to graphite and the PVDF binder-based electrode. The electrochemical performance of the batteries using these electrodes is not compromised by the additional chemistry of the Cu(OH)2 on the copper surface. The technique can lead to enhanced battery lifetimes over long-term cycling.


Assuntos
Biomimética , Cobre/química , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Grafite/química , Lítio/química , Eletrodos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
2.
Chemistry ; 20(24): 7479-85, 2014 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24782138

RESUMO

LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 is regarded as a promising cathode material to increase the energy density of lithium-ion batteries due to the high discharge voltage (ca. 4.7 V). However, the interface between the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode and the electrolyte is a great concern because of the decomposition of the electrolyte on the cathode surface at high operational potentials. To build a stable and functional protecting layer of Li3PO4 on LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 to avoid direct contact between the active materials and the electrolyte is the emphasis of this study. Li3PO4-coated LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 is prepared by a solid-state reaction and noncoated LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 is prepared by the same method as a control. The materials are fully characterized by XRD, FT-IR, and high-resolution TEM. TEM shows that the Li3PO4 layer (<6 nm) is successfully coated on the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 primary particles. XRD and FT-IR reveal that the synthesized Li3PO4-coated LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 has a cubic spinel structure with a space group of Fd3m, whereas noncoated LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 shows a cubic spinel structure with a space group of P4(3)32. The electrochemical performance of the prepared materials is characterized in half and full cells. Li3PO4-coated LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 shows dramatically enhanced cycling performance compared with noncoated LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4.

3.
J Am Chem Soc ; 135(32): 12048-56, 2013 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23855781

RESUMO

The dilemma of employing high-capacity battery materials and maintaining the electronic and mechanical integrity of electrodes demands novel designs of binder systems. Here, we developed a binder polymer with multifunctionality to maintain high electronic conductivity, mechanical adhesion, ductility, and electrolyte uptake. These critical properties are achieved by designing polymers with proper functional groups. Through synthesis, spectroscopy, and simulation, electronic conductivity is optimized by tailoring the key electronic state, which is not disturbed by further modifications of side chains. This fundamental allows separated optimization of the mechanical and swelling properties without detrimental effect on electronic property. Remaining electronically conductive, the enhanced polarity of the polymer greatly improves the adhesion, ductility, and more importantly, the electrolyte uptake to the levels of those available only in nonconductive binders before. We also demonstrate directly the performance of the developed conductive binder by achieving full-capacity cycling of silicon particles without using any conductive additive.

5.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 13(15): 7170-7, 2011 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21399829

RESUMO

We synthesized Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticle/reduced graphene oxide (RGO-Fe(3)O(4)) nanocomposites and evaluated their performance as anodes in both half and full coin cells. The nanocomposites were synthesized through a chemical co-precipitation of Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) in the presence of graphene oxides within an alkaline solution and a subsequent high-temperature reduction reaction in argon (Ar) environment. The morphology and microstructures of the fabricated RGO-Fe(3)O(4) nanocomposites were characterized using various techniques. The results indicated that the Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles had relatively homogeneous dispersions on the RGO sheet surfaces. These as-synthesized RGO-Fe(3)O(4) nanocomposites were used as anodes for both half and full lithium-ion cells. Electrochemical measurement results exhibit a high reversible capacity which is about two and a half times higher than that of graphite-based anodes at a 0.05C rate, and an enhanced reversible capacity of about 200 mAh g(-1) even at a high charge/discharge rate of 10C (9260 mA g(-1)) in half cells. Most important of all, these fabricated novel nanostructures also show exceptional capacity retention with the assembled RGO-Fe(3)O(4)/LiNi(1/3)Mn(1/3)Co(1/3)O(2) full cell at different C rates. This outstanding electrochemical behavior can be attributed to the unique microstructure, morphology, texture, surface properties of the nanocomposites, and combinative effects from the different chemical composition in the nanocomposites.

6.
Org Lett ; 10(17): 3785-7, 2008 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18680308

RESUMO

This work demonstrates that the donor-acceptor-donor charge-transfer chromophores can be tailor-made to be near-infrared absorbing and fluorescent, as well as being liquid crystals. The chromophore containing an extremely strong acceptor of benzo[1,2-c:4,5-c']bis([1,2,5]thiadiazole) can form a columnar mesophase that absorbs at 890 nm and emits at 1160 nm in the solid state. These chromophores are readily soluble in common organic solvents and can form thin films by casting or spin coating, making them suitable for further device applications.

7.
Org Lett ; 8(8): 1697-700, 2006 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16597144

RESUMO

[reaction: see text] Redox-active dinuclear ruthenium complexes with various 1,2-dicarbonylhydrazido (DCH) ligands are designed and prepared to have intense absorption in the near-infrared region for potential optical sensing in aqueous media, as demonstrated for sensing hydrogen peroxide in this study.

8.
J Phys Chem B ; 109(18): 8813-9, 2005 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16852047

RESUMO

Submonolayer thin films of a three-ring bent-core (or banana-shaped) compound, m-bis(4-n-octyloxystyryl)benzene (m-OSB), were vacuum-deposited on a mica surface, and a spontaneous transition from monolayer films to bilayer crystals was observed at room temperature, which was ascribed to the specific molecular shape and polar layered packing of the bent-core molecules [Tang et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2004, 108 (34), 12921-12926]. The crystal nucleation and growth from the monolayer films as well as the melting phase transition from the bilayer crystals were investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM). It was shown that after initial nucleation, the crystal growth was achieved through three pathways: direct absorption of molecules from monolayer films, molecular cluster diffusion, and quasi-Ostwald ripening. When annealing the bilayer crystals at elevated temperatures, morphological change from a bilayer to a monolayer was observed, and some new islands with fingerlike patterns were formed during this process, which resulted from a diffusion-controlled growth of the molten molecules. In general, the high-resolution AFM in combination with the molecularly thin m-OSB films provided us with direct visualization of nucleation, crystal growth, melting, and film morphology evolution on the mesoscopic scale, which are of fundamental interest from the theoretical viewpoint and are of central importance for the control of interfacial properties in practical applications.

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